Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Benchmarking nitrogen use efficiency of ware potato and winter wheat cropping systems in the Netherlands
Silva, J.V. ; Tenreiro, T.R. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Anten, N.P.R. - \ 2018
Yield gaps and farm traps: what’s the scope for sustainable intensification at local level?
Silva, J.V. ; Reidsma, P. ; Laborte, Alice G. ; Baudron, Frédéric ; Giller, K.E. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
Upscaling water and nutrient use efficiencies from field to catchment scale : a case study in the Selke catchment, Germany
Silva, J.V. ; Jomaa, S. ; Chukalla, A.D. ; Yang, X. ; Merbach, I. ; Rode, M. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Reidsma, P. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 20th Nitrogen Workshop. - INRA - p. 60 - 61.
Balancing crop production, resource-use efficiencies and effects for the environment : A conceptual framework for sustainable intensification
Chukalla, A.D. ; Oel, P.R. van; Reidsma, P. ; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Silva, J.V. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
SDG2: improved targets and indicators for agriculture and food security. Towards priorities, targets & pathways for the Netherlands
Reidsma, P. ; Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
Reconciling global sustainability targets and regional action for food security and climate change mitigation
Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana ; Daioglou, V. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Reidsma, P. ; Vuuren, D. van - \ 2018
Reconciling global sustainability targets and regional action for food security and climate change mitigation
Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana ; Daioglou, V. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Reidsma, P. ; Vuuren, D. van - \ 2018
- 1 p.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) imply country-led implementation, however their success depends on the reconciliation of sustainability targets across different sectors and scales. Ensuring consistency between climate mitigation efforts and national agricultural policies is no trivial task and may involve significant trade-offs. Our study examines how the GHG emission intensity of agriculture (EIA) should evolve globally, regionally (Western Europe) and nationally (The Netherlands) under different socioeconomic pathways, so that the major aims of SDG-2 (i.e. food security) and SDG-13 (i.e. 2oC climate mitigation target) are achieved simultaneously. Results show that, by 2050, relative to 2010 values, EIA should decrease at all three levels –both when measured on a land basis (MtCO2eq/ha) and on a product basis (MtCO2eq/tonDM). Concerning the Dutch agricultural sector, the comparison of current and projected CH4 and N2O emission levels related to enteric fermentation, manure management and agricultural soils reveals the need for significantly more ambitious policy targets. Over 2010-30, assuming that food production remains constant, our model indicates that Dutch agricultural GHG emissions must decrease by 26% in absolute terms and 28% in EIA-product terms; however, the extrapolation of today’s trends may ensure a reduction of no more than 5% and 8%, respectively. Besides shedding light on the interaction between climate and agricultural strategies, our analysis illustrates the application of cross-scale thinking in the operationalization of the SDG agenda and constitutes a step forward in bridging bottom-up and top-down research
Cereal yield gaps across Europe
Schils, René ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian ; Rijk, Bert ; Oberforster, Michael ; Kalyada, Valery ; Khitrykau, Maksim ; Gobin, Anne ; Kirchev, Hristofor ; Manolova, Vanya ; Manolov, Ivan ; Trnka, Mirek ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Paluoso, Taru ; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo ; Jauhiainen, Lauri ; Lorgeou, Josiane ; Marrou, Hélène ; Danalatos, Nikos ; Archontoulis, Sotirios ; Fodor, Nándor ; Spink, John ; Roggero, Pier Paolo ; Bassu, Simona ; Pulina, Antonio ; Seehusen, Till ; Uhlen, Anne Kjersti ; Żyłowska, Katarzyna ; Nieróbca, Anna ; Kozyra, Jerzy ; Silva, João Vasco ; Maçãs, Benvindo Martins ; Coutinho, José ; Ion, Viorel ; Takáč, Jozef ; Mínguez, M.I. ; Eckersten, Henrik ; Levy, Lilia ; Herrera, Juan Manuel ; Hiltbrunner, Jürg ; Kryvobok, Oleksii ; Kryvoshein, Oleksandr ; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Groot, Hugo de; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Bussel, Lenny van; Wolf, Joost ; Zijlstra, Mink ; Loon, Marloes P. van; Ittersum, Martin K. van - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy 101 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 109 - 120.
Barley - Crop modelling - Grain maize - Nitrogen - Wheat - Yield potential

Europe accounts for around 20% of the global cereal production and is a net exporter of ca. 15% of that production. Increasing global demand for cereals justifies questions as to where and by how much Europe's production can be increased to meet future global market demands, and how much additional nitrogen (N) crops would require. The latter is important as environmental concern and legislation are equally important as production aims in Europe. Here, we used a country-by-country, bottom-up approach to establish statistical estimates of actual grain yield, and compare these to modelled estimates of potential yields for either irrigated or rainfed conditions. In this way, we identified the yield gaps and the opportunities for increased cereal production for wheat, barley and maize, which represent 90% of the cereals grown in Europe. The combined mean annual yield gap of wheat, barley, maize was 239 Mt, or 42% of the yield potential. The national yield gaps ranged between 10 and 70%, with small gaps in many north-western European countries, and large gaps in eastern and south-western Europe. Yield gaps for rainfed and irrigated maize were consistently lower than those of wheat and barley. If the yield gaps of maize, wheat and barley would be reduced from 42% to 20% of potential yields, this would increase annual cereal production by 128 Mt (39%). Potential for higher cereal production exists predominantly in Eastern Europe, and half of Europe's potential increase is located in Ukraine, Romania and Poland. Unlocking the identified potential for production growth requires a substantial increase of the crop N uptake of 4.8 Mt. Across Europe, the average N uptake gaps, to achieve 80% of the yield potential, were 87, 77 and 43 kg N ha−1 for wheat, barley and maize, respectively. Emphasis on increasing the N use efficiency is necessary to minimize the need for additional N inputs. Whether yield gap reduction is desirable and feasible is a matter of balancing Europe's role in global food security, farm economic objectives and environmental targets.

LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 3: model evaluation
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 11 p.
LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle) is a generic, mechanistic model designed to quantify potential and feed-limited growth, which provides insight in the biophysical scope to increase beef production (i.e. yield gap). Furthermore, it enables identification of the bio-physical factors that define and limit growth, which provides insight in management strategies to mitigate yield gaps. The aim of this paper, third in a series of three, is to evaluate the performance of LiGAPS-Beef with independent experimental data. After model calibration, independent data were used from six experiments in Australia, one in Uruguay and one in the Netherlands. Experiments represented three cattle breeds, and a wide range of climates, feeding strategies and cattle growth rates. The mean difference between simulated and measured average daily gains (ADGs) was 137 g/day across all experiments, which equals 20.1% of the measured ADGs. The root mean square error was 170 g/day, which equals 25.0% of the measured ADGs. LiGAPS-Beef successfully simulated the factors that defined and limited growth during the experiments on a daily basis (genotype, heat stress, digestion capacity, energy deficiency and protein deficiency). The simulated factors complied well to the reported occurrence of heat stress, energy deficiency and protein deficiency at specific periods during the experiments. We conclude that the level of accuracy of LiGAPS-Beef is acceptable, and provides a good basis for acquiring insight in the potential and feed-limited production of cattle in different beef production systems across the world. Furthermore, its capacity to identify factors that define or limit growth and production provides scope to use the model for yield gap analysis.
Hoe is onze wereld duurzaam te voeden?
Ittersum, Martin van - \ 2018
Meeting the dual demand for animal products and climate change mitigation by narrowing yield gaps
Linden, A. van der; Gerber, P.J. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de; Oosting, S.J. - \ 2018
In: Book of abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of abstracts 24) - ISBN 9789086863235 - p. 340 - 340.
Exploring options to recycle and prevent phosphorus waste in a food system
Kernebeek, H.R.J. van; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Ripoll Bosch, R. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
In: Book of abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of abstracts 24) - ISBN 9789086863235 - p. 420 - 420.
Sustainable development goal 2: Improved targets and indicators for agriculture and food security
Gil, Juliana Dias Bernardes ; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Giller, Ken ; Todman, Lindsay ; Whitmore, Andrew ; Ittersum, Martin van - \ 2018
Ambio (2018). - ISSN 0044-7447 - 14 p.
The pursuit of global food security and agricultural sustainability, the dual aim of the second sustainable development goal (SDG-2), requires urgent and concerted action from developing and developed countries. This, in turn, depends on clear and universally applicable targets and indicators which are partially lacking. The novel and complex nature of the SDGs poses further challenges to their implementation on the ground, especially in the face of interlinkages across SDG objectives and scales. Here we review the existing SDG-2 indicators, propose improvements to facilitate their operationalization, and illustrate their practical implementation in Nigeria, Brazil and the Netherlands. This exercise provides insights into the concrete actions needed to achieve SDG-2 across contrasting development contexts and highlights the challenges of addressing the links between targets and indicators within and beyond SDG-2. Ultimately, it underscores the need for integrated policies and reveals opportunities to leverage the fulfillment of SDG-2 worldwide.
Prospect for increasing grain legume crop production in East Africa
Loon, Marloes P. van; Deng, Nanyan ; Grassini, Patricio ; Rattalino Edreira, Juan I. ; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew ; Baijukya, Frederick ; Marrou, Hélène ; Ittersum, Martin K. van - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy 101 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 140 - 148.
Chickpea - Common bean - Cowpea - Food self-sufficiency - Groundnut - Legumes - Pigeonpea - Sub-Saharan Africa - Yield gap - Yield potential

Agricultural production in East Africa (E-Afr) has to increase drastically to meet future food demand. Yield gap assessment provides important information on the degree to which production can be increased on existing cropland. Most research on yield gap analysis has focussed on cereal crops, while legumes have received less attention despite of their relatively large area, and their importance as source of protein in smallholder farming systems in E-Afr. The objectives of this study were to (i) estimate water-limited yield potential (Yw) and yield gaps (Yg) for major grain legume crops in E-Afr, and (ii) estimate how narrowing the current legume Yg can contribute to food self-sufficiency by the year 2050. We focussed on Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, and five legumes crops including chickpea, common bean, cowpea, groundnut, and pigeonpea. A bottom-up approach which entails that local weather, soil and agronomic data was used as input for crop modelling (SSM-legumes) in a spatial framework, to estimate Yw, actual on-farm yield (Ya), and Yg from local to regional scale. Future legume self-sufficiency was assessed for 2050 demand assuming different Yg closure scenarios. On average, Ya was 25% of Yw across all legume-county combinations, being 15% for Kenya, 23% for Tanzania and 41% for Ethiopia. On average, common bean had the largest Yg of 2.6 Mg ha−1and chickpea the smallest (1.4 Mg ha−1). Closure of the exploitable Yg (i.e., 80% of Yw) can help to meet future legume demand in both Kenya and Tanzania, while it seems not to be sufficient in Ethiopia.

Integrated Assessment of the EU’s Greening Reform and Feed Self-Sufficiency Scenarios on Dairy Farms in Piemonte, Italy
Gaudino, Stefano ; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Kanellopoulos, Argyris ; Sacco, Dario ; Ittersum, Martin Van - \ 2018
Agriculture 8 (2018)9. - ISSN 2077-0472
Specialised dairy farms are challenged to be competitive and yet respect environmental constrains. A tighter integration of cropping and livestock systems, both in terms of feed and manure flows, can be beneficial for the farm economy and the environment. The greening of the direct payments, which was introduced in the European Union’s greening reform in 2013, is assumed to
stimulate the transition towards more sustainable systems. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impacts of greening policies on important economic and environmental indicators of sustainability, and explore potential further improvements in policies. The Farm System SIMulator (FSSIM) bioeconomic farm model was used to simulate the consequences of scenarios of policy change on three representative dairy farms in Piedmont, Italy, i.e., an ‘intensive’, an ‘extensive’, and an ‘organic’ dairy farm. Results showed that in general, there is a large potential to increase the current economic performance of all of the farms. The most profitable activity is milk production, resulting in the allocation of all of the available farm land to feed production. Imposing feed self-sufficiency targets results in a larger adaptation of current managerial practice than the adaptations that are required due to the greening policy scenario. It was shown that the cropping system is not always able to sustain the
actual herd composition when 90% feed self-sufficiency is imposed. Regarding the greening policies, it is shown that extensive and organic farms already largely comply with the greening constrains, and the extra subsidy is therefore a bonus, while the intensive farm is likely to sacrifice the subsidy, as adapting the farm plan will substantially reduce profit. The introduction of nitrogen (N)-fixing
crops in ecological focus areas was the easiest greening strategy to adopt, and led to an increase in the protein feed self-sufficiency. In conclusion, it is important to note that the greening policy in its current form does not lead to reduced environmental impacts. This implies that in order to improve
environmental performance, regulations are needed rather than voluntary economic incentives.
Multimodel ensembles improve predictions of crop–environment–management interactions
Wallach, Daniel ; Martre, Pierre ; Liu, Bing ; Asseng, Senthold ; Ewert, Frank ; Thorburn, Peter J. ; Ittersum, Martin van; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Cammarano, Davide ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Dumont, Benjamin ; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan ; Fereres, Elias ; Fitzgerald, Glenn J. ; Gao, Y. ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Girousse, Christine ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Horan, Heidi ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kassie, Belay T. ; Kersebaum, Christian C. ; Klein, Christian ; Koehler, Ann Kristin ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Minoli, Sara ; Müller, Christoph ; Naresh Kumar, Soora ; Nendel, Claas ; O'Leary, Garry J. ; Palosuo, Taru ; Priesack, Eckart ; Ripoche, Dominique ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; Semenov, Mikhail A. ; Stöckle, Claudio ; Stratonovitch, Pierre ; Streck, Thilo ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhang, Zhao - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)11. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 5072 - 5083.
climate change impact - crop models - ensemble mean - ensemble median - multimodel ensemble - prediction

A recent innovation in assessment of climate change impact on agricultural production has been to use crop multimodel ensembles (MMEs). These studies usually find large variability between individual models but that the ensemble mean (e-mean) and median (e-median) often seem to predict quite well. However, few studies have specifically been concerned with the predictive quality of those ensemble predictors. We ask what is the predictive quality of e-mean and e-median, and how does that depend on the ensemble characteristics. Our empirical results are based on five MME studies applied to wheat, using different data sets but the same 25 crop models. We show that the ensemble predictors have quite high skill and are better than most and sometimes all individual models for most groups of environments and most response variables. Mean squared error of e-mean decreases monotonically with the size of the ensemble if models are added at random, but has a minimum at usually 2–6 models if best-fit models are added first. Our theoretical results describe the ensemble using four parameters: average bias, model effect variance, environment effect variance, and interaction variance. We show analytically that mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) of e-mean will always be smaller than MSEP averaged over models and will be less than MSEP of the best model if squared bias is less than the interaction variance. If models are added to the ensemble at random, MSEP of e-mean will decrease as the inverse of ensemble size, with a minimum equal to squared bias plus interaction variance. This minimum value is not necessarily small, and so it is important to evaluate the predictive quality of e-mean for each target population of environments. These results provide new information on the advantages of ensemble predictors, but also show their limitations.

Can potato add to China's food self-sufficiency? The scope for increasing potato production in China
Wang, N. ; Reidsma, P. ; Pronk, A.A. ; Wit, A.J.W. de; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy 101 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 20 - 29.
Irrigation - Potential yield - Water limited yield - Water productivity - Yield gap analysis

China is enhancing potato production in both area and quantity. While the potato area is large, the actual yields remain low. Besides, the water resources used for irrigation are increasingly under pressure in potato production areas. This study aimed to assess the scope for increasing potato production in China. The key climate zones in China were identified, for which the potential yield (Yp) and water limited yield (Yw) of potato (expressed in fresh matter (FM)) were estimated by two crop growth models over 10 years (2006–2015). The Yp and Yw and yield gaps (i.e., the difference between Yp and actual yield (Ya) under irrigated conditions (Yg-p) and between Yw and Ya under rainfed conditions (Yg-w)) were evaluated at local, provincial and national level, for potatoes under both irrigated and rainfed conditions. The water availability through rainfall, water productivity (WP) and the water input gaps to realize potential rather than water-limited potato yields were identified at provincial level. The Yp in the country was on average 50.1 ton FM ha−1, and Yg-p as a percentage of Yp was 66%. At provincial level, the Yp varied from 38.8 ton FM ha−1 in Sichuan in the southwest to 66.4 ton FM ha−1 in Qinghai in the north. At national level, the Yw was 43.7 ton FM ha−1 and Yg-w as a percentage of Yw was 61%. At provincial level, the Yw was lowest in Shaanxi (27.7 ton FM ha−1) and highest in Qinghai (57.9 ton FM ha−1). Water productivity for potential yield (WP-p) ranged between 30.7 and 54 kg dry matter (DM) mm−1 ha−1 in Shaanxi and Qinghai, respectively, and for actual yield (WP-a) between 7.9 kg DM mm−1 ha−1 (Shanxi) and 22.3 kg DM mm−1 ha−1 (Sichuan). Water supply through rainfall is close to sufficient for non-water limiting potato growth in the southwest. The water input gap in the north was highest in Shaanxi (i.e., 243 mm) and lowest in Heilongjiang (i.e., 39 mm). There is a large scope to improve potato yields at current rainfall levels, especially in Qinghai and Heilongjiang in the north and in Guizhou in the southwest. By closing the exploitable yield gap (i.e., difference between 80% of Yp - or of Yw - and Ya) for the current production area, potato could contribute to an additional 1.1 and 0.9 1014 kcal, respectively, under irrigated and rainfed conditions. This is much more than that for rice (0.2 1014 kcal extra energy due to yield gap closure) under irrigated conditions, and similar or more than for maize under irrigated (1.0 1014 kcal) and rainfed (0.5 1014 kcal) conditions. We conclude that compared with the cereal staple crops, potato has a larger potential to maintain domestic food security and self-sufficiency, and to enhance water use efficiency.

LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 2 : sensitivity analysis and evaluation of sub-models
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1 - 12.
beef cattle - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - sensitivity analysis - yield gap

The model LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle) has been developed to assess potential and feed-limited growth and production of beef cattle in different areas of the world and to identify the processes responsible for the yield gap. Sensitivity analysis and evaluation of model results with experimental data are important steps after model development. The first aim of this paper, therefore, is to identify which parameters affect the output of LiGAPS-Beef most by conducting sensitivity analyses. The second aim is to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoregulation sub-model and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using a one-at-a-time approach. The upper critical temperature (UCT) simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model was most affected by the body core temperature and parameters affecting latent heat release from the skin. The lower critical temperature (LCT) and UCT were considerably affected by weather variables, especially ambient temperature and wind speed. Sensitivity analysis for the feed intake and digestion sub-model showed that the digested protein per kg feed intake was affected to a larger extent than the metabolisable energy (ME) content. Sensitivity analysis for LiGAPS-Beef was conducted for ¾ Brahman×¼ Shorthorn cattle in Australia and Hereford cattle in Uruguay. Body core temperature, conversion of digestible energy to ME, net energy requirements for maintenance, and several parameters associated with heat release affected feed efficiency at the herd level most. Sensitivity analyses have contributed, therefore, to insight which parameters are to be investigated in more detail when applying LiGAPS-Beef. Model evaluation was conducted by comparing model simulations with independent data from experiments. Measured heat production in experiments corresponded fairly well to the heat production simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model. Measured ME contents from two data sets corresponded well to the ME contents simulated with the feed intake and digestion sub-model. The relative mean absolute errors were 9.3% and 6.4% of the measured ME contents for the two data sets. In conclusion, model evaluation indicates the thermoregulation sub-model can deal with a wide range of weather conditions, and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with a variety of feeds, which corresponds to the aim of LiGAPS-Beef to simulate cattle in different beef production systems across the world.

LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 1 : model description and illustration
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1 - 11.
beef cattle - growth - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - yield gap

The expected increase in the global demand for livestock products calls for insight in the scope to increase actual production levels across the world. This insight can be obtained by using theoretical concepts of production ecology. These concepts distinguish three production levels for livestock: potential (i.e. theoretical maximum) production, which is defined by genotype and climate only; feed-limited production, which is limited by feed quantity and quality; and actual production. The difference between the potential or limited production and the actual production is the yield gap. The objective of this paper, the first in a series of three, is to present a mechanistic, dynamic model simulating potential and feed-limited production for beef cattle, which can be used to assess yield gaps. A novelty of this model, named LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle), is the identification of the defining factors (genotype and climate) and limiting factors (feed quality and available feed quantity) for cattle growth by integrating sub-models on thermoregulation, feed intake and digestion, and energy and protein utilisation. Growth of beef cattle is simulated at the animal and herd level. The model is designed to be applicable to different beef production systems across the world. Main model inputs are breed-specific parameters, daily weather data, information about housing, and data on feed quality and quantity. Main model outputs are live weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (FE) at the animal and herd level. Here, the model is presented, and its use is illustrated for Charolais and Brahman × Shorthorn cattle in France and Australia. Potential and feed-limited production were assessed successfully, and we show that FE of herds is highest for breeds most adapted to the local climate conditions. LiGAPS-Beef also identified the factors that define and limit growth and production of cattle. Hence, we argue the model has scope to be used as a tool for the assessment and analysis of yield gaps in beef production systems.

Video impression “Dialogue on review Dutch food security policy”
Giller, Ken ; Ittersum, Martin van - \ 2018

Public dialogue about the IOB report “Food for thought. Review of Dutch food security policy 2012-2016”. A general video impression of the public dialogue about the IOB report “Food for thought. Review of Dutch food security policy 2012-2016”

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