- Jeroen C.J. Groot (1)
- Bibiana Duarte Abadia (1)
- T.A. Easdale (1)
- J.C.J. Groot (3)
- L.F. Hinojosa (1)
- Leonith Hinojosa (1)
- J. Hinojosa (1)
- L.M. Hommes (1)
- J.D. Hoogesteger van Dijk (1)
- Andrew J. Mcdonald (1)
- M. Jimenez-Castillo (1)
- C.H. Lusk (1)
- N.W.H.W.H. Mason (1)
- Andrew McDonald (2)
- A. McDonald (1)
- Erika N. Speelman (1)
- Jean Pablo Hidalgo (1)
- D. Pino (1)
- L. Poorter (1)
- R. Soler (1)
- E.N. Speelman (2)
- Arun Thapa (3)
- P.A. Tittonell (3)
- Pablo Tittonell (1)
- J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano (1)
- Jeroen Vos (1)
- Hsiang-En Wei (2)
- Hisiang-En Wei (1)
Reconfiguration of Hydrosocial Territories and Struggles for Water Justice : from Part II - Hydrosocial De-Patterning and Re-Composition
Hommes, L.M. ; Boelens, R.A. ; Duarte Abadia, Bibiana ; Hidalgo, Jean Pablo ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, R., Perreault, T., Vos, J., Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 151 - 168.
Introduction A vast and growing body of scholarly studies has shown how large-scale hydraulic and hydro-managerial projects, such as large dam and irrigation developments or market-environmentalist ecosystem payment schemes, have diverse socio-cultural and political-economic implications beyond merely altering water flows and raising socio-economic productivity. Concepts such as the hydrosocial cycle (Boelens, 2014; Linton and Budds, 2014), waterscapes (Baviskar, 2007; Budds and Hinojosa-Valencia, 2012; Swyngedouw, 1999) and water as socio-nature (Barnes and Alatout, 2012; Perreault, 2014) express connected insights about water being coproduced by social relations and in turn shaping these relations. The hydrosocial cycle, for instance, is described as a socio-natural process in which “water and society make and remake each other over space and time” cyclically (Linton and Budds, 2014: 170). Such coproduction of water and society is also reflected in the notion of waterscapes, conceptualized as socio-spatial configurations of water flows, artifacts, institutions and imaginaries embodying a particular world view (Budds and Hinojosa-Valencia, 2012; Zwarteveen 2015). However, these notions have so far largely focused on established hegemonic structures and discourses that drive and succeed from waterscape configurations. Less attention has been given to the multiplicity of diverging and overlapping hydrosocial territories that exist within one and the same space. To address this, we employ the hydrosocial territories approach, analyzing water territories not merely as materializations of dominant discourses and interests, but as multi-scalar networks in which water flows, hydraulic infrastructure, legal-administrative and financial systems, and socio-cultural institutions and practices are interactively produced, aligned, negotiated and contested (Boelens et al., 2016). Furthermore, combining the hydrosocial territories notion with Foucault’s governmentality approach highlights different forms of “government rationalities” and how they are entwined with hydraulic and hydro-managerial projects. We focus specifically on analyzing how ruling groups’ efforts to “conduct the conduct” of the governed (Foucault, 2008: 313) penetrate, operate through, and assimilate the rationality of the governed to advance neoliberal projects (Fletcher, 2010; Hommes et al., 2016; Zwarteveen and Boelens, 2014). Building on the work of Agnew (1994), Gupta and Ferguson (1992) and Elden (2010), we understand territories not as fixed spaces, but as spatially entrenched multi-scalar networks evolving from social interactions and practices, and materializations of these practices (see also Baletti, 2012; Brighenti, 2010). Social encounters and acts, including legal-administrative arrangements, technical reconfigurations and symbolic, cultural and political mechanisms of boundary-and place-making, actively produce territories.
Exploring farmer perceptions of agricultural innovations for maize-legume intensification in the mid-hills region of Nepal
Alomía Hinojosa, M.V. ; Speelman, Erika N. ; Thapa, Arun ; Wei, Hisiang-En ; Mcdonald, Andrew J. ; Tittonell, Pablo ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. - \ 2018
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 16 (2018)1. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 74 - 93.
Maize-legume intercropping is a fundamental component of mixed farming systems in the mid-hills of Nepal. However, its productivity is constrained by several biophysical and social factors, and limited adoption of proven agricultural innovations. In this study, we assessed the productivity impact of a selection of relevant agricultural innovations and changes in the associated perceptions of farmers through a series of two-year participatory on-farm trials. The evaluated innovations resulted in higher yields as compared to farmers' current practices. The active involvement of farmers enlarged our understanding of underlying decision-making factors to adopt or non-adopt agricultural innovations. Additionally, the in-depth farmer engagement in our onfarm trials positively influenced farmer perceptions of the innovations and their interest to adopt the agricultural innovations. Yet, farmers final decisions to adopt some of the evaluated innovations were limited by a host of factors including labour scarcity, the availability of inputs, and by cultural preferences despite the increased yields. This was particularly true for low and medium resource-endowed farmers. This study shows the importance of active farmer participation and context-specific design of research and development projects aiming for local impact.
|Participatory Maize-Legume Experimental Trials as a Tool to Explore Social-Ecological Niches for Innovation Adoption in Small Scale Farming Systems
Alomía Hinojosa, M.V. ; Speelman, E.N. ; Thapa, Arun ; Wei, Hsiang-En ; McDonald, Andrew ; Tittonell, P.A. ; Groot, J.C.J. - \ 2016
Maize-legume mixed cropping is essential part of the farming systems in the mid-hills of Nepal. However, its productivity remains low. The low adoption of innovations are among the causes that condition the yield improvement of the systems. Therefore, we performed two years participatory on-farm trials with maize-legume crop combinations under best-bet management to determine their productivity, and the farmers' reasons of low innovation adoption. We also tested whether providing more information about innovations would influence farmer perceptions. Maize yielded on average 7 Mg/ha in the intercrop, in comparison to 2 Mg/ha under farmer practice. The intercrop under best-bet management showed higher land use efficiency and economy return. We involved farmers on field discussions during the duration of trials. In addition we assessed, by using a board impact tool, their perceptions about 1) technologies tested (mini-tiller, hybrid seeds and chemical fertilisers), and 2) improved cropping practices (optimal plant population in row arrangement). Farmers initially expected a high demand of labour for both row seeding and mini-tiller use before the trials, but this was adjusted to lower anticipated labour demand after the participatory trials. In contrast, the perception of high investment costs for both innovations persisted. By the second year of trials there was a relatively large percentage (17%) of farmers that partially adopted the improved seeds and row seeding, the reasons for the non-adopters were the preference to consume local varieties and high labour at planting time for the row arrangement. The use of a mini-tiller was low (3%) due to the low availability and the difficulty to take it to remote fields. The adoption rate of chemical fertilisers was low, because most of the households perceived the quantity of FYM they produced as sufficient, and perceived a risk of damaging soil if using chemical fertilisers without proper rainfall. Most of the early adopter farmers belonged to a medium to high resource endowment type and high caste. Our study shows that the participatory on-farm trials were effective to explore perceptions and preferences of farmers, and it increased understanding on targeting of innovations to achieve sustainable intensification in the mid-hills agroecosystems.
Participatory Maize-Legume Experiments as a Tool to Explore Social-Ecological Niches for Innovation Adoption in Small Scale Farming Systems
Alomía Hinojosa, M.V. ; Speelman, E.N. ; Thapa, Arun ; Wei, Hsiang-En ; McDonald, Andrew ; Tittonell, P.A. ; Groot, J.C.J. - \ 2016
Testing for functional convergence of temperate rainforest tree assemblages in Chile and New Zealand
Lusk, C.H. ; Jimenez-Castillo, M. ; Aragón, R. ; Easdale, T.A. ; Poorter, L. ; Hinojosa, L.F. ; Mason, N.W.H.W.H. - \ 2016
New Zealand Journal of Botany 54 (2016)2. - ISSN 0028-825X - p. 175 - 203.
Bioclimatic matching - environmental filtering - functional trait convergence - leaf dry matter content - leaf economics - leaf habit - leaf size - pollination syndrome - seed mass - wood density
An important tenet of biogeography and comparative ecology is that disjunct assemblages in similar physical environments are functionally more similar to each other than to assemblages from other environments. Temperate rainforests in South America, New Zealand and Australia share certain physiognomic similarities, but we are not aware of any statistical evidence that these disjunct plant assemblages share a distinctive suite of functional traits, or trait combinations. We compiled height, leaf, wood and reproductive traits from the 25 commonest arborescent species at Chilean and New Zealand sites matched for summer rainfall, summer maximum temperatures, and winter minimum temperatures. We then used multivariate tests of trait convergence. Tropical and subtropical assemblages served as out-groups. PERMANOVA showed convergence of trait centroids at the two temperate sites, where trees on average had denser wood and smaller leaves than trees at the (sub)tropical sites. Principal components analyses carried out separately on each assemblage showed that the Chilean and New Zealand assemblages were also the most similar pair in terms of trait relationships, although New Zealand also shared strong similarities with subtropical Argentina. The main axis of variation in both temperate assemblages ranged from small, short-lived understorey trees with soft leaves, to emergents with sclerophyllous leaves and fairly dense wood. However, the New Zealand assemblage was much richer in small trees with soft leaves than its Chilean counterpart; possible historical influences on this difference include conditions favouring radiation of small trees during the late Neogene in New Zealand, competition from Chusquea bamboos in Chile and the historical absence of browsing mammals from New Zealand. Environmental filtering has produced similar values of individual traits in Chile and New Zealand, but only partial convergence of functional trait combinations. As far as we know, this is the first study to statistically test whether disjunct tree assemblages on climatically matched sites are more functionally similar to each other than to assemblages from other environments.
Virtual water trade and the contestation of hydrosocial territories
Vos, Jeroen ; Hinojosa, Leonith - \ 2016
Water International 41 (2016)1. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 37 - 53.
contestation - corporate social responsibility - Hydrosocial territory - international trade - virtual water
Growing trade in virtual water – the water used to produce exported products from agriculture and mining sectors – affects local communities and the environment, and transforms hydrosocial territories. National and international water regulations reshape communities’ hydrosocial territories by changing water governance structures to favour export commodity sectors, often inducing strong contestation from local communities. Transnational companies formulate and enforce global water governance arrangements oriented toward strengthening export production chains, often through asymmetrical relationships with local groups in water-export regions. These arrangements compromise political representation and water security for both local communities and companies.
Crop-livestock integration of cereal-based mixed farming systems in the Terai and Mid-hills in Nepal
Alomía Hinojosa, M.V. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Bettinelli, C. ; McDonald, A. ; Tittonell, P.A. - \ 2015
Analyzing the basic features of different complex terrain flows by means of Doppler SODAR and a numerical model: some implications for air pollution problems
Soler, R. ; Hinojosa, J. ; Bravo, M. ; Pino, D. ; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. - \ 2004
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 85 (2004)1-3. - ISSN 0177-7971 - p. 141 - 154.
stable boundary-layer - valley winds - simulations
A variety of programmes and field experiments were carried out in order to develop and evaluate models of transport and diffusion of pollutants in complex terrain areas. As part of this programme, in this study, we have focused our interest on analyzing the basic features of different flow fields and thermal structures developed in a complex area and their relation to air pollution problems. The area is located in the province of Barcelona (in the northeast of Spain) close to a wide industrial zone, thus a pollutant flux could affect this region. In order to carry out the main purpose of this study we have analysed data from a Doppler Sodar (FAS 64) and a network of near surface meteorological and air quality stations. In addition, different dynamical simulations given by a numerical mesoscale model (MM5) are also analyzed. The results show that the main flow fields and thermal structures generated in this area are: sea breeze, slope drainage winds, channelling winds created by terrain constrictions and cool-air accumulation in low-lying regions. This last structure, developed specially in winter time, gives rise to stagnant cold air masses and strong thermic inversions, with average lapse rate of –4 degrees on 100thinspm, which contribute to increase air pollution concentration, especially SO2. Hourly and daily averaged SO2 concentration can be higher than 350 and 138thinspµgthinspm–3 respectively. In addition, as ldquoLa Planardquo is located not far from the Mediterranean Sea, during summertime the sea breeze arrives into this zone via its southern entrance, thereby reaching the whole area. The arrival of the sea breeze in to ldquoLa Planardquo, which advects pollutants from the nearby industrial area, is the main cause of some of these pollutants, especially ozone and its precursors, attaining high concentrations during afternoon hours. The contribution of the sea breeze is variable, but could represent between a 25% to a 30% of its total value.