Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Building an Artificial Stem Cell Niche: Prerequisites for Future 3D-Formation of Inner Ear Structures—Toward 3D Inner Ear Biotechnology
Groot, Simon C. de; Sliedregt, Karen ; Benthem, Peter Paul G. van; Rivolta, Marcelo N. ; Huisman, Margriet A. - \ 2019
The Anatomical Record (2019). - ISSN 1932-8486
3D - biotechnology - inner ear - stem cell

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in stem cells for the purpose of regenerative medicine to deliver a wide range of therapies to treat many diseases. However, two-dimensional cultures of stem cells are of limited use when studying the mechanism of pathogenesis of diseases and the feasibility of a treatment. Therefore, research is focusing on the strengths of stem cells in the three-dimensional (3D) structures mimicking organs, that is, organoids, or organ-on-chip, for modeling human biology and disease. As 3D technology advances, it is necessary to know which signals stem cells need to multiply and differentiate into complex structures. This holds especially true for the complex 3D structure of the inner ear. Recent work suggests that although other factors play a role, the extracellular matrix (ECM), including its topography, is crucial to mimic a stem cell niche in vitro and to drive stem cells toward the formation of the tissue of interest. Technological developments have led to the investigation of biomaterials that closely resemble the native ECM. In the fast forward moving research of organoids and organs-on-chip, the inner ear has hardly received attention. This review aims to provide an overview, by describing the general context in which cells, matrix and morphogens cooperate in order to build a tissue, to facilitate research in 3D inner ear technology. Anat Rec, 2019.

Fraud vulnerability in the Dutch milk supply chain : Assessments of farmers, processors and retailers
Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. ; Hettinga, K.A. ; Liu, N. ; Heck, J. ; Schrijver, G.H. ; Gaiardoni, L. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2019
Food Control 95 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 308 - 317.
Dairy supply chain - Fraud factor - Fraud mitigation - Milk adulteration - Organic farm - Vulnerability assessment

Food fraud surfaces regularly, anywhere in the world. Not only the companies involved in food fraud suffer from losses when food fraud occurs, other actors in the supply chain and branch of industry are often painted with the same brush. Milk has been a common fraud target in the past and, therefore, fraud is a concern for companies involved in milk production. In order to manage and prevent fraud in the milk supply chain, a good insight into the vulnerabilities of companies and their supply chain networks is pivotal. The aim of the current study is to understand (a) the fraud vulnerability of the general milk supply chain in the Netherlands and its tiers (farmers, processors, retailers) and (b) the differences in fraud vulnerability of farmers producing organic milk, green intermediate ‘pasture milk’ and conventional milk. The SSAFE food fraud assessment tool was slightly adapted to the milk supply chain and used to examine the fraud vulnerability of the 38 businesses of the three tiers in the study: 30 farmers, 4 milk processors and 4 retailers. Forty-eight fraud factors related to opportunities, motivations and control measures were examined. Subsequently, key fraud factors were identified. The three tier groups showed major similarities in motivation related fraud factors, and large differences in fraud opportunities and controls. There were also differences observed between the organic and non-organic farmers, with organic farmers being slightly more vulnerable than their non-organic counterparts. From this study it appears that the milk supply chain in the Netherlands is low to medium vulnerable to fraud but the key factors contributing to the vulnerability differ between the tiers (farmers, processors, retailers). Management of the fraud risks requires consideration of these differences.

Estuarine fish passes in the northern Netherlands provide contrasting windows of opportunity for migrating fish species (#188)
Huisman, Jeroen - \ 2018
Erosion of archaeological sites: Quantifying the threat using optically stimulated luminescence and fallout isotopes
Huisman, H. ; Kort, J.W. de; Ketterer, M.E. ; Reimann, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Heiden, M. van der; Soest, Maud van; Egmond, Fenny van - \ 2018
Geoarchaeology: an international journal (2018). - ISSN 0883-6353
Although visible evidence shows that erosion has damaged many archaeological sites, especially when tilled, there has hitherto been scant attention to its quantitative assessment. Accordingly, the archaeology communities lack insight into whether long‐term threats to the stability and integrity of soils at these sites allow these cultural repositories to be preserved for future human generations. Of the techniques that are available to measure erosion rates, few have been tested on the timescales needed. We selected three archaeological sites with high expected erosion rates. We combined optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating with analyses of radioactive fallout isotope distributions to assess erosion patterns and rates. An age–depth representation of OSL single‐aliquot results was developed to determine past erosion, and to identify stable land surfaces on centennial to millennia timescales. Fall‐out isotopes of cesium (Cs) and plutonium (Pu) were suitable for shorter timescales: The 240Pu/239Pu ratios and a correlation between activities of 239+240Pu and 137Cs demonstrated the weapons testing fallout origin of these isotopes in the ~1952–1966 timeframe. Erosion rates in recent decades ranged from 2 to 6 mm/year on the studied sites. Our results indicate that erosion is not only tied to the past, but keeps on threatening archaeological sites.
Evergreen – bollen Plantengroei bevorderende rhizobacteriën
Dam, M.F.N. van; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Huisman, Huei Ming ; Greve, Gerdit ; Wal, A. van der - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Archeologisch onderzoek in de omgeving van het prehistorische vuursteenmijnveld te Rijckholt - St.Geertruid : De resultaten van 2011, 2012 en 2013
Brinkkemper, O. ; Bruinink, A.C. ; Deeben, J. ; Guralnik, B. ; Hoebe, P. ; Huisman, H. ; Kort, J.W. de; Laarman, F. ; Meirvenne, M. van; Orbons, J. ; Os, B. van; Parys, V. van; Schreurs, J. ; Theunissen, L. ; Verhegge, J. ; Versendaal, Alice ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2018
Amersfoort : Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057993022 - 371 p.
Formation of a symbiotic host-microbe interface: the role of SNARE-mediated regulation of exocytosis
Huisman, Rik - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ton Bisseling, co-promotor(en): Erik Limpens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463323178 - 158

At the heart of endosymbiosis microbes are hosted inside living cells in specialized membrane compartments that from a host-microbe interface, where nutrients and signal are efficiently exchanged. Such symbiotic interfaces include arbuscules produced by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and organelle-like symbiosomes formed during the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Also during pathogenic interactions, microbes such as biotrophic fungi and oomycetes are hosted in specialized membrane compartments called haustoria. The formation of such new membrane compartments requires a major reorganization of the host endomembrane system, with a special role for the targeting of secretory/exocytotic vesicles and their cargo to the newly forming interfaces. In this thesis, I studied how exocytotic membrane traffic is regulated to facilitate the formation and maintenance of a host-microbe interface. Therefore, I especially focussed on the role of SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor) proteins, as key components of the exocytotic machinery, in symbiotic interface formation.

In Chapter 1, I introduce the different symbioses in which host-microbe interfaces are formed, and the role of the host-microbe interface in these symbioses. Further, I introduce the evolutionary relationship between the different symbioses: AM symbiosis is the most ancient endosymbiosis in plants, which provided the blueprint for different symbioses that evolved later; other symbiotic microbes including rhizobia co-opted the signalling program and adaptations to membrane trafficking required for arbuscule formation, to be hosted inside cells. Finally, I will introduce the symbiosis dedicated SNAREs as key regulators of exocytosis to form a host-microbe interface.

In Chapter 2, we tested the long-standing hypothesis that pathogens make use of the AM symbiotic program to allow the formation of haustoria. To test this, we set up a pathosystem using the biotrophic oomycete Phytophthora palmivora that is able to form haustoria in Medicago truncatula root cells. Using M. truncatula mutants impaired in AM and rhizobium symbioses, we demonstrated that neither the common symbiotic signalling genes, nor symbiosis dedicated regulators of vesicle trafficking are required for haustorium formation. This showed that biotrophic pathogens like P. palmivora, do not hijack the symbiotic program to be accommodated inside plant cells.

In Chapter 3, we identified the t-SNARE SYP132α as a key regulator of both arbuscule and symbiosome formation. During vesicle fusion, a vesicle SNARE (v-SNARE) on the vesicle forms a complex with a target membrane SNAREs (t-SNAREs) on the target membrane. Previous work in our lab identified specific exocytotic v-SNAREs required for arbuscule and symbiosome formation. We identified the t-SNARE counterpart SYP132, and demonstrated that in most dicot plants SYP132 is spliced into two spliceforms; SYP132α and SYP132β. Interestingly, alternative splicing of SYP132 leading to the dominant use of a SYP132α-specific last exon coincides with the accommodation of AM fungi in arbuscule forming root cortex cells and rhizobium bacteria in nodule cells. Using a spliceform-specific RNAi construct, we showed that SYP132α is specifically required for the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in both AM symbiosis and rhizobium symbiosis. Furthermore, we showed that during arbuscular collapse, the two spliceforms localize differently to healthy and degrading arbuscule branches. These results indicated that alternative splicing of SYP132 allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules.

The evolutionary expansion of SNAREs in plants has been hypothesized to have allowed the adaptation of exocytosis to different biological processes. In Chapter 4, we studied what makes the symbiotic SNAREs so special in comparison to their non-symbiotic family members, of which many are also expressed in arbuscule cells. We hypothesized that symbiotic SNAREs define a distinct secretory pathway, that ensures specificity of protein delivery to the host-microbe interface. We show that all tested SYP1 family proteins, and most of the non-symbiotic VAMP72 members, were able to complement the defect in arbuscule formation upon knock-down of their symbiotic counterparts when expressed at sufficient levels. This functional redundancy is in line with the ability of all tested v- and t-SNARE combinations to form SNARE complexes at the peri-arbuscular membrane. This showed that the symbiotic SNAREs do not selectively interact to define a distinct vesicle trafficking pathway, but that their essential role in arbuscule formation can be largely explained by their dominant expression level. Interestingly, the symbiotic t-SNARE SYP132α appeared to occur less in SNARE complexes with v-SNAREs compared to the non-symbiotic syntaxins in the arbuscule cells, suggesting a more strict regulation of symbiotic SNARE complexes at the interface.

Since the alternative splicing of SYP132 does not affect the total transcript levels, we hypothesized that there must be a functional difference between SYP132α and –β, potentially leading to subtle phenotypes that may have gone undetected in the Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated complementation approach applied in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, we therefore generated and characterized a stable mutant line in which all SYP132 transcripts are constitutively spliced into the non-symbiotic SYP132β form. Although this mutant is normally colonized by AM fungi, with no effects on arbuscule morphology, it has a severely reduced biomass after mycorrhization. This hints to a yet unknown role for SYP132α to control arbuscule functionality, and offers an explanation for the evolutionary conservation of the SYP132 alternative splicing in dicot plants. Finally, using fluorescent timer fusions to both SYP132 isoforms, we showed that the difference in localization of the two proteins during arbuscular collapse is the result of a different (endocytic) turnover of the two spliceforms at the healthy/functional arbuscule branches, possibly due to a difference in interactions with VAMPs. Together, our data show that, although both SYP132 isoforms can mediate arbuscule formation, SYP132α is functionally different from SYP132β, which may reveal new aspects of the control of nutrient exchange.

In Chapter 6, I discuss the data generated during my thesis research in relation to additional symbiosis dedicated regulators of exocytosis, as well as in relation to other biological processes that depend on specific secretory SNAREs. Following our conclusion that the symbiotic SNAREs do not mark a separate exocytosis pathway, but are functionally different from non-symbiotic SNAREs, I will speculate on the possible scenarios in which symbiosis dedicated SNAREs are specialized for host-microbe interface functionality.

Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? The HELIUS study
Huisman, Merel J. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Vermeulen, Esther ; Muilwijk, Mirthe ; Snijder, Marieke B. ; Nicolaou, Mary N. ; Valkengoed, Irene G.M. Van - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 2072-6643
HELIUS study - HSHF - Multi-ethnic - T2D - Western dietary pattern
The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on this association in minority populations is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the HSHF dietary pattern and its role in the unequal burden of T2D prevalence in a multi-ethnic population in The Netherlands. We included 4694 participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS study. Dutch participants scored the highest on the HSHF dietary pattern, followed by the Turkish, Moroccan, African Surinamese, and South-Asian Surinamese participants. Prevalence ratios (PR) for T2D were then calculated using multivariate cox regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors. Higher adherence to an HSHF diet was not significantly related to T2D prevalence in the total study sample (PR 1.04 high versus low adherence, 95% CI: 0.80-1.35). In line, adjustment for HSHF diet score did not explain the ethnic differences in T2D. For instance, the PR of the South-Asian Surinamese vs. Dutch changed from 2.76 (95% CI: 2.05-3.72) to 2.90 (95% CI: 2.11-3.98) after adjustment for HSHF. To conclude, a western dietary pattern high in sugar and saturated fat was not associated with T2D, and did not explain the unequal burden in prevalence of T2D across the ethnic groups.
Differences in fraud vulnerability in various food supply chains and their tiers
Ruth, S.M. van; Luning, P.A. ; Silvis, I.C.J. ; Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. - \ 2018
Food Control 84 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 375 - 381.
Bananas - Fish - Meat - Milk - Olive oil - Spices
Food fraud results from the interaction of motivated offenders with opportunities, and lack of control measures. The vulnerability to food fraud varies across chain actors (tiers) though, but insights on prime fraud drivers and enablers, as well as chain areas where vulnerabilities might exist are lacking. In the current study the fish, meat, milk, olive oil, organic bananas, and spice supply chains were assessed for their fraud vulnerabilities. The differences and similarities in vulnerabilities across the supply chains, as well as between groups of chain actors were evaluated using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool. Multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were applied for exploratory data analysis, and differences between chains and actors were assessed by analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Thirteen fraud factors related to opportunities and motivations scored high across all supply chains indicating their importance as fraud drivers and enablers. Control measures varied considerably across supply chains and actor groups, with technical (hard) controls generally being more in place than managerial (soft) controls. Approximately half of the fraud factors were impacted by the type of commodity chain, and one out of seven of the fraud factors by the actor group. From the current sample group overall fraud vulnerability appeared highest for the spice chain, which was followed by the olive oil, meat, fish, milk and organic banana chains. Among the actor groups, the wholesale/traders group appeared most vulnerable, followed by retailers and processors. The current results provide new insights in the fraud factors determining fraud vulnerability in various supply chains, and the (dis)similarities in fraud vulnerability across supply chains and actor groups which helps to combat future food fraud.
Data from sediment sampling campaign, Sand Motor
Huisman, B.J.A. ; Bart, L. ; Schipper, M.A. de; Meirelles, S. ; Sirks, E.E. ; Tonnon, P.K. ; Zwaag, J. van der; Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2017
composition - NeMo project - sampling - Sand Motor - sediment
Sediment sampling data from measurement campaign at the Sand Motor
Kelmond-Beekerveld (gemeente Beek); erosieonderzoek in het kader van het TOPsites project
Huisman, D.J. ; Kort, J.W. de; Derickx, W. ; Heiden, M. van der; Egmond, Fenny van; Reimann, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Soest, M. van; Wallinga, J. - \ 2017
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057992742 - 92 p.
Nivellering en erosie zijn een algemeen bekend
probleem voor geaccidenteerde terreinen
waarop akkerbouw plaatsvindt. Grond zonder
vegetatie is gevoelig voor erosie, terwijl ploegen
zorgt voor vervlakking en nivellering van reliëfverschillen.
Verschillende tests zijn gedaan, met
name in het buitenland, om de snelheid van
deze nivellering en erosie te karakteriseren.
De resultaten zijn echter niet eenduidig, mede
omdat verschillende tijdschalen worden
Om beter grip te krijgen op de snelheid van
erosie en nivellering op archeologische vindplaatsen
als gevolg van akkerbouw zijn vijf
locaties uitgezocht. Met opzet is gekozen voor
locaties waarvan de verwachting is dat erosie/
nivellering sterk is, zodat ze kunnen worden
gezien als worst-case scenario. Binnen die groep
is gekozen voor vindplaatsen waar eerder
relevante gegevens zijn verzameld over
degradatie en conservering. Twee (Beek-
Kelmond en Meerssen – Onderste Herkenberg)
liggen in het Limburgse lössgebied; drie andere
(Schouwen, Grote Houw en Tjessens) zijn
terpen/wierden. Op deze locaties worden
verschillende technieken ingezet om erosie en
nivellering door de tijd in kaart te brengen.
Uit het onderzoek op de vroegneolitische
(Lineaire Bandkeramiek) vindplaats Kelmond-
Beekerveld blijkt dat er aanwijzingen zijn voor
van significante erosie, met name op het steilste
deel van de helling. Hoewel het meeste
colluvium op zijn laatst gevormd is tijdens de
late middeleeuwen, zijn er duidelijke aanwijzingen
dat erosie actief was in de afgelopen
decennia, en op dit moment ook nog plaatsvindt.
De snelheid waarop de erosie plaatsvindt is
aanzienlijk; in de afgelopen 50 jaar is enkele
decimeters aan grond verdwenen van de site,
met name rond de hellingknik. De oudere
datering van het colluvium en de aanwezigheid
van een grote concentratie sporen op het steilste
deel van de helling zijn aanwijzingen dat deze
erosie komt na een langere periode van landschappelijke
De vergelijking van de maaiveldhoogtes uit
verschillende jaren en de variaties daarin (met
name de vergelijking tussen de twee generaties
van het Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland)
duiden op erosie, maar deze resultaten op zich
zijn niet overtuigend. De combinatie van 137Cs en
239+240Pu metingen enerzijds en OSL metingen
anderzijds geven wel uitkomsten die geschikt
zijn voor het identificeren en kwantificeren van
erosie en colluviatie.
Veel van de hier geteste methoden bleken niet
geschikt om de erosiesnelheden te meten. In de
meeste gevallen waren ze te onnauwkeurig
(bijvoorbeeld 137Cs oppervlaktekartering), waren
de effecten te onduidelijk (AHN/LIDAR
verschillen) of waren er oncontroleerbare
variaties in de gehaltes van bepaalde tracers.
De tracers 137Cs en 239+240Pu gaven als enige wel
waardes waaraan recente erosie kon worden
afgelezen. De schatting van de snelheden is
gebaseerd op een aantal aannames, waardoor
de schattingen vooral als indicatie moeten
worden gezien. Nader onderzoek naar het
gebruik van deze isotopencombinatie zou de
betrouwbaarheid van de schatting kunnen
OSL bleek vooral geschikt om erosie en depositie
op tijdschalen van (tientallen) eeuwen te
bepalen. Het is daarmee een goede ondersteunende
techniek – in combinatie met tracers – om
de landschappelijke ontwikkeling en erosiegevoeligheid
van een vindplaats te onderzoeken.
Voor toekomstig onderzoek, waarbij het
schatten van mate van erosie van belang is, is
het aan te raden om een combinatie van 137Cs en
239+240Pu als tracers en OSL als ondersteuning en
landschapsontwikkeling toe te passen. Een extra
voordeel van deze combinatie is dat ze ook een
indicatie kunnen geven van de mate van bioturbatie
op een vindplaats en de timing ervan.
Ten aanzien van het monument zelf kunnen een
aantal aanbevelingen worden gedaan. Uit het
onderzoek blijkt dat er sprake is van stevige
erosie op delen van het terrein. Omdat veel van
de sporen direct onder de bouwvoor liggen, is de
vindplaats zeer kwetsbaar. Eenmaal dieper
ploegen dan de bouwvoor brengt schade en
informatieverlies met zich mee. Een gebruik van
het monument als grasland verdient daarom de
Erosie-onderzoek op de Grote Houw Oost in het kader van TOPsites
Huisman, D.J. ; Heiden, M. van der; Derickx, W. ; Kort, J.W. de; Reimann, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Thasing, S. ; Egmond, Fenny van; Soest, M. van; Verplanke, P. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2017
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057992780
Grote Houw is één van de vier locaties waar in
het kader van het TOPsites project onderzoek is
uitgevoerd naar de snelheid van erosie. Doel was
om te proberen vast te stellen hoe snel op deze
locatie erosie plaatsvindt. Bijkomende doelen
waren (1) om te testen welke methodes het
meest geschikt zijn in een dergelijke context om
erosiesnelheden te meten en (2) om te onderzoeken
in hoeverre erosie schade toebrengt aan
de archeologische vindplaats.
Grote Houw – een terrein van zeer hoge archeologische
waarde – bevat een deel van een
complexe dubbelwierde. De verschillende
methodes die werden getest voor het meten van
de erosiesnelheden gaven variabele resultaten:
• Een vergelijking van de maaiveldhoogtes
volgens AHN1, AHN2 en een nieuwe groundbased
LIDAR opname leverde geen duidelijk
beeld op.
• Met booronderzoek zijn aanwijzingen voor
erosie gevonden in de vorm van variaties in
diktes van de bouwvoor.
• Een intensieve veldkartering leverde een
duidelijk beeld van de vondspreiding in relatie
tot de ligging van de wierde. Er waren echter
geen eenduidige aanwijzingen voor het recent
opploegen van vondstmateriaal.
• Vijf profielputten werden gegraven om de
bodemopbouw te bestuderen – met aandacht
voor de dikte van de bouwvoor en het evt.
aanwezig zijn van colluvium.
• OSL analyses (uit de profielputten) bleken
vooral geschikt om erosie- en sedimentatieprocessen
op langere tijdschalen te
onderzoek. Daarbij was de spreiding aan
dateringen binnen één monster van groter
belang dan een absolute datering. De
metingen gaven een duidelijk beeld van de
ontstaansgeschiedenis van de wierde. Erosie
of colluviumvorming was niet duidelijk aan te
• Met metingen van de gehaltes aan 137Cs en
plutonium in het profiel bleek het wel
mogelijk om schattingen van erosiesnelheden
te maken over de periode van ca. 1960
(detonatie van waterstofbommen in de
atmosfeer) tot nu. Schatting is dat gedurende
deze 50 jaar maximaal 2 mm/jaar erosie is
• De resultaten van 137Cs oppervlaktemetingen
waren op deze locatie niet geschikt om erosie
vast te stellen.
Meerssen – Onderste Herkenberg; erosieonderzoek in het kader van TOPsites
Huisman, D.J. ; Groot, T. de; Kort, J.W. de; Derickx, W. ; Egmond, F.M. van; Heiden, M. van der; Reimann, T. ; Rensink, E. ; Saey, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Parys, V. Van; Soest, M. van; Meirvenne, M. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2017
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057992797 - 112 p.
Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors
Ruth, Saskia M. van; Huisman, Wim ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2017
Trends in Food Science and Technology 67 (2017). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 70 - 75.
Counterfeiting - Criminology - Food adulteration - Fraud risk - Vulnerability assessment

Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However, knowledge on what determines food fraud vulnerability is limited. Scope and approach In the current study a new food fraud vulnerability concept is explored. The concept is based on the criminological routine activity theory and key food fraud vulnerability factors are subsequently extracted and identified. Key findings and conclusions Opportunities, motivations and control measures are defined in this concept as the three main elements of food fraud vulnerability. They can be subdivided into technical opportunities, opportunities in time and place, economic drivers, culture and behavior, as well as technical and managerial control measures. They are further detailed in 31 fraud vulnerability factors. Food fraud vulnerability threats may originate from both the external and the internal environment of a business which means that several vulnerability factors need to be considered at multiple environmental levels, i.e. the level of the business itself, its suppliers, its customers, the wider chain and at the (inter)national level. The concept was further developed into a practical food fraud vulnerability self-assessment tool with 50 questions and answering grids. This will be a valuable first step towards fraud prevention and will assist in the global combat on food fraud.

Migration of banks along the Kapuas River, West Kalimantan
Vermeulen, B. ; Huisman, A.K. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Pramulya, M. - \ 2016
In: River Flow - Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, RIVER FLOW 2016. - CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138029132 - p. 1249 - 1253.

In this study we analyse the migration rates along the Kapuas River, West Kalimantan. The migration rates are analysed by digitizing sets of Landsat images. Cloud detection and cloud shadow detection is used to mask the images, then they are combined to obtain water bodies. The difference between images from different years between 1973 and 2013 is used to obtain migration rates. A stream reconaissance was performed along the River to validate the results. The results of the stream reconaissance show good agreement with the Landsat based erosion rates.

Erosion and Errors : Testing the Use of Repeated LIDAR Analyses and Erosion Modelling for the Assessment and Prediction of Erosion of Archaeological Sites?
Huisman, H. ; Heeres, Glenn ; Os, Bertil van; Derickx, Willem ; Schoorl, J.M. - \ 2016
Conservation and Management of Archaeological sites 18 (2016)1-3. - ISSN 1350-5033 - p. 205 - 216.
Slope soil erosion is one of the main threats to archaeological sites. Several methods were applied to establish the erosion rates at archaeological sites. Digital elevation models (DEMs) from three different dates were used. We compared the elevations from these three models to estimate erosion. We also applied the landscape evolution model LAPSUS with the available DEMs as basis. Spatial processing errors and effects of tillage and harvesting practices explain most of the DEM elevation differences between the recordings. Increased DEM resolution does not result in more precise or reliable erosion. The present technological level of landscape evolution modelling makes it possible to indicate areas most vulnerable to soil displacement by surface runoff erosion and tillage. Future research, using sediment and surface dating techniques such as deposit of radionuclides, heavy metals and OSL dating will provide a more accurate estimation of erosion rates and the subsequent impact on archaeological sites.
Heading south or north: novel insights on European silver eel Anguilla anguilla migration in the North Sea : Novel insights on European silver eel Anguilla anguilla migration in the North Sea
Huisman, Jeroen ; Verhelst, Pieterjan ; Verhelst, Pieterjan ; Deneudt, K. ; Goethals, Peter ; Moens, Tom ; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J. ; Nolting, Carsten ; Reubens, Jan ; Schollema, Peter Paul ; Winter, Hendrik V. ; Mouton, Ans - \ 2016
Marine Ecology Progress Series 554 (2016). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 257 - 262.
Conservation - European eel - Marine migration - Telemetry

The European eel Anguilla anguilla L. is a critically endangered fish species that migrates from coastal and freshwater habitats to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. However, the exact migration routes and destination of European eel are still unknown. We are the first to observe southward migrating silver eels in the North Sea. Eels were tagged with acoustic transmitters in 3 different river catchments in Western Europe and swam to the Dutch-Belgian coastal zone during their spawning migration. Therefore, at least part of the Western European population of eels migrates towards the English Channel, in contrast with the Nordic migration route hypothesis. This different migratory route may affect the energy reserve available for spawning and therefore the contribution of these eels to the population. As such, increasing our knowledge of marine eel migrations contributes to the goal of achieving sustainable eel stock management.

Modeling soil processes : Review, key challenges, and new perspectives
Vereecken, H. ; Schnepf, A. ; Hopmans, J.W. ; Javaux, M. ; Or, D. ; Roose, T. ; Vanderborght, J. ; Young, M.H. ; Amelung, W. ; Aitkenhead, M. ; Allison, S.D. ; Assouline, S. ; Baveye, P. ; Berli, M. ; Brüggemann, N. ; Finke, P. ; Flury, M. ; Gaiser, T. ; Govers, G. ; Ghezzehei, T. ; Hallett, P. ; Hendricks Franssen, H.J. ; Heppell, J. ; Horn, R. ; Huisman, J.A. ; Jacques, D. ; Jonard, F. ; Kollet, S. ; Lafolie, F. ; Lamorski, K. ; Leitner, D. ; Mcbratney, A. ; Minasny, B. ; Montzka, C. ; Nowak, W. ; Pachepsky, Y. ; Padarian, J. ; Romano, N. ; Roth, K. ; Rothfuss, Y. ; Rowe, E.C. ; Schwen, A. ; Šimůnek, J. ; Tiktak, A. ; Dam, Jos van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Vogel, H.J. ; Vrugt, J.A. ; Wöhling, T. ; Wöhling, T. ; Young, I.M. - \ 2016
Vadose Zone Journal 15 (2016)5. - ISSN 1539-1663 - 57 p.

The remarkable complexity of soil and its importance to a wide range of ecosystem services presents major challenges to the modeling of soil processes. Although major progress in soil models has occurred in the last decades, models of soil processes remain disjointed between disciplines or ecosystem services, with considerable uncertainty remaining in the quality of predictions and several challenges that remain yet to be addressed. First, there is a need to improve exchange of knowledge and experience among the different disciplines in soil science and to reach out to other Earth science communities. Second, the community needs to develop a new generation of soil models based on a systemic approach comprising relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes to address critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of soil processes and their interactions. Overcoming these challenges will facilitate exchanges between soil modeling and climate, plant, and social science modeling communities. It will allow us to contribute to preserve and improve our assessment of ecosystem services and advance our understanding of climate-change feedback mechanisms, among others, thereby facilitating and strengthening communication among scientific disciplines and society. We review the role of modeling soil processes in quantifying key soil processes that shape ecosystem services, with a focus on provisioning and regulating services. We then identify key challenges in modeling soil processes, including the systematic incorporation of heterogeneity and uncertainty, the integration of data and models, and strategies for effective integration of knowledge on physical, chemical, and biological soil processes. We discuss how the soil modeling community could best interface with modern modeling activities in other disciplines, such as climate, ecology, and plant research, and how to weave novel observation and measurement techniques into soil models. We propose the establishment of an international soil modeling consortium to coherently advance soil modeling activities and foster communication with other Earth science disciplines. Such a consortium should promote soil modeling platforms and data repository for model development, calibration and intercomparison essential for addressing contemporary challenges.

A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis
Huisman, Rik ; Hontelez, Jan ; Mysore, Kirankumar S. ; Wen, Jiangqi ; Bisseling, Ton ; Limpens, Erik - \ 2016
New Phytologist 211 (2016)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1338 - 1351.
Alternative splicing - Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) - Arbuscule - Host-microbe interface - N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) - Rhizobium - Symbiosis - Symbiosome

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules.

Elke Rotterdammer heeft recht op gezondere lucht
Krol, Maarten - \ 2015
Species fluctuations sustained by a cyclic succession at the edge of chaos
Benincà, Elisa ; Ballantine, Bill ; Ellner, Stephen P. ; Huisman, Jef - \ 2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (2015)20. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 6389 - 6394.
Chaos - Coexistence - Cyclic succession - Rock-paper-scissors dynamics - Rocky intertidal community

Although mathematical models and laboratory experiments have shown that species interactions can generate chaos, field evidence of chaos in natural ecosystems is rare. We report on a pristine rocky intertidal community located in one of the world's oldest marine reserves that has displayed a complex cyclic succession for more than 20 y. Bare rock was colonized by barnacles and crustose algae, they were overgrown by mussels, and the subsequent detachment of the mussels returned bare rock again. These processes generated irregular species fluctuations, such that the species coexisted over many generations without ever approaching a stable equilibrium state. Analysis of the species fluctuations revealed a dominant periodicity of about 2 y, a global Lyapunov exponent statistically indistinguishable from zero, and local Lyapunov exponents that alternated systematically between negative and positive values. This pattern indicates that the community moved back and forth between stabilizing and chaotic dynamics during the cyclic succession. The results are supported by a patch-occupancy model predicting similar patterns when the species interactions were exposed to seasonal variation. Our findings show that natural ecosystems can sustain continued changes in species abundances and that seasonal forcing may push these nonequilibrium dynamics to the edge of chaos.

Growth and development: Close relations of secretion and K+
Huisman, R. ; Bisseling, T. - \ 2015
Nature Plants 1 (2015). - ISSN 2055-026X - 2 p.
Interaction of key regulators of exocytosis with potassium channels enhances both secretion and K+ uptake, making these processes intertwined and jointly coordinated.
Effect of Presymptomatic Body Mass Index and Consumption of Fat and Alcohol on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Huisman, M.H.B. ; Seelen, M. ; Doormaal, P.T.C. van; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2015
JAMA Neurology 72 (2015)10. - ISSN 2168-6149 - p. 1155 - 1162.
IMPORTANCE Because dietary intakemay influence pathophysiologic mechanisms in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the association between premorbid dietary intake and the risk of sporadic ALS will provide insight into which mechanisms are possibly involved in ALS pathophogenesis. OBJECTIVE To systematically determine the association between premorbid dietary intake and the risk of sporadic ALS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A population-based case-control studywas conducted in a general community setting in the Netherlands from January 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011. Analysis was conducted April 1, 2013, to November 15, 2014. All patients with a new diagnosis of possible, probable (laboratory supported), or definite ALS according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and multiple sources were used to ensure complete case ascertainment. Of 986 eligible patients, 674 gave informed consent and returned a complete questionnaire; 2093 controls randomly selected from the general practitioners’ registers and frequency matched to the patients for sex and age were included. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We studied the premorbid intake of nutrients in association with the risk of ALS by using a 199-item food frequency questionnaire adjusted for confounding factors and corrected for multiple comparisons while minimizing recall bias. RESULTS Presymptomatic total daily energy intake in patients, reported as mean (SD), was significantly higher compared with controls (2258 [730] vs 2119 [619] kcal/day; P <.01), and presymptomatic body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was significantly lower in patients (25.7 [4.0] vs 26.0 [3.7]; P = .02). With values reported as odds ratio (95%CI), higher premorbid intake of total fat (1.14; 1.07-1.23; P <.001), saturated fat (1.43; 1.25-1.64; P <.001), trans-fatty acids (1.03; 1.01-1.05; P <.001), and cholesterol (1.08; 1.05-1.12; P <.001) was associated with an increased risk of ALS; higher intake of alcohol (0.91; 0.84-0.99; P = .03) was associated with a decreased risk of ALS. These associations were independent of total energy intake, age, sex, body mass index, educational level, smoking, and lifetime physical activity. No significant associations between dietary intake and survival were found. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The combination of independent positive associations of a low premorbid body mass index and a high fat intake together with prior evidence from ALS mouse models transgenic for SOD1 and earlier reports on premorbid body mass index support a role for increased resting energy expenditure before clinical onset of ALS.
Haustorium formation in Medicago truncatula roots infected by Phytophthora palmivora does not involve the common endosymbiotic program shared by AM fungi and rhizobia
Huisman, R.H.J. ; Bouwmeester, K. ; Brattinga, M.A. ; Govers, F. ; Bisseling, A.H.J. ; Limpens, E.H.M. - \ 2015
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 28 (2015)12. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 1271 - 1280.
In biotrophic plant-microbe interactions, microbes infect living plant cells where they are hosted in a novel membrane compartment; the host-microbe interface. To create a host-microbe interface, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobia make use of the same endosymbiotic program. It is a long-standing hypothesis that pathogens make use of plant proteins that are dedicated to mutualistic symbiosis to infect plants and form haustoria. In this report, we developed a Phytophthora palmivora pathosystem to study haustorium formation in Medicago truncatula (Medicago) roots. We show that P. palmivora does not require host genes that are essential for symbiotic infection and host-microbe interface formation to infect Medicago roots and form haustoria. Based on these findings, we conclude that P. palmivora does not hijack the ancient intracellular accommodation program used by symbiotic microbes to form a biotrophic host-microbe interface.
A comparison of rating and dating techniques to estimate the threat of soil erosion to archaeological monuments under agricultural fields
Soest, M. van; Huisman, H. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Reimann, T. ; Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Wallinga, J. ; Kort, J.W. de; Heiden, M. van der; Os, B. van; Egmond, F. van; Ketteren, M. - \ 2015
For the protection of Dutch archaeological sites against degradation, the TOPsites project is investigating the rate, extent and mitigation of the most important processes involved. One of these processes is soil translocation or soil redistribution. For many Dutch archaeological sites the actual extent and rate of soil erosion is not yet known. In this study different techniques for dating and estimating rates have been compared on three archaeological sites on tilled fields with gentle slopes: (multi-temporal LiDar, profiles and spatial distribution of 137Cs, anthropogenic Pb, and 239+240Pu, and moreover OSL. In addition, the added value of the combination of several of these techniques together will be evaluated. Preliminary results show evidence for colluvium formation (deposition) on two of the sites. Lead contents in a buried soil on one of these sites suggest a subrecent to recent date. 137Cs profiles and spatial mapping, however, do not show clear evidence for recent erosion or re-deposition patterns. These first results suggest that in these agricultural settings with typical Dutch gentle slopes, erosion may only occur in rare, catastrophic, events with local high erosion and re-deposition rates instead of a more or less continuous process with lower rates. Consequently, the impact of ploughing might be limited to mixing of the plough layer, while the effect of damaging soil translocation, for these selected archaeological sites, seems less important. Forthcoming analysis and results of Pu and OSL will provide enough data for further discussion and possible falsification of these preliminary conclusions.
UVb radiation impacts vitamin D3 status but not growth in the nocturnal leopard gecko
Diehl, E. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Kik, M.J.L. ; Baines, F.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Bosch, G. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of the 8th European Zoo Nutrition Conference. - - p. 37 - 37.
Does foraging ecology of terrestrial carnivores impact digestive physiology and metabolism?
Bosch, G. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of the 8th European Zoo Nutrition Conference. - - p. 23 - 23.
Nutritional value of browse species most fed to zoo animals
Huisman, T.J. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2015
dierenwelzijn - dierentuindieren - diervoeding - diergezondheid - planten - voedingswaarde - begraasbare planten of plantendelen - animal welfare - zoo animals - animal nutrition - animal health - plants - nutritive value - browse
Poster met voedingswaarde van begraasbare planten voor dierentuindieren.
Pattern formation at multiple spatial scales drives the resilience of mussel bed ecosystems
Liu, Q. ; Herman, P.M.J. ; Mooij, W.M. ; Huisman, J. ; Scheffer, M. ; Olff, H. ; Koppel, J. van de - \ 2014
Nature Communications 5 (2014). - ISSN 2041-1723
self-organization - trade-offs - dynamics - systems - model
Self-organized complexity at multiple spatial scales is a distinctive characteristic of biological systems. Yet, little is known about how different self-organizing processes operating at different spatial scales interact to determine ecosystem functioning. Here we show that the interplay between self-organizing processes at individual and ecosystem level is a key determinant of the functioning and resilience of mussel beds. In mussel beds, self-organization generates spatial patterns at two characteristic spatial scales: small-scale net-shaped patterns due to behavioural aggregation of individuals, and large-scale banded patterns due to the interplay of between-mussel facilitation and resource depletion. Model analysis reveals that the interaction between these behavioural and ecosystem-level mechanisms increases mussel bed resilience, enables persistence under deteriorating conditions and makes them less prone to catastrophic collapse. Our analysis highlights that interactions between different forms of self-organization at multiple spatial scales may enhance the intrinsic ability of ecosystems to withstand both natural and human-induced disturbances.
Kwetsbaarheid voor voedselfraude in de vleessector
Huisman, W. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2014
Justitiële verkenningen 2014 (2014)2. - ISSN 0167-5850 - p. 28 - 53.
Food fraud is as old as mankind but has advanced in the last decades. Fraud regarding the gross composition of food has progressed in the direction of the addition of unconventional adulterants. Furthermore, consumers are more and more interested in how and where their foods are produced and pay price premiums for organic foods, fair trade, animal welfare considering, and sustainable food products. Since these products are very similar to their conventional counterparts in terms of composition, they provide an additional challenge. The knowledge regarding occurrence, type of meat fraud, causes and damage caused to the sector is limited. There is a need for extensive identification of the vulnerabilities and criminogenic factors. These insights offer leads for detection and prevention. The article deals with a first step into the inventory of these vulnerabilities and factors affecting meat fraud, by assessing fraud risks related to products, companies and the meat supply chain.
Plantes toxiques pour les animauxd de zoo
Huisman, T.R. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2014
VHL Animal Management
dierentuindieren - dierenwelzijn - diervoeding - giftige planten - vergiftiging - diergezondheid - zoo animals - animal welfare - animal nutrition - poisonous plants - poisoning - animal health
Poster met een overzicht van planten die giftig zijn voor (dierentuin)dieren.
Le top 12 des groupes d’aliments en zoo-nutrition : un apercu des propriétés principales des groupes d’aliments fréquemment utilisés en zoo-nutrition
Huisman, T.R. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2014
VHL Animal Management
dierentuindieren - diervoeding - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - zoo animals - animal nutrition - animal welfare - animal health
Een overzicht van de eigenschappen van veel gebruikte voedselgroepen in dierentuinvoeding.
Système d'évaluation des fécès: le score fécal
Huisman, T.R. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2014
VHL Animal Management, Animal Welfare Web (DWW)
dierentuindieren - diervoeding - dierenwelzijn - mest - feces - diergezondheid - zoo animals - animal nutrition - animal welfare - manures - faeces - animal health
Kleur, vorm en stevigheid van de uitwerpselen vertellen iets over het dier, het soort voer en de kwaliteit hiervan. Door een goede mest-beoordeling kunnen problemen snel herkend worden. Hoe ziet goede mest van een diersoort er uit? En hoe word de mest beoordeeld?
Le valeurs nutritionnelles des invertebrés : un aperçu du contenu nutritionnel, sur une base matière sèche, des espèces d’invertébrés utilisés comme nourriture
Huisman, T.R. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2014
VHL Animal Management, Animal Welfare Web (DWW)
dierentuindieren - diervoeding - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - voedingswaarde - ongewervelde dieren - zoo animals - animal nutrition - animal welfare - animal health - nutritive value - invertebrates
Poster met een overzicht van de voedingswaarde van invertebraten.
Sucre et autres nutriments dans les produits alimentaires (fruits et légumes)
Huisman, T.R. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2014
VHL Animal Management, Animal Welfare Web (DWW)
dierentuindieren - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - diervoeding - zoo animals - animal welfare - animal health - animal nutrition
Overzicht van suikers en andere nutriënten in fruit en groenten.
Uit eten tegen voedselverspilling (interview met o.a. M.H. Zwietering)
Zwietering, Marcel - \ 2014
Search performance and the spatial resource distribution
Huisman, T.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Frank van Langevelde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739391 - 100
fauna - dierecologie - migratie - foerageren - telemetrie - diergedrag - animal ecology - migration - foraging - telemetry - animal behaviour
In de afgelopen decennia heeft het onderzoek naar bewegingspatronen in de ecologie een vlucht genomen. Door de ontwikkeling van alsmaar kleinere gps-transmitters en chips worden tegenwoordig de bewegingsgegevens van een enorm aantal dieren en soorten opgeslagen. Naast deze enorme toename in beschikbare gegevens is er een ontwikkeling geweest in de theoretische modellen die besproken en gebruikt worden in de ecologische literatuur. Al deze ontwikkelingen tezamen vormen de nieuwe subdiscipline van de zogenaamde bewegingsecologie en het onderzoek in dit proefschrift valt precies onder deze noemer.
Randvoorwaarden voor inzet en ondersteuning van de buurtsportcoach in landelijk en gemeentelijk beleid: een beleidsanalyse
Leenaars, K.E.F. ; Huisman, A. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Smit, E. ; Molleman, G. ; Koelen, M.A. - \ 2014
Termination of a toxic Alexandrium bloom with hydrogen peroxide
Burson, A. ; Matthijs, H.C.P. ; Bruijne, W. de; Talens, R. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Gerssen, A. ; Visser, P.M. ; Stomp, M. ; Steur, K. ; Scheppingen, Y. van; Huisman, J. - \ 2014
Harmful Algae 31 (2014). - ISSN 1568-9883 - p. 125 - 135.
harmful algal blooms - northern baltic sea - ostenfeldii dinophyceae - water temperature - oxidative stress - shellfish toxins - eutrophication - cyanobacteria - phytoplankton - coastal
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a well-known harmful algal species that can potentially cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Usually A. ostenfeldii occurs in low background concentrations only, but in August of 2012 an exceptionally dense bloom of more than 1 million cells L-1 occurred in the brackish Ouwerkerkse Kreek in The Netherlands. The A. ostenfeldii bloom produced both saxitoxins and spirolides, and is held responsible for the death of a dog with a high saxitoxin stomach content. The Ouwerkerkse Kreek routinely discharges its water into the adjacent Oosterschelde estuary, and an immediate reduction of the bloom was required to avoid contamination of extensive shellfish grounds. Previously, treatment of infected waters with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) successfully suppressed cyanobacterial blooms in lakes. Therefore, we adapted this treatment to eradicate the Alexandrium bloom using a three-step approach. First, we investigated the required H2O2 dosage in laboratory experiments with A. ostenfeldii. Second, we tested the method in a small, isolated canal adjacent to the Ouwerkerkse Kreek. Finally, we brought 50 mg L-1 of H2O2 into the entire creek system with a special device, called a water harrow, for optimal dispersal of the added H2O2. Concentrations of both vegetative cells and pellicle cysts declined by 99.8% within 48 h, and PSP toxin concentrations in the water were reduced below local regulatory levels of 15 µg L-1. Zooplankton were strongly affected by the H2O2 treatment, but impacts on macroinvertebrates and fish were minimal. A key advantage of this method is that the added H2O2 decays to water and oxygen within a few days, which enables rapid recovery of the system after the treatment. This is the first successful field application of H2O2 to suppress a marine harmful algal bloom, although Alexandrium spp. reoccurred at lower concentrations in the following year. The results show that H2O2 treatment provides an effective emergency management option to mitigate toxic Alexandrium blooms, especially when immediate action is required.
Sensing food fraud from analytical chemistry and criminological perspectives
Ruth, S.M. van; Huisman, W. ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2013
voedselveiligheid - authenticiteit - herkomst - analytische scheikunde - forensische wetenschap - food safety - authenticity - provenance - analytical chemistry - forensic science
The joint investigation of analytical opportunities for authentication and understanding the influece of peoples’ motives and agri-food chain context characteristics on fraud, will provide input for a new approach towards fraud risks assessment for food industries and regulators.
Developing an interactive Tool for evaluating sand nourishment strategies along the Holland coast in perspective of benthos, fish nursery and dune quality
Baptist, M.J. ; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Huisman, B.J.A. ; Groot, A.V. de; Boer, W. de; Ye, Q. - \ 2012
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C083/12) - 38
kustbeheer - zandsuppletie - versterking - duinen - nadelige gevolgen - geologische sedimentatie - vissen - aquatische ecologie - noordzee - coastal management - sand suppletion - reinforcement - dunes - adverse effects - geological sedimentation - fishes - aquatic ecology - north sea
Sand nourishments can affect the coastal ecosystem in various ways. Direct effects are the burial of benthic species under a layer of sand. In the direct vicinity, suffocation of benthos can occur due to the settling of a plume of suspended sediment particles. A plume of fine particles may also increase turbidity and thereby affect primary production and the foraging success of filter-feeding benthos and fish. Indirect effects are habitat change, such as altered morphology and sedimentology. It was tested by investigating whether it is possible to optimise nourishment configuration, location and timing, to: - minimise the impact on benthos, - increase nursery area and/or quality, and - enhance dune quality.
Endocytic accommodation of microbes in plants
Huisman, R. ; Ovchinnikova, E. ; Bisseling, T. ; Limpens, E.H.M. - \ 2012
In: Endocytosis in plants / Šamaj, J., Berlin Heidelberg : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783642324635 - p. 271 - 295.
Plants host many different microbes within their cells. These endosymbiotic relationships are characterized by the formation of new specialized membrane compartments inside the plant cells in which the microbes live and where nutrients and signals are efficiently exchanged. Such symbiotic interfaces include arbuscules produced by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), organelle-like symbiosomes formed during the rhizobium-legume symbiosis, and haustoria produced by biotrophic fungi and oomycetes. The formation and maintenance of such new membrane compartments require a major reorganization of the host endomembrane system. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding how arbuscules, symbiosomes, and haustoria are formed. In this chapter, we will summarize the recent developments in each field, with a major focus on the AM and rhizobial endosymbiosis. It has become clear that rhizobia have co-opted a signalling pathway as well as a cellular mechanism to make the interface membrane compartment from the ancient and most successful AM symbiosis. Both AM symbiosis and rhizobium symbiosis depend on the secretion of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides that trigger a symbiotic signalling cascade, which is required for both arbuscule and symbiosome formation. In both interactions a shared specific exocytosis pathway is recruited to facilitate the formation of the symbiotic interface resulting in a membrane compartment with distinct protein composition. Given the structural similarity of haustoria to arbuscules, similar mechanisms are envisioned to be involved in the formation of a haustorium.
Nutritional value of invertebrates : an overview of the nutritional content of invertebrate species for use as feed
Stichter, M. ; Huisman, T.R. - \ 2012
dierentuindieren - diervoeding - dierenwelzijn - ongewervelde dieren - acheta domesticus - sprinkhanen - diergezondheid - zoo animals - animal nutrition - animal welfare - invertebrates - locusts - animal health
Poster giving an overview of the nutritional content of invertebrate species for use as feed.
Soil properties in artificial dwelling mounds under grassland and arable land
Meuwissen, M.N.J. ; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Huisman, D.J. ; Schoorl, J.M. - \ 2012
In: Final programme and abstract book /2nd International landscape archeology Berlin, 6-9 June 2012. - - p. 86 - 86.
Stopping tillage and converting arable land into grassland is often seen to be the best management practice to preserve shallow archaeological remains: It stops physical disturbance and minimizes erosion. However, pedoturbation by soil fauna, which strongly depends on the type of land use, is often neglected. Therefore land use is a key element in order to preserve archaeological remains. Plans to protect artificial dwelling mounds (“terps”) in the province of Friesland in the North of the Netherlands by converting arable land to grassland triggered a research project on the influence of land use on pedoturbation. Fieldwork was done on locations with continuous arable land and locations with continuous grassland. The research focussed on i) to which depth the soil horizons are affected by mechanical agricultural practices and soil fauna and ii) the percentage of the different soil horizons that is disturbed. As was expected soils under arable land will show a strongly homogenised plough layer, whereas the soil layers below are less disturbed. Soils under grassland are in general less homogenised but the depth to which pedoturbation occurs is deeper. The results of the fieldwork are also used in the LAPSUS model to simulate the effect of land use on the elevation profile of the artificial dwelling mounds. Especially soil translocation by tillage negatively affects the archaeological preservation. Consequently, the quantification of both tillage erosion rates and rates of pedoturbation form an important input for the land use decision making.
Effects of phenolic compounds on adventitious root formation and oxidative decarboxylation of applied indoleacetic acid in Malus 'Jork 9'
Klerk, G.J.M. de; Guan, H. ; Huisman, P. ; Marinova, S. - \ 2011
Plant Growth Regulation 63 (2011)2. - ISSN 0167-6903 - p. 175 - 185.
Stem slices (1-mm thick) cut from apple microshoots were cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and increasing concentrations of various phenolic compounds. Both auxins were added at a concentration suboptimal for rooting. Indole-3-acetic acid is metabolized through oxidation and conjugation but NAA through conjugation only; which might have affected the results. With IAA, all tested orthodiphenols, paradiphenols and triphenols promoted adventitious root formation from the stem slices. Ferulic acid (FA, a methylated orthodiphenol) had the largest effect and increased the number of adventitious roots from 0.9 to 5.8. With NAA there was little or no promotion after addition of phenolics. Phloroglucinol (a triphenol) and FA were examined in detail. Their effects on the dose–response curve of IAA and the timing of their action indicated that both acted as antioxidants protecting IAA from decarboxylation and the tissue from oxidative stress. Experiments with carboxyl-labelled IAA showed that IAA was massively decarboxylated by the slices and that decarboxylation was strongly reduced by phenolics. Decarboxylation was to a great extent attributable to the wound response and did not occur to such an extent in non-wounded plant tissues. In shoots, FA promoted little rooting. Slices were cultured on top of the medium and shoots were stuck into the medium. Possibly, the anaerobic conditions in the medium near the basal part of the stem of shoots reduced the wound response and consequently decarboxylation of IAA. The monophenolic compound salicylic acid (SA) promoted IAA decarboxylation. Accordingly, SA reduced rooting when added during the initial days of the rooting process (the period during which auxin enhances rooting), and promoted outgrowth of root primordia later on (the period during which auxin inhibits rooting).
Le score de condition physique
Huisman, T.R. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2011
VHL Animal Management
dierentuindieren - dierenwelzijn - diervoeding - diergezondheid - lichaamsgewicht - lichaamsafmetingen - zoo animals - animal welfare - animal nutrition - animal health - body weight - body measurements
Poster over de Body Condition Score (BCS). De BCS gaat uit van uiterlijke kenmerken van dieren, waaraan je kunt aflezen of ze te zwaar of te licht zijn.
Body Condition Score
Vijgeboom, W. ; Huisman, T.R. - \ 2011
dierentuindieren - dierenwelzijn - diervoeding - diergezondheid - lichaamsgewicht - lichaamsafmetingen - zoo animals - animal welfare - animal nutrition - animal health - body weight - body measurements
Poster over de Body Condition Score (BCS). De BCS gaat uit van uiterlijke kenmerken van dieren, waaraan je kunt aflezen of ze te zwaar of te licht zijn.
Answers quiz Body Condition Score
Vijgeboom, W. ; Huisman, T.R. - \ 2011
dierentuindieren - dierenwelzijn - diervoeding - diergezondheid - bouw (dier) - lichaamsgewicht - lichaamsafmetingen - zoo animals - animal welfare - animal nutrition - animal health - conformation - body weight - body measurements
Poster met quiz Body Condition Score. Er worden verschillende Body Condition Scores beschreven. Het is de bedoeling de juiste score bij het juiste dier te plaatsen.
Antwoorden quiz Body Condition Score
Vijgeboom, W. ; Huisman, T.R. - \ 2011
dierentuindieren - dierenwelzijn - diervoeding - diergezondheid - lichaamsgewicht - lichaamsafmetingen - zoo animals - animal welfare - animal nutrition - animal health - body weight - body measurements
Poster met antwoorden op de quiz Body Condition Score: de juiste scores zijn nu bij de verschillende dieren geplaatst.
Quiz mestscore
Vijgeboom, W. ; Huisman, T.R. - \ 2011
dierentuindieren - dierenwelzijn - diervoeding - dierlijke meststoffen - diergezondheid - zoo animals - animal welfare - animal nutrition - animal manures - animal health
Poster met quiz mestscore: Welke diersoort en welke mestscore hoort bij welke mest?
Check title to add to marked list
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