Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Broad-scale distribution of the winter protozooplankton community in the North Sea
Bils, Franziska ; Moyano, Marta ; Aberle, Nicole ; Damme, Cindy J.G. Van; Nash, Richard D.M. ; Kloppmann, Matthias ; Loots, Christophe ; Peck, Myron A. - \ 2019
Journal of Sea Research 144 (2019). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 112 - 121.
microzooplankton - time-series - monitoring - International bottom trawl survey - ecological indicators - ecosystem-based management
Protozooplankton (PZP) (here size range: 12–200 μm) are rarely sampled over a broad scale, especially in ecosystem monitoring programs, despite their trophodynamic importance as grazers in the microbial loop and as prey for larger zooplankton and early life stages of fish. In this study we sampled PZP from Dutch, French, German and Norwegian research vessels taking part in the annual ICES coordinated International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) which provides data on fish stock abundances and status for the entire North Sea. The abundance, biomass, composition and distribution of PZP were examined at 39 stations across the North Sea (from 3.2°W to 7.6°E and 50.5 to 59.8°N) in mid-winter (January–February 2014), a period of the year which is under-investigated so far. Twenty four taxa of dinoflagellates and ciliates were identified. Two groups comprised 89% of the total abundance of PZP: Gymnodinium spp. and other athecate dinoflagellates (68%) and Strombidium spp. and other naked ciliates (21%). The biomass of PZP at each station ranged between 0.08 and 2.4 μg C L−1, which is much lower than that reported for spring or summer (≥100 μg C L−1) in the North Sea. Relatively small-sized (< 40 μm) PZP contributed 46% of the total biomass. No significant spatial pattern in the composition of the PZP community was found, although the total abundance of tintinnids was highest in the southern North Sea, an important over-wintering area for marine fish larvae. Using this fish survey (IBTS) as a sampling platform allowed us to obtain a synoptic view of the PZP community over a large area. The present collaborative effort provides an example of how existing monitoring platforms can be augmented in the future to collect relevant data and potential ecological indicators needed to advance the ecosystem-based approach to managing marine systems.
Conflation of expert and crowd reference data to validate global binary thematic maps
Waldner, François ; Schucknecht, Anne ; Lesiv, Myroslava ; Gallego, Javier ; See, Linda ; Pérez-Hoyos, Ana ; andrimont, Raphaël D'; Maet, Thomas De; Bayas, Juan Carlos Laso ; Fritz, Steffen ; Leo, Olivier ; Kerdiles, Hervé ; Díez, Mónica ; Tricht, Kristof Van; Gilliams, Sven ; Shelestov, Andrii ; Lavreniuk, Mykola ; Simões, Margareth ; Ferraz, Rodrigo ; Bellón, Beatriz ; Bégué, Agnès ; Hazeu, Gerard ; Stonacek, Vaclav ; Kolomaznik, Jan ; Misurec, Jan ; Verón, Santiago R. ; Abelleyra, Diego De; Plotnikov, Dmitry ; Mingyong, Li ; Singha, Mrinal ; Patil, Prashant ; Zhang, Miao ; Defourny, Pierre - \ 2019
Remote Sensing of Environment 221 (2019). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 235 - 246.
With the unprecedented availability of satellite data and the rise of global binary maps, the collection of shared reference data sets should be fostered to allow systematic product benchmarking and validation. Authoritative global reference data are generally collected by experts with regional knowledge through photo-interpretation. During the last decade, crowdsourcing has emerged as an attractive alternative for rapid and relatively cheap data collection, beckoning the increasingly relevant question: can these two data sources be combined to validate thematic maps? In this article, we compared expert and crowd data and assessed their relative agreement for cropland identification, a land cover class often reported as difficult to map. Results indicate that observations from experts and volunteers could be partially conflated provided that several consistency checks are performed. We propose that conflation, i.e., replacement and augmentation of expert observations by crowdsourced observations, should be carried out both at the sampling and data analytics levels. The latter allows to evaluate the reliability of crowdsourced observations and to decide whether they should be conflated or discarded. We demonstrate that the standard deviation of crowdsourced contributions is a simple yet robust indicator of reliability which can effectively inform conflation. Following this criterion, we found that 70% of the expert observations could be crowdsourced with little to no effect on accuracy estimates, allowing a strategic reallocation of the spared expert effort to increase the reliability of the remaining 30% at no additional cost. Finally, we provide a collection of evidence-based recommendations for future hybrid reference data collection campaigns.
Discovery of Sabellaria spinulosa reefs in an intensively fished area of the Dutch Continental Shelf, North Sea
Reijden, Karin J. Van Der; Koop, Leo ; O'flynn, Sarah ; Garcia, Silvia ; Bos, Oscar ; Sluis, Christiaan Van; Maaholm, David J. ; Herman, Peter M.J. ; Simons, Dick G. ; Olff, Han ; Ysebaert, Tom ; Snellen, Mirjam ; Govers, Laura L. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Aguilar, Ricardo - \ 2019
Journal of Sea Research 144 (2019). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 85 - 94.
Biogenic Reef - Brown Bank - Ecosystem Engineer - Sabellaria spinulosa - North Sea
The tube-building polychaete Sabellaria spinulosa (Ross worm) can form conspicuous biogenic reefs that stabilize the seabed and increase biodiversity by providing a habitat for a multitude of other species. These reefs, however, are assumed to be vulnerable to human-induced physical disturbances of the seabed. In the Greater North Sea, S. spinulosa reefs are recognized to be under threat and worthy of protection. In August 2017, three S. spinulosa reefs with a minimum extent of 1016m2 were discovered in the Dutch Brown Bank area. This area comprises a large-scale sandbank and adjacent troughs. The reefs were found within the sandbank troughs, which have proven to be subject to high demersal fishing intensities (fished>5 times a year). Detailed bathymetry measurements showed that S. spinulosa reefs were mainly located within valleys of smaller-scaled sand waves, which have a perpendicular orientation compared to the large-scale sandbank structure of the Brown Bank. We hypothesize that the valleys in between sand waves offer suitable substrate for settlement and refuge from abrasion by fishing activities, enabling the S. spinulosa reefs to persist despite high fishing intensities. ROV footage of the reefs showed higher estimates of species abundances on the reefs compared with adjacent habitats, with some species present that are typical for hard substrate (rock gunnel, Pholis gunnellus; edible crab, Cancer pagurus; and velvet swimming crab, Necora puber). The information presented could be used for drafting management policies to protect these reefs, as Contracting Parties of the OSPAR Convention are committed to take measures and protect biodiversity.
Enacting peasant moral community economies for sustainable livelihoods : A case of women-led cooperatives in rural Mexico
Alarcon, Jozelin Maria Soto ; Sato, C. - \ 2019
World Development 115 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 120 - 131.
Modeling water quality in the Anthropocene: directions for the next-generation aquatic ecosystem models
Mooij, W.M. ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Beusen, A.H.W. ; Brederveld, R.J. ; Chang, M. ; Cobben, Marleen M.P. ; DeAngelis, D.L. ; Downing, A.S. ; Janssen, A.B.G. ; Hengeveld, G.M. - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 85 - 95.
Everything changes and nothing stands still” (Heraclitus). Here we review three major improvements to freshwater aquatic ecosystem models — and ecological models in general — as water quality scenario analysis tools towards a sustainable future. To tackle the rapid and deeply connected dynamics characteristic of the Anthropocene, we argue for the inclusion of eco-evolutionary, novel ecosystem and social-ecological dynamics. These dynamics arise from adaptive responses in organisms and ecosystems to global environmental change and act at different integration levels and different time scales. We provide reasons and means to incorporate each improvement into aquatic ecosystem models. Throughout this study we refer to Lake Victoria as a microcosm of the evolving novel social-ecological systems of the Anthropocene. The Lake Victoria case clearly shows how interlinked eco-evolutionary, novel ecosystem and social-ecological dynamics are, and demonstrates the need for transdisciplinary research approaches towards global sustainability.
25 years of the WOFOST cropping systems model
Wit, Allard de; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Fumagalli, Davide ; Janssen, Sander ; Knapen, Rob ; Kraalingen, Daniel van; Supit, Iwan ; Wijngaart, Raymond van der; Diepen, Kees van - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 154 - 167.
open source - Regional scale - Simulation Model - yield forecasting

The WOFOST cropping systems model has been applied operationally over the last 25 years as part of the MARS crop yield forecasting system. In this paper we provide an updated description of the model and reflect on the lessons learned over the last 25 years. The latter includes issues like system performance, model sensitivity, spatial model setup, parameterization and calibration approaches as well as software implementation and version management. Particularly for spatial model calibrations we provide experience and guidelines on how to execute calibrations and how to evaluate WOFOST model simulation results, particularly under conditions of limited field data availability. As an open source model WOFOST has been a success with at least 10 different implementations of the same concept. An overview is provided for those implementations which are managed by MARS or Wageningen groups. However, the proliferation of WOFOST implementations has also led to questions on the reproducibility of results from different implementations as is demonstrated with an example from MARS. In order to certify that the different WOFOST implementations and versions available can reproduce basic sets of inputs and outputs we make available a large set of test cases as appendix to this publication. Finally, new methodological extensions have been added to WOFOST in simulating the impact of nutrients limitations, extreme events and climate variability. Also, a difference is made in the operational and scientific versions of WOFOST with different licensing models and possible revenue generation. Capitalizing both on academic development as well as model testing in real-world situations will help to enable new applications of the WOFOST model in precision agriculture and smart farming.

Effects of nanoplastic and microplastic on the growth of sediment-rooted macrophytes
Weert, S. van; Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E. ; Diepens, N.J. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 654 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1040 - 1047.
Plastic debris of all sizes has been detected in marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Effects of plastic debris on macrophytes have hardly been studied, despite their importance in aquatic ecosystems. We provide the first experimental study exploring nano- and microplastic effects on the growth of sediment-rooted macrophytes. Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea sp. were exposed to sediments amended with six doses of polystyrene (PS) nanoplastic (50–190 nm, up to 3% sediment dry weight) and PS microplastic (20–500 μm, up to 10% dry weight) under laboratory conditions. Both macrophyte species were tested for changes in root and shoot dry weight (DW), relative growth rate (RGR), shoot to root ratio (S:R), main shoot length and side shoot length. Microplastics did not produce consistent dose-effect relationships on the endpoints tested, except that main shoot length was reduced for M. spicatum with increasing microplastic concentration. Nanoplastic significantly reduced S:R for both macrophytes as a result of increased root biomass compared to shoot biomass. Nanoplastic also caused a decrease in M. spicatum main shoot length; however, shoot biomass was not affected. Elodea sp. side shoot length, root and shoot biomass and RGR were positively correlated to the nanoplastic concentration. All effects occurred at higher than environmentally realistic concentrations, suggesting no immediate implications for ecological risks. Our study did not aim for the elucidation of the exact mechanistic processes that cause the effects, however, particle size seems to play an important factor.
Coarse-grained models for diffusion in oil-filled hydrogel microbeads
Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 89 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 294 - 301.
hydrogel microbeads - diffusion - Fick's Law - Maxwell-Cattaneo - Multi-mode model
Diffusion of digestive enzymes in oil-filled hydrogel microbeads is a highly complex process which is difficult to model, particularly for systems with high volume fractions of incorporated nano-droplets. In this paper coarse-grained models for this process are compared. The results show that the interplay between adsorption at the oil-water interface and diffusion through the matrix of the bead can lead to a front-like motion of the enzyme. This motion can be described by combining the mass balance for the enzyme with a Maxwell-Cattaneo type equation for the mass flux vector. Solutions of the resulting partial differential equation show that when τ<<td (where τ and td are characteristic times for adsorption and diffusion) the time evolution of the enzyme concentration is identical to the profile calculated using Fick's law. For τ>>td and time t≤τ the enzyme migrates through the hydrogel as a sharp front. The position of the front changes linearly with time, and this corresponds well with findings of a recent experimental study (van Leusden et al. (2018), Food Hydrocolloids, 85, 242–247). The effects of poly-dispersity of the interior oil droplet phase were described using a multi-mode generalization of the Maxwell-Cattaneo model, and the results show that a widening of the droplet size distribution leads to smoothing of the front. The results show that this level of coarse-grained modelling can capture the dynamics of these complex systems quite accurately.
Governing Kurdistan: Self-Administration in The Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraq and the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2019
Ethnopolitics 18 (2019)1. - ISSN 1744-9057 - p. 61 - 75.
On 25 September 2017, voters in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and disputed areas controlled by Kurdish forces were given the opportunity to respond ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the question ‘Do you want the Kurdistan Region and the Kurdistani areas outside the administration of the Region to become an independent state?’ Functioning as an expression of the desire to construct an independent state, the referendum signalled a break with the formal Kurdistan Regional Government position of constructive engagement for greater power and autonomy within a unified Iraq. Meanwhile, on 22 September 2017, the neighbouring population in the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria elected co-chairs for the approximately 3,700 ‘communes’, which form the basis of what is claimed to be a non-state governmental system. In this region of the northern Middle East, therefore, divided by the Iraqi-Syria border and under the influence of two distinct Kurdish movements, two quite different and competing government systems have emerged. One is based on the idea of the nation-state, the other on societal self-organization. The main questions addressed in this contribution is how these two systems of governance differ and what the societal implications are of these differences? Data on the political-administrative practices has been collected on basis of field work in both regions in the period 2015–2017. A main conclusion is that the systems differ strongly in terms of political outlook, with profound implications for the nature of citizenship and inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations.
Business models of SMEs as a mechanism for scaling Climate Smart Technologies: The case of Punjab, India
Groot, A.M.E. ; Bolt, J.S. ; Jat, H.S. ; Jat, M.L. ; Kumar, M. ; Blok, Vincent ; Agarwal, T. - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 210 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1109 - 1119.
Climate smart agriculture - smes - Business models
Many Climate Smart Agricultural (CSA) technologies fail to achieve their full potential impact due to low levels of adoption by smallholder farmers and difficulties in scaling CSA. This paper presents how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can act as change agents for the uptake of CSA technologies where their business models may be seen as adoption and scaling mechanisms. Drawing upon our fieldwork in Punjab (India) during which over 100 respondents have been interviewed, critical issues and enabling factors for the business model of two types of SMEs, i.e. farmer cooperatives and individual service providers of climate smart technologies have been identified. Enabling factors supporting adoption are driven by scientific and practical evidence of CSA technologies, good partnership between SMEs and research institutes, good customer relationships and effective channels through farmers’ field trials. Critical issues consist of distortive government subsidies on energy and the lack of market intelligence affecting the profitability of the business model. Scaling is enhanced through market intelligence and a favouring regulatory landscape. However, difficult socio-economic circumstances and distortive government subsidies limit the role of SMEs business model as mechanism for scaling
Introducing the H2020 AQUACROSS project: Knowledge, Assessment, and Management for AQUAtic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services aCROSS EU policies
Lago, M. ; Boteler, B. ; Rouillard, J. ; Abhold, K. ; Jähnig, S.C. ; Iglesias-Campos, A. ; Delacámara, G. ; Piet, G.J. ; Hein, T. ; Nogueira, A.J.A. ; Lillebø, A.I. ; Strosser, P. ; Robinson, L.A. ; Wever, A. De; O'Higgins, T. ; Schlüter, M. ; Török, L. ; Reichert, P. ; Ham, C. Van; Villa, F. ; Hugh, Mcdonald - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 652 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 320 - 329.
Freshwater - Coastal - Marine ecosystems - Resilience - Social-ecological modelling - EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy - Social learning - stakeholder engagement
The AQUACROSS project was an unprecedented effort to unify policy concepts, knowledge, and management of freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems to support the cost-effective achievement of the targets set by the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. AQUACROSS aimed to support EU efforts to enhance the resilience and stop the loss of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems as well as to ensure the ongoing and future provision of aquatic ecosystem services. The project focused on advancing the knowledge base and application of Ecosystem-Based Management. Through elaboration of eight diverse case studies in freshwater and marine and estuarine aquatic ecosystem across Europe covering a range of environmental management problems including, eutrophication, sustainable fisheries as well as invasive alien species AQUACROSS demonstrated the application of a common framework to establish cost-effective measures and integrated Ecosystem-Based Management practices. AQUACROSS analysed the EU policy framework (i.e. goals, concepts, time frames) for aquatic ecosystems and built on knowledge stemming from different sources (i.e. WISE, BISE, Member State reporting within different policy processes, modelling) to develop innovative management tools, concepts, and business models (i.e. indicators, maps, ecosystem assessments, participatory approaches, mechanisms for promoting the delivery of ecosystem services) for aquatic ecosystems at various scales of space and time and relevant to different ecosystem types.
An integrated risk-based assessment of the North Sea to guide ecosystem-based management
Piet, Gerjan ; Culhane, Fiona ; Jongbloed, Ruud ; Robinson, Leonie ; Rumes, Bob ; Tamis, Jacqueline - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 654 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 694 - 704.
This study provides an integrated perspective to ecosystem based management (EBM) by considering a diverse array of societal goals, i.e. sustainable food supply, clean energy and a healthy marine ecosystem, and a selection of management measures to achieve them. The primary aim of this exercise is to provide guidance for (more) integrated EBM in the North Sea based on an evaluation of the effectiveness of those management measures in contributing to the conservation of marine biodiversity. A secondary aim is to identify the requirements of the knowledge base to guide such future EBM initiatives.
Starting from the societal goals we performed a scoping exercise to identify a “focal social-ecological system” which is a subset of the full social-ecological system but considered adequate to guide EBM towards the achievement of those societal goals. A semi-quantitative risk assessment including all the relevant human activities, their pressures and the impacted ecosystem components was then applied to identify the main threats to the North Sea biodiversity and evaluate the effectiveness of the management measures to mitigate those threats.
This exercise revealed the need for such risk-based approaches in providing a more integrated perspective but also the trade-off between being comprehensive but qualitative versus quantitative but limited in terms of the “focal” part of the SES that can be covered. The findings in this paper provide direction to the (further) development of EBM and its knowledge base that should ultimately allow an integrated perspective while maintaining its capacity to deliver the accuracy and detail needed for decision-making.
Exploring variability in environmental impact risk from human activities across aquatic ecosystems
Borgwardt, Florian ; Robinson, Leonie ; Trauner, Daniel ; Teixeira, Heliana ; Nogueira, Antonio J.A. ; Lillebø, Ana I. ; Piet, Gerjan ; Kuemmerlen, Mathias ; O'Higgins, Tim ; McDonald, Hugh ; Arevalo-Torres, Juan ; Barbosa, Ana Luisa ; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro ; Hein, Thomas ; Culhane, Fiona - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 652 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1396 - 1408.
Aquatic ecosystem - Freshwater - Marine - Coastal - Biodiversity - Drivers
Aquatic ecosystems are under severe pressure. Human activities introduce an array of pressures that impact ecosystems and their components. In this study we focus on the aquatic domains of fresh, coastal and marine waters, including rivers, lakes and riparian habitats to transitional, coastal as well as shelf and oceanic habitats. In an environmental risk assessment approach, we identified impact chains that link 45 human activities through 31 pressures to 82 ecosystem components. In this linkage framework >22,000 activity-pressure-ecosystem component interactions were found across seven European case studies. We identified the environmental impact risk posed by each impact chain by first categorically weighting the interactions according to five criteria: spatial extent, dispersal potential, frequency of interaction, persistence of pressure and severity of the interaction, where extent, dispersal, frequency and persistence account for the exposure to risk (spatial and temporal), and the severity accounts for the consequence of the risk. After assigning a numerical score to each risk criterion, we came up with an overall environmental impact risk score for each impact chain. This risk score was analysed in terms of (1) the activities and pressures that introduce the greatest risk to European aquatic domains, and (2) the aquatic ecosystem components and realms that are at greatest risk from human activities. Activities related to energy production were relevant across the aquatic domains. Fishing was highly relevant in marine and environmental engineering in fresh waters. Chemical and physical pressures introduced the greatest risk to the aquatic realms. Ecosystem components that can be seen as ecotones between different ecosystems had high impact risk. We show how this information can be used in informing management on trade-offs in freshwater, coastal and marine resource use and aid decision-making
Predicting soil N supply and yield parameters in peat grasslands
Deru, Joachim G.C. ; Bloem, Jaap ; Goede, Ron de; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Keidel, Harm ; Kloen, Henk ; Nierop, Andreas ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Schouten, Ton ; Akker, Jan van den; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
Applied Soil Ecology 134 (2019). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 77 - 84.
Apparent N recovery - Grass yield - N mineralization - Soil biota - Soil chemical-physical quality - Soil nitrogen supply - Terric Histosols

Considerable nitrogen (N) mineralization occurs in drained peat soils in use for dairy grassland, due to aerobic decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). N losses may be limited by matching grass N uptake with N mineralization and by adapting on-farm fertilization schemes to soil N supply (SNS) and apparent N recovery (ANR). Previous attempts to predict SNS of peat grasslands from soil parameters have been unsuccessful, partly due to high variation in SNS between sites and years. In this paper, we present field data from twenty dairy grasslands on drained peat (29–65% SOM; Terric Histosols). Grass yield parameters (e.g. SNS and ANR) were compared with a comprehensive data set of soil biotic and abiotic properties measured at the start of the growing season, and with N mineralization calculated from this data. SNS ranged between 171 and 377 kg N ha−1 (mean: 264 kg N ha−1) during the growing season. Soil N mineralization estimated by laboratory incubation and by foodweb-based production ecological calculations gave similar mean values with slightly higher coefficients of variation, but correlations with SNS were not significant. Regression analysis with soil properties showed a positive correlation between SNS and soil Ca:Mg ratio and a negative correlation between fertilized grass yield and soil C:SOM ratio. No significant models were found for ANR. Based on our data and on literature, we conclude that these parameters indicate linkages between grass yield and soil physical-hydrological properties such as soil structure and water availability. In particular, the C:SOM ratio in these soils with high organic matter content may be an indicator of water repellency, and our results suggest that grass growth was limited by drought more than by nutrient availability.

Pluronic F127/Pluronic P123/vitamin E TPGS mixed micellesfor oral delivery of mangiferin and quercetin: Mixture-design optimization, micellization, and solubilization behavior
Thanitwatthanasak, Santi ; Sagis, L.M.C. ; Chitprasert, Pakamon - \ 2019
Journal of Molecular Liquids 274 (2019). - ISSN 0167-7322 - p. 223 - 238.
mangiferin - Quercetin - mixed micelles - mixture design optimization - micellization - solubilization
Mixed micelles (MMs) of Pluronic F127 (F127), Pluronic P123 (P123), and Vitamin E TPGS (TPGS) copolymers were prepared by the thin-film sonication method to encapsulate two phenolics with different polarities: magniferin (MGF) and quercetin (QCT). Mixture design was applied for the multi-response optimization of formulations of MGF-loaded MMs (MGF-MMs) and QCT-loaded MMs (QCT-MMs) with high encapsulation efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL), but low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The optimal mass fractions of F127/P123/TPGS were 0.120/0.328/0.552 for MFG-MMs and 0.131/0.869/0.000 for QCT-MMs, providing EE (>95% (w/w)) and DL (>4.5% (w/w)) higher than those obtained by their individual copolymer components. The CMCs of MFG/QCT-MMs, detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS), were 0.009 ± 0.001 and 0.011 ± 0.001% (w/v), respectively, slightly lower than those obtained by profile analysis tensiometry (PAT). The results revealed that the PAT-CMC represented complete MM formation, while the DLS-CMC detected mono-molecular micelles. The MGF/QCT-MMs showed spherical morphology with diameters of 14.26 ± 0.52 and 21.50 ± 0.37 nm, and their zeta-potentials were −2.89 ± 1.70 and −3.22 ± 1.92 mV, respectively. Nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy showed that MGF located in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of MMs by orienting its xanthone backbone towards the core, but its glucoside close to the corona. QCT was preferentially located in the PPO core. Both MGF/QCT-MMs had excellent dissolution ability and sustained release in the simulated gastrointestinal environment. This study demonstrated that mixture design was successfully applied for multi-response optimization MM formulations of MGF and QCT, and the developed MMs had potential application as nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems.
Research challenges for cultural ecosystem services and public health in (peri-)urban environments
Chen, Xianwen ; Vries, Sjerp de; Assmuth, Timo ; Dick, Jan ; Hermans, Tia ; Hertel, Ole ; Jensen, Anne ; Jones, Laurence ; Kabisch, Sigrun ; Lanki, Timo ; Lehmann, Irina ; Maskell, Lindsay ; Norton, Lisa ; Reis, Stefan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 2118 - 2129.
Cultural ecosystem services - Nature-based solutions - Public health - Urban green/blue infrastructure

Urbanization is a global trend, and consequently the quality of urban environments is increasingly important for human health and wellbeing. Urban life-style is typically associated with low physical activity and sometimes with high mental stress, both contributing to an increasing burden of diseases. Nature-based solutions that make effective use of ecosystem services, particularly of cultural ecosystem services (CES), can provide vital building blocks to address these challenges. This paper argues that, the salutogenic, i.e. health-promoting effects of CES have so far not been adequately recognised and deserve more explicit attention in order to enhance decision making around health and wellbeing in urban areas. However, a number of research challenges will need to be addressed to reveal the mechanisms, which underpin delivery of urban CES. These include: causal chains of supply and demand, equity, and equality of public health benefits promoted. Methodological challenges in quantifying these are discussed. The paper is highly relevant for policy makers within and beyond Europe, and also serves as a review for current researchers and as a roadmap to future short- and long-term research opportunities.

Long-term effects of wild ungulates on the structure, composition and succession of temperate forests
Ramirez Chiriboga, J.I. ; Jansen, P.A. ; Ouden, J. den; Goudzwaard, L. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2019
Forest Ecology and Management 432 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 478 - 488.
Ungulates in temperate regions are increasing in range and abundance, leading to concerns that browsing and trampling reach levels that hamper tree recruitment and forest regeneration. However, studies that actually quantify the long-term effects of ungulates on forest succession are scarce. Here, we use a chronosequence of ungulate exclosures (fenced) and control (unfenced) plots to assess the long-term effects of ungulates on forest structure, diversity and litter depth in forests on poor sandy soils at the Veluwe, the Netherlands, which have moderate ungulate densities ( = 13.6 ungulates km−2). We surveyed the vegetation in 27 paired fenced and unfenced plots that ranged from 1 to 33 years old, and measured seven variables to characterize forest structure (stem density, canopy cover and understory vegetation cover), composition (Shannon diversity, species richness and conifer proportion) and leaf litter depth. We found on average that fencing compared to unfencing reduced understory vegetation cover (fenced = 64.3 ± 20.2%, unfenced = 80.3 ± 19.4%), increased canopy cover (fenced = 47.4 ± 30.1%, unfenced = 29.3 ± 21.1%), tree species richness (fenced = 4.5 ± 1.3 spp., unfenced = 2.7 ± 1.2 spp.), tree Shannon diversity (fenced = 1.1 ± 0.3 index, unfenced = 0.7 ± 0.3 index) and litter layer depth (fenced = 4.4 ± 1.4 cm, unfenced = 2.4 ± 1.1 cm). While fenced plots developed woody vegetation with palatable broadleaved species such as Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Prunus serotina, and Quercus robur, unfenced plots were not associated with any particular tree species. Our results show that current ungulate densities in this system have pronounced long-term effects on forest structure, composition and litter depth, implying that ungulates can slow down natural succession of temperate forest, from light demanding to shade tolerant species, by keeping the system in an arrested state consisting of light demanding species.
Priorities and opportunities in the application of the ecosystem services concept in risk assessment for chemicals in the environment
Faber, J.H. ; Marshall, Stuart ; Brink, P.J. van den; Maltby, Lorraine - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1067 - 1077.
The ecosystem services approach has gained broad interest in regulatory and policy circles for use in ecological risk assessment. Whilst identifying several challenges, scientific experts from European regulatory authorities,
the chemical industry and academia considered the approach applicable to all chemical sectors and potentially contributing to greater ecological relevance for setting and assessing environmental protection goals compared to current European regulatory frameworks for chemicals. These challengeswere addressed in workshops to develop a common understanding across stakeholders on how the ecosystem services concept might be used in chemical risk assessment and what would need to be done to implement it. This paper describes the consensus
outcome of those discussions. Knowledge gaps and research needs were identified and prioritised, exploring the use of novel approaches from ecology, ecotoxicology and ecological modelling. Where applicable, distinction is
made between prospective and retrospective ecological risk assessment. For prospective risk assessment the development of environmental scenarios accounting for chemical exposure and ecological conditions was designated
as a top priority. For retrospective risk assessment the top priority research need was development of reference conditions for key ecosystem services and guidance for their derivation. Both prospective and retrospective
risk assessment would benefit from guidance on the taxa and measurement endpoints relevant to specific ecosystem services and from improved understanding of the relationships between measurement endpoints
fromstandard toxicity tests and the ecosystemservices of interest (i.e. assessment endpoints). The development of mechanistic models, which could serve as ecological production functions, was identified as a priority.
A conceptual framework for future chemical risk assessment based on an ecosystem services approach is presented.
What future for collaborative consumption? A practice theoretical account
Fraanje, Walter ; Spaargaren, G. - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 208 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 499 - 508.
collaborative consumption - practice theory - social change
Collaborative consumption indicates the emergence and rapid spread of a new set of consumption practices. Originally praised as an antidote to an unsustainable market economy, there is growing concern that collaborative consumption increasingly follows a conventional market rationality of payments
and profits, thereby undermining its initial social and ‘civil society’ aspects. This article investigates the future of collaborative consumption through case studies of the Peerby and MyWheels platforms, which represent new social practices of borrowing and renting. We use the sociological theories of Theodore Schatzki and Randall Collins to analyse the key factors that determine the present and future trajectories of these practices. We show how human agency and emotions in a dynamic between companies, practices, and practitioners are crucial in shaping the future of collaborative consumption. The findings suggest two diverging trajectories: one that sticks to the social aspects of connecting
people through sharing things, and another that heads towards impersonal forms of collaborative consumption. The latter is primarily organized by companies, which introduce new rules (payments and insurances) and technologies (drones and autonomous vehicles) to make the shared use of things more fast, efficient, and profitable.
Assessing social innovation across offshore sectors in the Dutch North Sea
Soma, K. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Selnes, T. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2019
Ocean & Coastal Management 167 (2019). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 42 - 51.
Maritime spatial planning - Social innovation - Dutch North Sea - Offshore mussel producton - Offshore seaweed production - Offshore wind production
Activities in the North Sea are intensifying. The European Union instructs maritime spatial planning across member states that motivates coordination of activities, stakeholders, policies, governance levels and nations. Social innovation is a concept addressing ways in which changing attitudes, behaviour or perceptions are leading to new and improved ways of acting jointly within a group and beyond. The main aim of this article is to explore social innovation in maritime spatial planning. Instances of social innovation are assessed across three sectors in the Dutch North Sea: the offshore wind energy, the offshore mussel cultivation and the offshore seaweed farming. The assessment shows that, while existing systems of social innovation are favourable to the offshore wind expansions, the barriers to grow for the offshore mussel sector include low willingness to change within the sector, and disadvantageous governmental support to change. The offshore seaweed farming is in a stage of re-organisation of not yet developed regulations, rules and norms for production offshore and enhanced cooperation, with unsure outcomes. Maritime spatial planning can play a more influential role for change if tackling main challenges, including inclusiveness, accountability, private user rights and realisation of organisation or reorganisation, and if making use of the potentials of knowledge brokers when sectors are advancing with new technologies.
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