Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight
Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2018
British Poultry Science 59 (2018)2. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 227 - 231.
Cereal - dermatitis - diet - electrolyte balance - feed - feed intake - litter moisture - protein
1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.
Identification of a practical and reliable method for the evaluation of litter moisture in turkey production
Vinco, L.J. ; Giacomelli, S. ; Campana, L. ; Chiari, M. ; Vitale, N. ; Lombardi, G. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Hocking, P.M. - \ 2018
British Poultry Science 59 (2018)1. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 7 - 12.
Bedding quality - environment - foot pad dermatitis - litter moisture - poultry - welfare
1. An experiment was conducted to compare 5 different methods for the evaluation of litter moisture. 2. For litter collection and assessment, 55 farms were selected, one shed from each farm was inspected and 9 points were identified within each shed. 3. For each device, used for the evaluation of litter moisture, mean and standard deviation of wetness measures per collection point were assessed. 4. The reliability and overall consistency between the 5 instruments used to measure wetness were high (α = 0.72). 5. Measurement of three out of the 9 collection points were sufficient to provide a reliable assessment of litter moisture throughout the shed. 6. Based on the direct correlation between litter moisture and footpad lesions, litter moisture measurement can be used as a resource based on-farm animal welfare indicator. 7. Among the 5 methods analysed, visual scoring is the most simple and practical, and therefore the best candidate to be used on-farm for animal welfare assessment.
Effect of crude protein concentration and dietary electrolyte balance on litter quality, foot pad dermatitis, growth performance and processing yields in two medium heavy turkey hybrids
Veldkamp, T. ; Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. - \ 2017
British Poultry Science 58 (2017)5. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 557 - 568.
1. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of crude protein (CP) concentration and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, processing yields, litter quality and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in male turkeys from two commercial hybrids. Soya bean meal was replaced by vegetable protein sources selected for lower K concentrations to lower DEB in order to improve litter quality and subsequent quality of foot pads.

2. Effects of CP on litter friability and wetness were not consistent during the production period. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low CP was significantly lower than FPD in turkeys fed on diets with high CP until 84 d. Growth performance was adversely affected at low CP. Processing yields were not affected by CP.

3. Litter was significantly dryer in pens of turkeys fed on diets with low DEB than in pens of turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low DEB was significantly lower than in turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. Growth performance and processing yields were adversely affected at low DEB.

4. FPD in turkey hybrid A was higher than in turkey hybrid B at 28 d of age. Thereafter, no differences in FPD between turkey hybrids were observed. Growth performance and processing yields were not affected by turkey hybrid.

5. Overall, a significant interaction effect of CP × DEB was observed for FCR: in turkeys fed on the high DEB treatment, FCR of turkeys fed on the high CP diets was lower than FCR of turkeys fed on the low CP (LCP) diets whereas on the low DEB treatment, FCR was not affected by CP treatment.

6. It was concluded that litter quality can be improved and FPD may be decreased in turkeys fed on diets containing lower CP and DEB levels.
Litter moisture assessment and foot pad dermatitis scoring as animal welfare indicators in commercial turkey production
Vinco, L.J. ; Giacomelli, S. ; Campana, L. ; Lombardi, G. ; Hocking, P.M. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 9th Hafez International Symposium on Turkey Production. -
Identifying on-farm factors affecting foot pad lesions.
Vinco, L.J. ; Giacomelli, S. ; Campana, L. ; Lombardi, G. ; Hocking, P.M. ; Veldkamp, Teun - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 11th Turkey Science and Production Conference. - Chester : - p. 28 - 33.
Less foot pad lesions by nutritional adjustments
Veldkamp, T. ; Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 11th Turkey Science and Production Conference. - - p. 24 - 25.
Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare
Hocking, P.M. ; Harkness, A. ; Veldkamp, Teun ; Vinco, L.J. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 11th Turkey Science and Production Conference. - - p. 20 - 23.
The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either saline or one of the analgesics in a crossover experiment, with the aim of investigating whether or not FPD is a painful condition. The results did not show significant pain in affected turkeys. Carprofen may have an effect on behavior, whereas butorphanol and meloxicam did not.
The welfare consequences of different foot pad scores in male turkey poults
Hocking, P.M. ; Harkness, A. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Vinco, L.J. - \ 2016
British Poultry Abstracts 12 (2016)1. - ISSN 1746-6202 - p. 21 - 22.
Removal of soya bean meal from wheat- and maize-based diets decreased litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in turkeys
Hocking, P.M. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Woodward, P. ; Harkness, A. - \ 2016
British Poultry Abstracts 12 (2016)1. - ISSN 1746-6202 - p. 15 - 16.
Effect of dietary electrolyte balance and crude protein content on foot pad dermatitis in commercial turkeys
Veldkamp, Teun ; Hocking, Paul ; Vinco, Leonardo James - \ 2016
- 1 p.
Factors such as dietary electrolyte balance (EB) and crude protein (CP) content, age, and strain may affect the prevalence of foot pad dermatitis (FPD). The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of decreasing EB (high EB (HEB) vs. low EB (LEB)) and CP (high CP (HP) vs. low CP (LP)) in two turkey strains on growth performance, litter quality and FPD in a 2x2x2 factorial block design. A total of 1920 male poults were housed in 64 pens (3 m wide x 4 m deep) littered with wood shavings at a stocking rate of 30 poults/pen. Diets were formulated isocaloric for 5 phases (0- 28, 2S8- 56, 56-84, 84-112 and 112-134 days of age) and containing per phase 290 vs. 260, 270 vs. 240, 230 vs. 200, 200 vs. 170, 170 vs. 140 g CP/kg, respectively; and EB (240 vs. 130 mEq/kg) in all phases. Free amino acids were supplemented to the diets according to breeder recommendations. LEB diets were formulated by exchange of soya bean meal by maize gluten meal, peas, potato protein, rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Body weight, feed intake, litter moisture and FPD scores were recorded at 28, 56, 84, 112 and 134 days of age. Body weight gain was not affected by CP and FCR was significantly higher on LP than on HP diets (2.56 vs. 2.50; P=0.002). FPD score of turkeys fed on LP was lower than on HP until 84 days (P<0.001). LEB resulted in a significantly lower feed intake (420 vs. 435 g/d) and body weight gain (166 vs. 172 g/d) over the period 28 to 124 days and lower body weight (18588 vs. 19405 g) at 134 days of age compared with HEB whereas FCR was not affected. Litter was significantly dryer on LEB than HEB diets (P<0.001). FPD score on LEB was significantly lower than on HEB diets (P< 0.001). FPD was not affected by turkey strain. It is concluded that litter quality can be improved and FPD can be decreased in turkeys fed on diets containing lower CP and EB levels. Keywords: foot pad dermatitis, growth performance, litter quality, protein, turkeys
Effect of dietary protein source and crude protein content on growth performance, litter quality and foot pad dermatitis in two commercial turkey strains
Veldkamp, T. ; Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. - \ 2016
High water intake is associated with soya compared with non-soya protein sources and may be associated with foot pad dermatitis in growing turkeys
Hocking, P.M. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Woodward, P. - \ 2015
British Poultry Abstracts 11 (2015)1. - ISSN 1746-6202 - p. 33 - 34.
Replacing soya bean meal with alternative protein sources will reduce water consumption and may lead to dryer litter and decrease the incidence of foot pad dermatitis in growing turkeys
Behavioural assessment of pain in commercial turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with foot pad dermatitis
Sinclair, A. ; Weber Wyneken, C. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Hocking, P.M. - \ 2015
British Poultry Science 56 (2015)5. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 511 - 521.

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the differences in susceptibility to foot pad dermatitis (FPD) of two medium-heavy lines of turkeys, and whether FPD is painful, by detailed analysis of behaviour in birds with and without analgesic treatment (betamethasone). Turkeys housed on dry litter in the first experiment generally had more frequent bouts of different behaviours that were of shorter duration than birds on wet litter. T-patterns (behavioural sequences) were more frequent, varied and complex on dry than on wet litter. Betamethasone-injected birds of line B, but not breed A, had shorter resting and longer standing durations on wet litter than saline-injected birds. In the second experiment, turkeys on wet litter given saline stood less and rested more than all other treatment groups, suggesting that they experienced pain that was alleviated in birds receiving betamethasone. Turkeys on dry litter had more frequent, varied and complex patterns of behaviour than turkeys on wet litter and birds kept on intermediate litter wetness. Betamethasone provision increased pattern variety regardless of litter treatment. Turkeys with low FPD scores transferred to wet litter and given saline injections had a longer total duration of resting and shorter duration of standing compared to betamethasone-treated birds. Low FPD birds transferred to wet litter had a similar number of patterns and total pattern occurrence as high FPD birds transferred to dry litter. Betamethasone increased pattern variety and frequency compared to saline injections whereas overall pattern complexity was similar. It was concluded that wet litter affects the behaviour of turkey poults independently of FPD and that betamethasone may also change the behaviour of turkeys. There was some evidence from analgesic treatment and T-pattern analyses that FPD was painful. However, there was no evidence of differences in susceptibility to FPD of the two commercial hybrids.

Footpad dermatitis and pain assessment in turkey poults using analgesia and objective gait analysis
Weber Wyneken, C. ; Sinclair, A. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Hocking, P.M. - \ 2015
British Poultry Science 56 (2015)5. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 522 - 530.

The relationships between litter moisture, footpad dermatitis (FPD) and pain in medium-heavy turkey strains was studied by gait analysis in two medium-heavy with and without analgesia (betamethasone or bupivacaine). The relationship between FPD and litter moisture was linear above a breakpoint of 49% litter moisture, and there were no differences between the two breeds in susceptibility to FPD. Gait analysis showed higher impulse, single support time, stride time and stance time in breed A compared to breed B. Significant interactions between breed, litter and analgesic for impulse, single support time and stride time were associated with higher means for breed A given saline injection on wet litter. Data from betamethasone analgesia in Experiments 1 and 3 were combined for analysis. Peak vertical force was higher in saline- compared to betamethasone-treated birds. Compared to the wet (high FPD) litter treatments, birds on dry (low FPD) litter had greater speed and lower double support time and longer stride length. Turkeys kept on wet litter had a longer stride length compared to dry litter when given saline, whereas in betamethasone-treated birds the means were similar. There were no differences between birds with or without bupivacaine analgesia. Peak vertical force was higher in breed A than B and in birds with a low FPD compared to a high FPD score. It was concluded that breeds A and B did not differ in susceptibility to develop FPD when housed on wet litter but may have natural gait differences. Significant changes in gait parameters were associated with wet litter and with analgesic treatments. The results showed that FPD affected the gait of the turkeys and, combined with evidence of behavioural changes when given analgesia, suggest that footpad lesions are painful.

Performance, Welfare, Health and Hygiene of Laying Hens in Non-Cage Systems in Comparison with Cage Systems
Rodenburg, T.B. ; Reu, K. de; Tuyttens, F.A.M. - \ 2012
In: Alternative systems for poultry - health, welfare and productivity / Sandilands, V., Hocking, P.M., - p. 210 - 224.
A century of poultry genetics
Tixier-Boichard, M. ; Leenstra, F.R. ; Flock, D. ; Hocking, A.D. ; Weigend, S. - \ 2012
Worlds Poultry Science Journal 68 (2012)2. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 307 - 321.
major histocompatibility complex - chicken genome - nucleolar organizer - molecular-cloning - linked factors - linkage map - egg-white - rfp-y - diversity - selection
The 20th Century saw an astonishing advance in our understanding of genetics and the scientific basis of the genetic improvement of farm animals. The application of genetic principles to chickens in the 1950s and 1960s led to a rapid change in the productivity and efficiency of laying hens and broiler chickens, turkeys and ducks. Subsequently, the application of increasingly powerful computers and sophisticated mathematical algorithms has increased the range of traits that could be successfully incorporated into breeding programs. Random sample tests of the performance of laying hens enjoyed a period of popularity and more recently the few remaining tests included husbandry systems in addition to strain evaluation. Characterisation of avian blood groups has led to the identification of the B21 haplotype that confers resistance to Marek's disease and to selection for this locus in commercial lines. The decade following the millennium saw the publication of the genome sequence of the chicken and the identification of millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms that, coupled with technological advances, made the application of whole genome selection practical in poultry. In parallel, the molecular basis for some Mendelian traits described a century ago is now being deciphered. Similar technologies have been applied to study genetic diversity in chickens and have provided insights into the evolution and domestication of chicken breeds. Finally, in this review, the recent development of the European Poultry Genetics Symposia coordinated by Working Group 3 ‘Genetics and Breeding’ that was based on combining the British Poultry Breeders Round Table and AVIAGEN from West and Eastern Europe, is discussed
Housing and Management of Broiler Breeders and Turkey Breeders
Jong, I.C. de; Swalander, M. - \ 2012
In: Alternative Systems for Poultry. Health, Welfare and Productivity / Sandilands, V., Hocking, P.M., Oxford UK : Poultry Science (Poultry Science Symposium Series 30) - ISBN 9781845938246 - p. 225 - 249.
Opportunistic, human-pathogenic species in the Herpotrichiellaceae are phenotypically similar to saprobic or phytopathogenic species in the Venturiaceae
Crous, P.W. ; Schubert, K. ; Braun, U. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Hocking, A.D. ; Shin, H.D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2007
Studies in Mycology 58 (2007)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 185 - 217.
multilocus genotype data - cladosporium-carrionii - fonsecaea-pedrosoi - wangiella-dermatitidis - cladophialophora-ajelloi - primer sets - chromoblastomycosis - fungi - mice - model
Although morphologically similar, species of Cladophialophora (Herpotrichiellaceae) were shown to be phylogenetically distinct from Pseudocladosporium (Venturiaceae), which was revealed to be synonymous with the older genus, Fusicladium. Other than being associated with human disorders, species of Cladophialophora were found to also be phytopathogenic, or to occur as saprobes on organic material, or in water, fruit juices, or sports drinks, along with species of Exophiala. Caproventuria, and Metacoleroa were confirmed to be synonyms of Venturia, which has Fusicladium (= Pseudocladosporium) anamorphs. Apiosporina, based on A. collinsii, clustered basal to the Venturia clade, and appears to represent a further synonym. Several species with a pseudocladosporium-like morphology in vitro represent a sister clade to the Venturia clade, and are unrelated to Polyscytalum. These taxa are newly described in Fusicladium, which is morphologically close to Anungitea, a heterogeneous genus with unknown phylogenetic affinity. In contrast to the Herpotrichiellaceae, which were shown to produce numerous synanamorphs in culture, species of the Venturiaceae were morphologically and phylogenetically more uniform. Several new species and new combinations were introduced in Cladophialophora, Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), Exophiala, Fusicladium, Venturia (Venturiaceae), and Cylindrosympodium (incertae sedis).
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