Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Chimeric O1K foot-and-mouth disease virus with SAT2 outer capsid as an FMD vaccine candidate
Kotecha, Abhay ; Perez-Martin, Eva ; Harvey, Yongjie ; Zhang, Fuquan ; Ilca, Serban L. ; Fry, Elizabeth E. ; Jackson, Ben ; Maree, Francois ; Scott, Katherine ; Hecksel, Corey W. ; Harmsen, Michiel M. ; Mioulet, Valérie ; Wood, Britta ; Juleff, Nick ; Stuart, David I. ; Charleston, Bryan ; Seago, Julian - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and infects cloven-hoofed domestic livestock leading to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD outbreaks have severe economic impact due to production losses and associated control measures. FMDV is found as seven distinct serotypes, but there are numerous subtypes within each serotype, and effective vaccines must match the subtypes circulating in the field. In addition, the O and Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes, are relatively more thermolabile and their viral capsids readily dissociate into non-immunogenic pentameric subunits, which can compromise the effectiveness of FMD vaccines. Here we report the construction of a chimeric clone between the SAT2 and O serotypes, designed to have SAT2 antigenicity. Characterisation of the chimeric virus showed growth kinetics equal to that of the wild type SAT2 virus with better thermostability, attributable to changes in the VP4 structural protein. Sequence and structural analyses confirmed that no changes from SAT2 were present elsewhere in the capsid as a consequence of the VP4 changes. Following exposure to an elevated temperature the thermostable SAT2-O1K chimera induced higher neutralizing-antibody titres in comparison to wild type SAT2 virus.

Modélisation et simulation dans l'élaboration des systOmes de production animale durables
Breman, H. - \ 1995
In: Dans: J.M. Powell, S. Fernández-Rivera, T.O. Williams & C. Renard (Eds), Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa. Vol. ll: Technical Papers. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1993. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Role of livestock on mixed smallholder farms in the Ethiopian Highlands : a case study from the Baso and Worena Wereda near Debre Berhan
Gryseels, G. - \ 1988
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D. Zwart; E.P. Jansen. - S.l. : Gryseels - 249
landbouw - sociale economie - sociale structuur - zoötechniek - gemengde landbouw - productiestructuur - agrarische structuur - ethiopië - agriculture - socioeconomics - social structure - zootechny - mixed farming - production structure - agricultural structure - ethiopia
The productivity of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of milk and meat is the lowest of any world region. The outcome of livestock development projects has been disappointing. Low returns to investment in such projects have often arisen from poor project design, in turn the result of inadequate understanding of the relevant livestock production systems. Livestock in sub-Saharan Africa is concentrated on smallholder farms, where crop and livestock husbandry are practiced in association. The role of livestock in such "mixed" farming systems and the interactions between the crop and livestock components have often been poorly understood.<p>The highlands have the highest density of both the human and livestock populations of any major ecological zone in sub- Saharan Africa. Almost all the livestock of this zone can be found on mixed smallholder farms. Ethiopia accounts for 50% of the African highland landmass, and has the largest livestock herd on the African continent. This study reviews the role of livestock on mixed smallholder farms in the Ethiopian highlands.<p>The study takes a farming systems approach to research. It was undertaken within the framework of the Highlands Programme of the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). Field data were collected from 1979 to 1985 through farm management and household economic surveys of a total of 170 traditional smallholder farms located in four different Peasants Associations of the Baso and Worena district. The area is representative of the higher altitude zone of the Ethiopian highlands, and is located in a cereal-livestock zone. The farming system is based on smallholder rainfed subsistence agriculture, annual crops planted by broadcasted seed, rudimentary implements and an ox-drawn wooden plough, the 'maresha'. The results of this study show that livestock are of crucial importance to this farming system, and that there is a high level of crop-livestock integration. Livestock provide a dominant part of the farm's cash income and gross margin. The main outputs of cattle were intermediate products used as inputs into the crop production enterprise, such as draught power for land cultivation and crop threshing, and manure for fertilizer. The availability of animal draught power was a significant factor in determining the level of farm grain production. Livestock generated a substantial amount of employment, and was of prime importance in providing security and a source of investment to the farm household. Animals, particularly small ruminants, were sold according to cash flaw needs, and purchased as a store of wealth. Donkeys provide almost all the transport of inputs and outputs of agricultural products. The data show that livestock productivity is low for final products, but high in terms of intermediate products. The main production and institutional constraints to increased farm output are identified and discussed. The principal constraint to the development of livestock production for increased offtake of meat and milk is the importance given by farmers to the intermediate functions of livestock.<p>Research on relevant technology to increase the productivity of livestock in the Ethiopian highlands is reviewed. At ILCA's experiment station in Debre Berhan, research was undertaken on possible interventions for the farming system of the Baso and Worena district. Two technologies related to smallholder livestock production appeared particularly promising: the use of crossbred dairy cows (Boran x Friesian) for milk production, and the use of a newly developed single-ox plough. The encouraging results of on-station research and an ex-ante evaluation using a linear programming model led to the initiation of farmer-managed on-farm trials of both technologies in the same peasants associations in which the diagnostic studies had been undertaken previously. The productivity of test farms was compared with that of other farms that served as a control. Crossbred dairy cows had significantly higher milk yields than cows of local breeds, incomes of dairy test farmers were significantly higher than those of control farmers, and no major problems were encountered in technology adoption. The major constraints to dairy development in the area were found to be a shortage of feed during the dry season, lack of milk marketing facilities particularly during the main fasting period, occasional disease problems of crossbred cattle, and the lack of appropriate breeding services. If adequate extension services can be provided, smallholder dairy production on the basis of crossbred cows could be an efficient vehicle for agricultural development in the area. Verification trials were also conducted on the utilisation and rate of adoption of the single-ox plough for land cultivation. Both utilisation and adoption were low. An important weakness of the technology appeared to be the poor structural stability of the single-ox unit compared with the traditional 'maresha'. plough drawn by a pair of oxen. The research findings suggest that single-ox ploughing may be useful for seed covering operations, but could not replace the use of paired oxen for land cultivation.<p>The study concludes with an appraisal of the methodological approach taken in the research process, and a discussion of the transferability of the research results that were obtained. The implications of the study for future research work m agriculture and livestock in the Ethiopian highlands are also discussed.<p><TT></TT>
Prediction of actual primary production under nitrogen limitation
Keulen, H. van; Breman, H. ; Lek, J.J. van der; Menke, J.W. ; Stroosnijder, J. ; Uithol, P.W.J. - \ 1986
In: Modelling of extensive livestock production systems : proceedings of the ILCA / ARO / CABO - workshop : held at ARO, Bet Dagan, Israel, 5 - 9 February 1985. - Addis Ababa : International Livestock Centre for Africa - p. 42 - 79.
Principles of Land evaluation for extensive grazing
Zonneveld, I.S. - \ 1983
In: ITC/ILCA/ISSS/FAO Workshop Land Evaluation for Extensive Grazing no. 1, Addis Abeba, 1983
Reproduction
Montsma, G. - \ 1979
In: Small ruminant production in the humid tropics - p. 19 - 28.
Genetic resources
Montsma, G. - \ 1979
In: Small ruminant production in the humid tropics - p. 9 - 18.
Potential primary production of unirrigated land in the Sahel
Penning de Vries, F.W.T. ; Heemst, H.D.J. van - \ 1977
In: Evaluation and mapping of tropical African rangelands, Proc. of the Seminar, Bamako, Mali, 1975, ILCA, Addis Abeba, 1977
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