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The Ostrich Politics of Groundwater Development and Neoliberal Regulation in Mexico
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2018
Water Alternatives 11 (2018)3. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 552 - 571.
In this article I present the politics that spurred groundwater development in Central and Northern Mexico between 1930 and 1990, and analyse the working/effects of the neoliberal groundwater policies that were implemented in the country since the 1990s. I first present, based on an analysis of the Comarca Lagunera and the state of Guanajuato, the socio-economic, political and institutional dynamics that shaped groundwater development between 1930 and 1990, with a special focus on how with state support large commercial farmers and small ejidatarios developed groundwater irrigation. My analysis shows how the actors involved in groundwater development, just like ostriches, stuck their head in the sand, oblivious to aquifer overdraft and its environmental consequences. Then I present how – since the 1990s – neoliberal groundwater regulation policies have worked out on the ground opening the doors to regulatory capture and groundwater accumulation through capital, oblivious to sustained aquifer overdraft, a shrinking peasant ejido sector, increased rural outmigration and the health threat of toxic concentration of Fluoride and Arsenic in many groundwater dependent areas. This analysis raises serious doubts about the capacity of – often (inter)nationally lauded – neoliberally inspired groundwater policies to contribute to socio-environmental sustainability and equity.
The social construction and consequences of groundwater modelling : insight from the Mancha Oriental aquifer, Spain
Sanz, David ; Vos, Jeroen ; Rambags, Femke ; Hoogesteger, Jaime ; Cassiraga, Eduardo ; Gómez-Alday, Juan José - \ 2018
International Journal of Water Resources Development (2018). - ISSN 0790-0627
Groundwater governance - model-based policy-making - modelling - Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) - Spain
Groundwater flow models have been increasingly used to support policy making. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to improving, validating and calibrating models and including stakeholders in the modelling process. However, little research has been done to analyze how the choices of model makers and steering by policy makers result in models with specific characteristics, which only allow specific modelling outcomes, and how the use of these modelling outcomes leads to specific social, economic and environmental consequences. In this study, we use the social construction of technology framework to explore the development, characteristics and uses of the groundwater model of the Mancha Oriental aquifer in Spain. The specific characteristics and functioning of this model influenced the policy implementation, implying that involving stakeholders in the development and use of models is crucial for improved democratic policy making.
|Territorios hidrosociales y gubernamtentalidad: un enfoque desde la ecoligía politica
Boelens, R.A. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Swyngedouw, Erik ; Vos, J.M.C. - \ 2018
In: A contracorriente / Vila Benites, Gisselle, Bonelli, Cristobal, Quito : Justicia Hídrica (Agua y Sociedad 25) - ISBN 9789942094742 - p. 27 - 47.
Introduction: Hydrosocial De-Patterning and Re-Composition : from Part II - Hydrosocial De-Patterning and Re-Composition
Boelens, R.A. ; Perreault, Tom ; Vos, J.M.C. - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, R., Perreault, T., Vos, J., Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 108 - 114.
Water governance fundamentally deals with the question of how to organize decision-making about water access, use and management in contexts of diverging interests, conflicting normative repertoires, and unequal power relations. It aims to produce particular socio-natural orders by controlling water resources, infrastructure, investments, knowledge, truth, and ultimately, water users and authorities (Boelens, 2014; Bridge and Perreault, 2009). To achieve this, as the chapters in Part I have illustrated, water governance reforms and interventions commonly emphasize strongly de-politicized common wellbeing, shared progress, and efficient, rational resource management. This naturalizing discourse of sustainable, progressive, clean development, achieved by egalitarian “stakeholders,” obscures the fact that water reforms and interventions entail competing claims and conflicts over water, territorial ordering, and reconfiguring socio-economic and politico-cultural realities (Harris and Alatout, 2010; Hommes et al., 2016; Kaika, 2006). These issues are directly related to disputes over problem definitions, knowledge frameworks, ontological meanings, decision-making powers and preferred solutions. The chapters in Part II will focus on this field of water (in)justice, the dynamics of contested imaginaries and materializing socio-natural, techno-political networks: de-patterning and re-patterning multi-scalar hydrosocial territories (Baviskar, 2007; Boelens et al., 2016; Linton and Budds, 2014; Swyngedouw, 2004, 2009). A governmentality perspective toward disputed, overlapping, hybridizing hydrosocial territories may help us to understand how water control is embedded in the broader political context of governance over and through socio-natures. Governmentality refers to the ways societies are governed, not only through direct application of laws and military force, but also through subtle and invisible “capillary” working of power to control, at once, the conduct of people and their socio-environment (Foucault, 1991). The concept of hydrosocial territory provides a lens to analyze water flows, water infrastructures, and water control as simultaneously, interactively constituted compositions of physical, social, political and symbolic entities and dimensions. Together, these domains form multi-scaled, networked mosaics, which produce techno-political and socio-ecological territoriality (Boelens et al., 2016; cf. Hommes et al., 2016; Hoogesteger et al., 2016; Swyngedouw, 2007). This analytical framework views humans and nature - social, technical and natural - not as separate entities that interact, but as mutually influencing, co-producing and constituting each other, in complex ways (see also Harris and Alatout, 2010; Latour, 1994).
Reconfiguration of Hydrosocial Territories and Struggles for Water Justice : from Part II - Hydrosocial De-Patterning and Re-Composition
Hommes, L.M. ; Boelens, R.A. ; Duarte Abadia, Bibiana ; Hidalgo, Jean Pablo ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, R., Perreault, T., Vos, J., Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 151 - 168.
Introduction A vast and growing body of scholarly studies has shown how large-scale hydraulic and hydro-managerial projects, such as large dam and irrigation developments or market-environmentalist ecosystem payment schemes, have diverse socio-cultural and political-economic implications beyond merely altering water flows and raising socio-economic productivity. Concepts such as the hydrosocial cycle (Boelens, 2014; Linton and Budds, 2014), waterscapes (Baviskar, 2007; Budds and Hinojosa-Valencia, 2012; Swyngedouw, 1999) and water as socio-nature (Barnes and Alatout, 2012; Perreault, 2014) express connected insights about water being coproduced by social relations and in turn shaping these relations. The hydrosocial cycle, for instance, is described as a socio-natural process in which “water and society make and remake each other over space and time” cyclically (Linton and Budds, 2014: 170). Such coproduction of water and society is also reflected in the notion of waterscapes, conceptualized as socio-spatial configurations of water flows, artifacts, institutions and imaginaries embodying a particular world view (Budds and Hinojosa-Valencia, 2012; Zwarteveen 2015). However, these notions have so far largely focused on established hegemonic structures and discourses that drive and succeed from waterscape configurations. Less attention has been given to the multiplicity of diverging and overlapping hydrosocial territories that exist within one and the same space. To address this, we employ the hydrosocial territories approach, analyzing water territories not merely as materializations of dominant discourses and interests, but as multi-scalar networks in which water flows, hydraulic infrastructure, legal-administrative and financial systems, and socio-cultural institutions and practices are interactively produced, aligned, negotiated and contested (Boelens et al., 2016). Furthermore, combining the hydrosocial territories notion with Foucault’s governmentality approach highlights different forms of “government rationalities” and how they are entwined with hydraulic and hydro-managerial projects. We focus specifically on analyzing how ruling groups’ efforts to “conduct the conduct” of the governed (Foucault, 2008: 313) penetrate, operate through, and assimilate the rationality of the governed to advance neoliberal projects (Fletcher, 2010; Hommes et al., 2016; Zwarteveen and Boelens, 2014). Building on the work of Agnew (1994), Gupta and Ferguson (1992) and Elden (2010), we understand territories not as fixed spaces, but as spatially entrenched multi-scalar networks evolving from social interactions and practices, and materializations of these practices (see also Baletti, 2012; Brighenti, 2010). Social encounters and acts, including legal-administrative arrangements, technical reconfigurations and symbolic, cultural and political mechanisms of boundary-and place-making, actively produce territories.
|Territorios hidrosociales y gubernamentalidad: un enfoque desde la ecología política
Boelens, R.A. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Swyngedouw, Erik ; Vos, Jeroen - \ 2017
In: A contracorriente: agua y conflicto en América Latina / Vila Benites, Gisselle, Bonelli, Christóbal, Quito : Abya Yala - ISBN 9789942094742 - p. 27 - 48.
Grassroots scalar politics in the Peruvian Andes: Mobilizing allies to defend community waters in the Upper Pampas watershed
Verzijl, A. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2017
In: Water Governance and Collective Action / Suhardiman, Diana, Nicol, Alan, Mapedza, Everisto, Oxon : Earthscan/Routledge (Earthscan Water Text Series ) - ISBN 9781138040540 - p. 34 - 45.
Water is and has always been the “life stream” of rural livelihoods in Andean communities. Access to water has for centuries been guaranteed through various forms of collective action and autonomous governance structures (Boelens, 2015). Until now, collective action has assured individual water access and is mostly based on local, inter- and intra-community water rights systems that shape, and are shaped by, water flows and infrastructure, local water-related practices, authorities and territory, and particular world views on how societies relate to water and nature (see Beccar et al., 2002; Hoogesteger et al., 2016).
Collective action, community and the peasant economy in Andean highland water control
Boelens, R.A. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2017
In: Water Governance and Collective Action / Suhardiman, Diana, Nicol, Alan, Mapedza, Everisto, Oxon : Earthscan/Routledge (Earthscan Water Text Series ) - ISBN 9781138040540 - p. 96 - 107.
For many Andean communities, irrigation systems form the basis for accessing water for agricultural production and, as such, they are an important axis around which collective action is mobilized (Bolin, 1990; Hoogesteger, 2013b; Verzijl and Guerrero Quispe, 2013). In the Andean context, with unpredictable climates, unstable geophysical conditions, and changing irrigation policies, more than almost any other economic activity, irrigation is grounded in collective action that is based on mutual dependence and intensive cooperation among users. In the Andes, besides privately managed irrigation systems owned by landlords and agribusiness companies, two forms of irrigation development and water use systems prevail, which in broad terms can be divided into state led and community based. State-led irrigation development has been characterized by its large scale, high cost, market-oriented and top-down management approach since at least the 1960s. On the other hand, community-managed irrigation systems tend to be small scale, constructed with local resources and know-how, managed through collective action from the bottom up and often with a very diverse production rationale. These two forms of irrigation management have grown closer to each other in the last three decades as on the one side collective action has come to play a more important role in formerly state-managed irrigation systems and, on the other, the state has become more active in funding the modernization of community-managed irrigation systems.
An elite technology? Drip irrigation, agro-export and agricultural policies in Guanajuato, Mexico
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2017
In: Drip Irrigation for Agriculture / Venot, Jean-Philippe, Marcel, Kuper, Margreet, Zwarteveen, Oxon : Earthscan/Routledge - ISBN 9781138687073 - p. 151 - 166.
Regulating groundwater use : The challenges of policy implementation in Guanajuato, Central Mexico
Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime ; Wester, Flip - \ 2017
Environmental Science & Policy 77 (2017). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 107 - 113.
Energy pricing - Groundwater management - Mexico - User self-regulation - Water markets - Water policy
Around the world it has proven very difficult to develop policies and interventions that ensure socio-environmentally sustainable groundwater use and exploitation. In the state of Guanajuato, Central Mexico, both the national government and the decentralized state government have pursued to regulate groundwater use through direct state control, groundwater markets, energy pricing, and user self-regulation. We present and analyze these regulatory mechanisms and their outcomes in the field. We argue that the close interdependencies of these regulatory mechanisms have pre-empted the effectiveness of these policy instruments as well as that of other measures aimed at reducing groundwater use in order to advance towards sustainable exploitation levels.
|Hydrosocial Territories and Water Equity : Theory, Governance, and Sites of Struggle
Boelens, R.A. ; Crow, B. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Lu, F.E. ; Swyngedouw, Erik ; Vos, J.M.C. - \ 2017
Oxon : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge Special Issues on Water Policy and Governance ) - ISBN 9781138288843 - 395 p.
|Introduction: interweaving water struggles, the making of territory and social justice
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Vos, J.M.C. ; Boelens, R.A. ; Crow, B. ; Lu, F. ; Swyngedouw, Erik - \ 2017
In: Hydrosocial Territories and Water Equity Oxon : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9781138288843 - p. 2 - 7.
Old Wine in New Bottles : The Adaptive Capacity of the Hydraulic Mission in Ecuador
Warner, J.F. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Hidalgo, Jean Pablo - \ 2017
Water Alternatives 10 (2017)2. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 332 - 340.
Despite a widely embraced ecological turn and strident critique of megastructures in the 1990s, construction of large infrastructure has been reignited worldwide. While Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and River Basin Management (RBM) have at least discursively held sway as the dominant paradigm in water management since the late 1990s, we argue that the 'hydraulic mission' never really went away and has in some places energetically re-emerged. The development discourse that justified many dams in the past is now supplemented by a new set of appealing justifiers. With the help of the case of Ecuador we show that the hegemonic project of the hydraulic mission has a great discursive adaptive capacity and a new set of allies. The rise of the BRICS (especially China), South-South cooperation and private investors provides non-traditional sources of funding, making the construction of hydraulic infrastructure less dependent on Western conditionalities. The resulting governance picture highlights the disconnect between the still widely embraced policy discourse of IWRM/RBM and the drivers and practices of the hydraulic mission; questioning what value international calls for 'good water governance' have in the midst of new discourses, broader transnational political projects and the powerful dam-building alliances that underlie them.
Scalar Politics in Sectoral Reforms : Negotiating the Implementation Of water Policies in Ecuador (1990-2008)
Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime ; Tiaguaro-Rea, Yisenia ; Rap, Edwin ; Hidalgo, Juan Pablo - \ 2017
World Development 98 (2017). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 300 - 309.
Decentralization - Ecuador - Grassroots struggles - Irrigation reforms - Water user associations
In Ecuador neo-liberal reforms in the 1990s transformed the water and irrigation sector at different scales. We analyze how these neoliberal reforms were implemented from the top-down by the World Bank and the national government, as well as how from the grassroots water users negotiated these policies and their implementation at local and national level. We show that these sectoral reforms were politically contested as it changed roles, responsibilities, and authority at different scales of governance. This is evidenced by the fact that locally the relationships between water users, differently scaled state agencies, and broader networks greatly determined how water users associations negotiated the irrigation management transfer program as well as the development of new water policies. Our analysis highlights how the alliances that differently positioned actors create to navigate water policy implementation shape the scalar and the political dimensions of sectoral reforms. It shows that actors need multi-scalar networks of support to develop political leverage, overcome opposition, and materialize projects in the water governance domain.
The politics of water democracy: insights from grassroot struggles in the Ecuadorian Highlands
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2017
Asia Pacific Viewpoint 58 (2017)1. - ISSN 1360-7456 - p. 74 - 85.
In the past two decades spaces for user participation have been opened within water governance structures at many scales. In this contribution, based on a case study of the Provincial Water Users Federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Highlands, I explore how and why formal participation of water users in itself is problematic in terms of democracy. The case shows that for organised peasant water users to work on more democratic water governance, the creation of upscaled federations, alliances, networks and sometimes street protests is crucial to open up spaces in which their interests are represented. This suggests that democracy is not merely about participation, but more importantly, it is about the politics of how democracy is made through conflicts, protests, negotiations and the creation of strategic alliances that challenge the structures and processes through which decisions are taken.
|Gobernanza del agua : Una mirada desde la ecología politica y la justicia hídrica
Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana ; Yacoub Lopez, C. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2016
Quito : Justicia Hídrica (Agua y Sociedad 24) - ISBN 9789942094186 - 444 p.
|Introducción: La gobernanza del agua : Visiones desde la ecologíca y la justicia hídrica
Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Yacoub Lopez, C. - \ 2016
In: Gobernanza del agua / Duarte Abadia, Bibiana, Yacoub, Cristina, Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime, Quito : Justicia Hídrica (Agua y Sociedad 24) - ISBN 9789942094186 - p. 13 - 24.
|Pago por servicios ambientales, ambientalismo de mercado y la indiferencia hacia el mundo campesino
Rodriguez, J.C. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2016
In: Gobernanza del agua / Duarte Abadia, Bibiana, Yacoub, Cristina, Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime, Quito : Justicia Hídrica (Agua y Sociedad 24) - ISBN 9789942094186 - p. 109 - 132.
|Territorios Hidrosociales y valoración del agua: perspectivas divergentes sobre los derechos de agua en la cuenc Pucara, Bolivia
Rocha Lopez, R.F. ; Vos, J.M.C. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2016
In: Gobernanza del agua / Duarte Abadia, Bibiana, Yacoub, Cristina, Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime, Quito : Justicia Hídrica (Agua y Sociedad 24) - ISBN 9789942094186 - p. 153 - 176.
|Los nuevos sujetos del agua: neoliberalismo y dessarollo de organizaciones de usuarios del agua en Ecuador (1990-2007)
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2016
In: Gobernanza del agua / Duarte Abadia, Bibiana, Yacoub, Cristina, Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime, Quito : Justicia Hídrica (Agua y Sociedad 24) - ISBN 9789942094186 - p. 275 - 296.