Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The social influence of investment decisions : A game about the Dutch pork sector
Ambrosius, Floor H.W. ; Hofstede, Gert Jan ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Bock, Bettina B. ; Beulens, Adrie J.M. - \ 2019
Livestock Science 220 (2019). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 111 - 122.
Farmer decision-making - Innovation diffusion - Opinion leadership - Role-playing games - Simulation games - Social influence

Policy makers and researchers foresee four investment strategies for conventional pig farmers in contested pork production regions: (1) continue with a cost-price reduction strategy through modernisation and scale enlargement; (2) convert to an intermediate market segment with higher requirements as to animal welfare and environment than conventional; (3) convert to a niche market segment with higher requirements as to animal welfare and environment than intermediate; or (4) quit farming. For policy makers, it is interesting to gain insight in intensive livestock farmer's perceptions regarding these investments and in processes of social interaction that influence farmer decision-making and the potential diffusion of investment strategies over time (Edwards-Jones, 2006). The aim of this explorative study is to analyse the effect of social interaction on diffusion of investment strategies in capital-intensive livestock production systems with groups of Dutch pig farmers, using a simulation game. The game is designed in such a way that contextual factors do not provide a limiting factor. Furthermore, the game is constructed to stimulate interaction and to trigger imagination of participants. Our main research questions for the analysis of the results of the game sessions were: (1) ‘what are differences in diffusion of investment strategies between sessions?’ and (2) ‘to what extent does social interaction affect diffusion of investment strategies?’ A total of seven sessions were played, with 4–8 pig farmers and/or participants who were affiliated to the sector as advisor or successor. All game sessions were video- and voice- recorded, and interaction between participants was transcribed per game session. First, differences in diffusion of investment strategies between sessions were explored. Second, the causes for differences in diffusion between sessions were explored, by looking at the type of investment strategy, communication between participants, and processes of influence. Special attention was given to the influence of opinion leadership. The results of this research show that (1) only investment strategies with a financial benefit did, under influence of social interaction, result in high adoption; (2) for high adoption to occur, communication between participants was necessary; (3) opinion leaders played an essential role in high adoption of investment strategies; and (4) there was a common understanding among participants that favoured scale enlargement. The gaming methodology triggered participants to communicate their tacit knowledge, i.e. assessment criteria that are important in real-life investment decisions, and to experiment with investment strategies.

The state of desalination and brine production : A global outlook
Jones, Edward ; Qadir, Manzoor ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Smakhtin, Vladimir ; Kang, Seong Mu - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 657 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1343 - 1356.
Concentrate stream - Desalination technology - Feedwater type - Product water - Recovery ratio

Rising water demands and diminishing water supplies are exacerbating water scarcity in most world regions. Conventional approaches relying on rainfall and river runoff in water scarce areas are no longer sufficient to meet human demands. Unconventional water resources, such as desalinated water, are expected to play a key role in narrowing the water demand-supply gap. Our synthesis of desalination data suggests that there are 15,906 operational desalination plants producing around 95 million m3/day of desalinated water for human use, of which 48% is produced in the Middle East and North Africa region. A major challenge associated with desalination technologies is the production of a typically hypersaline concentrate (termed ‘brine’) discharge that requires disposal, which is both costly and associated with negative environmental impacts. Our estimates reveal brine production to be around 142 million m3/day, approximately 50% greater than previous quantifications. Brine production in Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait and Qatar accounts for 55% of the total global share. Improved brine management strategies are required to limit the negative environmental impacts and reduce the economic cost of disposal, thereby stimulating further developments in desalination facilities to safeguard water supplies for current and future generations.

Research challenges for cultural ecosystem services and public health in (peri-)urban environments
Chen, Xianwen ; Vries, Sjerp de; Assmuth, Timo ; Dick, Jan ; Hermans, Tia ; Hertel, Ole ; Jensen, Anne ; Jones, Laurence ; Kabisch, Sigrun ; Lanki, Timo ; Lehmann, Irina ; Maskell, Lindsay ; Norton, Lisa ; Reis, Stefan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 2118 - 2129.
Cultural ecosystem services - Nature-based solutions - Public health - Urban green/blue infrastructure

Urbanization is a global trend, and consequently the quality of urban environments is increasingly important for human health and wellbeing. Urban life-style is typically associated with low physical activity and sometimes with high mental stress, both contributing to an increasing burden of diseases. Nature-based solutions that make effective use of ecosystem services, particularly of cultural ecosystem services (CES), can provide vital building blocks to address these challenges. This paper argues that, the salutogenic, i.e. health-promoting effects of CES have so far not been adequately recognised and deserve more explicit attention in order to enhance decision making around health and wellbeing in urban areas. However, a number of research challenges will need to be addressed to reveal the mechanisms, which underpin delivery of urban CES. These include: causal chains of supply and demand, equity, and equality of public health benefits promoted. Methodological challenges in quantifying these are discussed. The paper is highly relevant for policy makers within and beyond Europe, and also serves as a review for current researchers and as a roadmap to future short- and long-term research opportunities.

ES1406 COST Action: Soil fauna: Key to Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Fertility. How far have we got?
Jimenez, Juan Jose ; Filser, Juliane ; Barot, S. ; Berg, Matty ; Iglesias Briones, Maria ; Butt, Kevin ; Curiel-Yuste, Jorge ; Deckmyn, Gaby ; Domene, Xavier ; Faber, J.H. ; Frey, B. ; Frossard, Aline ; Frouz, J. ; Grebenc, T. ; Guggenberger, G. ; Hackenberger, Davorka ; Iamandei, Maria ; Jones, D. ; Joschko, Monika ; Krogh, Paul Henning ; team, Keysom - \ 2018
Geophysical Research Abstracts 20 (2018). - ISSN 1029-7006
Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to soil fertility, climate change mitigation, combatting land degradation, and the conservation of above-and below-ground biodiversity and associated ecosystem services like decomposition, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, detoxification and maintenance of soil physico-chemical properties. SOM dynamics represent the balance between the input of plant material (residues, root-derived materials) and the output through decomposition (OM mineralization) by organisms, erosion and leaching. Approximately 20% of global CO 2 emissions, one third of global CH4 emissions and two thirds of N2O emissions originate from soils. In many soils, most of the macro-aggregate structure is formed by the activities of soil invertebrates and roots, with important consequences for soil organic matter dynamics, carbon sequestration and water infiltration at several spatial and temporal scales. Current models of SOM dynamics are defined in terms of plant residues input and microbial decomposition, overlooking the important contribution of soil fauna. The composition and activity of soil fauna greatly vary with respect to climate and land use. SOM modelling has thus far largely ignored soil fauna due to various reasons: i) hardly existing communication between [C flow centered] biogeochemistry and [organism-centered] soil ecology, ii) lack of [awareness of] data on soil animals (both in the field and from laboratory experiments) and, iii) two different visions by soil ecologists: foodweb vs. self-organization. An international interdisciplinary approach (COST Action ES1406) is the proper platform for both experimentalists and modellers to discuss and provide solutions. This Action has fostered networking and collaboration for improved SOM models by implementing the role of the soil fauna as a basis for sustainable soil management. Key challenges in SOM management, soil fauna and modelling will be addressed and how far have we got thus far to meet the objectives of this Action.

Global Carbon Budget 2018
Quéré, Corinne ; Andrew, Robbie ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Sitch, Stephen ; Hauck, Judith ; Pongratz, Julia ; Pickers, Penelope ; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan ; Peters, Glen ; Canadell, Josep ; Arneth, Almut ; Arora, Vivek ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bastos, Ana ; Bopp, Laurent ; Ciais, Philippe ; Chini, Louise ; Ciais, Philippe ; Doney, Scott ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Goll, Daniel ; Harris, Ian ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hoffman, Forrest ; Hoppema, Mario ; Houghton, Richard ; Hurtt, George ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul ; Johannessen, Truls ; Jones, Chris ; Kato, Etsushi ; Keeling, Ralph ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Liu, Zhu ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Munro, David ; Nabel, Julia ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Neill, Craig ; Olsen, Are ; Ono, Tsueno ; Patra, Prabir ; Peregon, Anna ; Peters, Wouter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid Van Der - \ 2018
Earth System Science Data 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 2141 - 2194.

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span>) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> emissions (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span>) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land use and land-use change (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ELUC</span>), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">GATM</span>) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> sink (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SOCEAN</span>) and terrestrial <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> sink (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SLAND</span>) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">BIM</span>), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">±1σ</span>. For the last decade available (2008-2017), <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">9.4±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ELUC</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">1.5±0.7</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">GATM</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">4.7±0.02</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SOCEAN</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">2.4±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, and <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SLAND</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">3.2±0.8</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, with a budget imbalance <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">BIM</span> of 0.5&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span> indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For the year 2017 alone, the growth in <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span> was about 1.6&thinsp;% and emissions increased to <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">9.9±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>. Also for 2017, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ELUC</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">1.4±0.7</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">GATM</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">4.6±0.2</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SOCEAN</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">2.5±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, and <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SLAND</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">3.8±0.8</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, with a <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">BIM</span> of 0.3&thinsp;GtC. The global atmospheric <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> concentration reached <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">405.0±0.1</span>&thinsp;ppm averaged over 2017. For 2018, preliminary data for the first 6-9 months indicate a renewed growth in <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span> of <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">+</span>2.7&thinsp;% (range of 1.8&thinsp;% to 3.7&thinsp;%) based on national emission projections for China, the US, the EU, and India and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. The analysis presented here shows that the mean and trend in the five components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period of 1959-2017, but discrepancies of up to 1&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span> persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> fluxes. A detailed comparison among individual estimates and the introduction of a broad range of observations show (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions, (2) a persistent low agreement among the different methods on the magnitude of the land <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent underestimation of the <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> variability by ocean models, originating outside the tropics. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2018, 2016, 2015a, b, 2014, 2013).

State of the world's raptors : Distributions, threats, and conservation recommendations
McClure, Christopher J.W. ; Westrip, James R.S. ; Johnson, Jeff A. ; Schulwitz, Sarah E. ; Virani, Munir Z. ; Davies, Robert ; Symes, Andrew ; Wheatley, Hannah ; Thorstrom, Russell ; Amar, Arjun ; Buij, Ralph ; Jones, Victoria R. ; Williams, Nick P. ; Buechley, Evan R. ; Butchart, Stuart H.M. - \ 2018
Biological Conservation 227 (2018). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 390 - 402.
Bird of prey - Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas - IUCN Red List - Ornithology - Raptors MoU - United Nations Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

Raptors provide critical ecosystem services, yet there is currently no systematic, global synthesis of their conservation status or threats. We review the International Union for the Conservation of Nature's Red List to examine the conservation status, distributions, threats, and conservation recommendations for all 557 raptor species. We further assess the significance of Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) for raptor conservation. We also determine which countries contain the most species listed under the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU). Raptors, especially Old World vultures, are more threatened than birds in general. Eighteen percent of raptors are threatened with extinction and 52% of raptors have declining global populations. South and Southeast Asia have the highest richness and the largest number of threatened raptor species. By country, Indonesia has the highest richness of raptor species (119) and most declining species (63). China and Russia contain the most Raptors MoU species, although they are not yet signatories to the agreement. Raptor species that require forest are more likely to be threatened and declining than those that do not. Agriculture and logging are the most frequently identified threats, although poisoning is especially detrimental to Old World vultures. Of the 10 most important IBAs for raptors, six are in Nepal. Highest priority conservation actions to protect raptors include preventing mortality and conserving key sites and priority habitats. Improved long-term monitoring would allow for conservation to be appropriately targeted and effectiveness of interventions to be assessed.

Phylogenetic patterns and phenotypic profiles of the species of plants and mammals farmed for food
Milla, Rubén ; Bastida, Jesús M. ; Turcotte, Martin M. ; Jones, Glynis ; Violle, Cyrille ; Osborne, Colin P. ; Chacón-Labella, Julia ; Sosinski, Ênio E. ; Kattge, Jens ; Laughlin, Daniel C. ; Forey, Estelle ; Minden, Vanessa ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. ; Amiaud, Bernard ; Kramer, Koen ; Boenisch, Gerhard ; He, Tianhua ; Pillar, Valério D. ; Byun, Chaeho - \ 2018
Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)11. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1808 - 1817.

The origins of agriculture were key events in human history, during which people came to depend for their food on small numbers of animal and plant species. However, the biological traits determining which species were domesticated for food provision, and which were not, are unclear. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic distribution of livestock and crops, and compare their phenotypic traits with those of wild species. Our results indicate that phylogenetic clustering is modest for crop species but more intense for livestock. Domesticated species explore a reduced portion of the phenotypic space occupied by their wild counterparts and have particular traits in common. For example, herbaceous crops are globally characterized by traits including high leaf nitrogen concentration and tall canopies, which make them fast-growing species and proficient competitors. Livestock species are relatively large mammals with low basal metabolic rates, which indicate moderate to slow life histories. Our study therefore reveals ecological differences in domestication potential between plants and mammals. Domesticated plants belong to clades with traits that are advantageous in intensively managed high-resource habitats, whereas domesticated mammals are from clades adapted to moderately productive environments. Combining comparative phylogenetic methods with ecologically relevant traits has proven useful to unravel the causes and consequences of domestication.

Systematic review of the evidence for sustained efficacy of dietary interventions for reducing appetite or energy intake
Halford, J.C.G. ; Masic, U. ; Marsaux, C.F.M. ; Jones, A.J. ; Lluch, A. ; Marciani, L. ; Mars, M. ; Vinoy, S. ; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. ; Mela, D.J. - \ 2018
Obesity Reviews 19 (2018)10. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 1329 - 1339.
Appetite - energy intake - satiety - study duration

We assessed evidence for changes in efficacy of food-based interventions aimed at reducing appetite or energy intake (EI), and whether this could be used to provide guidance on trial design. A systematic search identified randomized controlled trials testing sustained efficacy of diets, foods, supplements or food ingredients on appetite and/or EI. Trials had to include sufficient exposure duration (≥3 days) with appetite and/or EI measured after both acute and repeated exposures. Twenty-six trials met the inclusion criteria and reported data allowing for assessment of the acute and chronic effects of interventions. Most (21/26) measured appetite outcomes and over half (14/26) had objective measures of EI. A significant acute effect of the intervention was retained in 10 of 12 trials for appetite outcomes, and six of nine studies for EI. Initial effects were most likely retained where these were more robust and studies adequately powered. Where the initial, acute effect was not statistically significant, a significant effect was later observed in only two of nine studies for appetite and none of five studies for EI. Maintenance of intervention effects on appetite or EI needs to be confirmed but seems likely where acute effects are robust and replicable in adequately powered studies.

Multimodel ensembles improve predictions of crop–environment–management interactions
Wallach, Daniel ; Martre, Pierre ; Liu, Bing ; Asseng, Senthold ; Ewert, Frank ; Thorburn, Peter J. ; Ittersum, Martin van; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Cammarano, Davide ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Dumont, Benjamin ; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan ; Fereres, Elias ; Fitzgerald, Glenn J. ; Gao, Y. ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Girousse, Christine ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Horan, Heidi ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kassie, Belay T. ; Kersebaum, Christian C. ; Klein, Christian ; Koehler, Ann Kristin ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Minoli, Sara ; Müller, Christoph ; Naresh Kumar, Soora ; Nendel, Claas ; O'Leary, Garry J. ; Palosuo, Taru ; Priesack, Eckart ; Ripoche, Dominique ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; Semenov, Mikhail A. ; Stöckle, Claudio ; Stratonovitch, Pierre ; Streck, Thilo ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhang, Zhao - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)11. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 5072 - 5083.
climate change impact - crop models - ensemble mean - ensemble median - multimodel ensemble - prediction

A recent innovation in assessment of climate change impact on agricultural production has been to use crop multimodel ensembles (MMEs). These studies usually find large variability between individual models but that the ensemble mean (e-mean) and median (e-median) often seem to predict quite well. However, few studies have specifically been concerned with the predictive quality of those ensemble predictors. We ask what is the predictive quality of e-mean and e-median, and how does that depend on the ensemble characteristics. Our empirical results are based on five MME studies applied to wheat, using different data sets but the same 25 crop models. We show that the ensemble predictors have quite high skill and are better than most and sometimes all individual models for most groups of environments and most response variables. Mean squared error of e-mean decreases monotonically with the size of the ensemble if models are added at random, but has a minimum at usually 2–6 models if best-fit models are added first. Our theoretical results describe the ensemble using four parameters: average bias, model effect variance, environment effect variance, and interaction variance. We show analytically that mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) of e-mean will always be smaller than MSEP averaged over models and will be less than MSEP of the best model if squared bias is less than the interaction variance. If models are added to the ensemble at random, MSEP of e-mean will decrease as the inverse of ensemble size, with a minimum equal to squared bias plus interaction variance. This minimum value is not necessarily small, and so it is important to evaluate the predictive quality of e-mean for each target population of environments. These results provide new information on the advantages of ensemble predictors, but also show their limitations.

Climate-Forest-Water-People Relations: : Seven System Delineations
Noordwijk, M. van; Creed, Irena F. ; Jones, Julia A. ; Wei, Xiaohua ; Gush, Mark ; Blanco, Juan A. ; Sullivan, Caroline A. ; Bishop, Kevin ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Xu, Jianchu ; Claassen, Marius ; McNulty, Steven ; Bruijnzeel, L.A. ; Harper, Richard J. ; Mwangi, Hosea ; Hacket-Pain, Andrew ; Orland, Chloé - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 27 - 58.
Forest Landscape Hydrology in a ‘New Normal’ Era of Climate and Land Use Change
Jones, Julia A. ; Wei, Xiaohua ; Noordwijk, M. van; Creed, Irena F. ; Gush, Mark ; Ellison, David ; Blanco, Juan A. ; Bishop, Kevin ; McNulty, Steven ; BarguésTobella, Aida ; Archer, E. ; Bruijnzeel, L.A. ; Duinker, P. ; Foster, David ; Gebrekirstos, Aster ; Giles-Hansen, Krysta ; Hacket-Pain, Andrew ; Harper, Richard J. ; Ilstedt, Ulrik ; Li, Qiang ; Liao, Yingchun ; Malmer, Anders ; Mwangi, Hosea ; Orland, Chloé ; Steenberg, James ; Wang, Yi ; Worthy, Fiona ; Xu, Jianchu ; Zhang, Mingfang - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 81 - 99.
Forest, Trees and Water on a Changing Planet: : How Contemporary Science Can Inform Policy and Practice
Creed, Irena F. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Archer, E. ; Claassen, Marius ; Ellison, David ; Jones, Julia A. ; McNulty, Steven ; Vira, Bhaskar ; Wei, Xiaohua - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 171 - 175.
Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Declerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; O’Rourke, Megan E. ; Rusch, Adrien ; Poveda, Katja ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Schellhorn, Nancy A. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Zhang, Wei ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Adler, Lynn S. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Alignier, Audrey ; Angelella, Gina M. ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Avelino, Jacques ; Batáry, Péter ; Baveco, Johannes M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bohnenblust, Eric W. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Brewer, Michael J. ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Carrière, Yves ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Cayuela, Luis ; Centrella, Mary ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Henri, Dominic Charles ; Chabert, Ariane ; Costamagna, Alejandro C. ; La Mora, Aldo De; Kraker, Joop De; Desneux, Nicolas ; Diehl, Eva ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Eckberg, James O. ; Entling, Martin H. ; Fiedler, Daniela ; Franck, Pierre ; Veen, F.J.F. van; Frank, Thomas ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Getachew, Awraris ; Gonthier, David J. ; Goodell, Peter B. ; Graziosi, Ignazio ; Groves, Russell L. ; Gurr, Geoff M. ; Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary ; Heimpel, George E. ; Herrmann, John D. ; Huseth, Anders S. ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Ingrao, Adam J. ; Iv, Phirun ; Jacot, Katja ; Johnson, Gregg A. ; Jones, Laura ; Kaiser, Marina ; Kaser, Joe M. ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lavandero, Blas ; Lavigne, Claire ; Ralec, Anne Le; Lemessa, Debissa ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Liere, Heidi ; Lu, Yanhui ; Lubin, Yael ; Luttermoser, Tim ; Maas, Bea ; Mace, Kevi ; Madeira, Filipe ; Mader, Viktoria ; Cortesero, Anne Marie ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martinez, Eliana ; Martinson, Holly M. ; Menozzi, Philippe ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Miyashita, Tadashi ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. ; O’Neal, Matthew E. ; Opatovsky, Itai ; Ortiz-Martinez, Sebaastian ; Nash, Michael ; Östman, Örjan ; Ouin, Annie ; Pak, Damie ; Paredes, Daniel ; Parsa, Soroush ; Parry, Hazel ; Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo ; Perović, David J. ; Peterson, Julie A. ; Petit, Sandrine ; Philpott, Stacy M. ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Plećaš, Milan ; Pluess, Therese ; Pons, Xavier ; Potts, Simon G. ; Pywell, Richard F. ; Ragsdale, David W. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Raymond, Lucie ; Ricci, Benoît ; Sargent, Chris ; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre ; Saulais, Julia ; Schäckermann, Jessica ; Schmidt, Nick P. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Sivakoff, Frances S. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin ; Stutz, Sonja ; Szendrei, Zsofia ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thomson, Linda J. ; Tricault, Yann ; Tsafack, Noelline ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Valantin-Morison, Muriel ; Trinh, Mai Van; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Vierling, Kerri T. ; Werling, Ben P. ; Wickens, Jennifer B. ; Wickens, Victoria J. ; Woodcock, Ben A. ; Wyckhuys, Kris ; Xiao, Haijun ; Yasuda, Mika ; Yoshioka, Akira - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7863 - E7870.
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean
Fowler, Ashley M. ; Jørgensen, A.M. ; Svendsen, Jon C. ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Jones, Daniel O.B. ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Booth, David J. ; Brabant, Robin ; Callahan, Emily ; Claisse, Jeremy T. ; Dahlgren, Thomas G. ; Degraer, Steven ; Dokken, Quenton R. ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Johns, David G. ; Leewis, Robert J. ; Lindeboom, Han J. ; Linden, Olof ; May, Roel ; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Ottersen, Geir ; Schroeder, Donna M. ; Shastri, Sunil M. ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Todd, Victoria ; Hoey, Gert Van; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Coolen, Joop W.P. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16 (2018)10. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 571 - 578.
The removal of thousands of structures associated with oil and gas development from the world’s oceans is well underway, yet the environmental impacts of this decommissioning practice remain unknown. Similar impacts will be associated with the eventual removal of offshore wind turbines. We conducted a global survey of environmental experts to guide best decommissioning practices in the North Sea, a region with a substantial removal burden. In contrast to current regulations, 94.7% of experts (36 out of 38) agreed that a more flexible case-by- case approach to decommissioning could benefit the North Sea environment. Partial removal options were considered to deliver better environmental outcomes than complete removal for platforms, but both approaches were equally supported for wind turbines. Key considerations identified for
decommissioning were biodiversity enhancement, provision of reef habitat, and protection from bottom trawling, all of which are negatively affected by complete removal. We provide recommendations to guide the revision of offshore decommissioning policy, including a temporary suspension of obligatory removal.
Drought impacts on river salinity in the southern US : Implications for water scarcity
Jones, Edward ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 644 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 844 - 853.
Droughts - River salinity - Sector use - Texas - United States - Water scarcity

Hydrological droughts have a diverse range of effects on water resources. Whilst the impacts of drought on water quantity are well studied, the impacts on water quality have received far less attention. Similarly, quantifications of water scarcity have typically lacked water quality dimensions, whilst sectoral water uses are associated with both water quantity and quality requirements. Here we aim to combine these two elements, focussing on impacts of droughts on river salinity levels and including a salinity dimension in quantifications of water scarcity during drought and extreme drought conditions. The impact of historical droughts on river salinity (electrical conductivity (EC) was studied at 66 monitoring stations located across the Southern USA for 2000–2017. Salinity was found to increase strongly (median increase of 21%) and statistically significantly (p ≤ 0.05) during drought conditions for 59/66 stations compared to non-drought conditions. In a next step, a salinity dimension was added to water scarcity quantifications for 15 river basins in Texas. Water scarcity was quantified using data of sector water uses, water availability, river salinity levels and salinity thresholds for sector water uses. Results showed that the dominant factor driving water scarcity highly differed per basin. Increases in water scarcity were further compounded by drought-induced decreases in water availability, increases in sectoral water demands and increases in river water salinity. This study demonstrates that droughts are associated with important increases in river salinity, in addition to reduced water availability, and that both of these aspects should be considered when quantifying water scarcity. Alleviating water scarcity should therefore not only focus on increasing water availability and reducing water demands (quantity aspects), but also on improving water quality.

Synthesis and characterization of Zr- and Hf-doped nano-TiO2 as internal standards for analytical quantification of nanomaterials in complex matrices
Ellis, Laura-Jayne A. ; Papadiamantis, Anastasios G. ; Weigel, Stefan ; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia - \ 2018
Royal Society Open Science 5 (2018)6. - ISSN 2054-5703
Hydrolysis/oxidation methods - Hydrothermal - Labelled titania and zirconia - Nanomaterials - Nanosafety - Reference materials

The reliable quantification of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex matrices such as food, cosmetics and biological and environmental compartments can be challenging due to interactions with matrix components and analytical equipment (vials and tubing). The resulting losses along the analytical process (sampling, extraction, clean-up, separation and detection) hamper the quantification of the target NMs in these matrices as well as the compatibility of results and meaningful interpretations in safety assessments. These issues can be overcome by the addition of known amounts of internal/recovery standards to the sample prior to analysis. These standards need to replicate the behaviour of target analytes in the analytical process, which is mainly defined by the surface properties. Moreover, they need to carry a tag that can be quantified independently of the target analyte. As inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is used for the identification and quantification of NMs, doping with isotopes, target analytes or with chemically related rare elements is a promising approach. We present the synthesis of a library of TiO2 NMs doped with hafnium (Hf) and zirconium (Zr) (both low in environmental abundance). Zirconia NMs doped with Hf were also synthesized to complement the library. NMs were synthesized with morphological and size properties similar to commercially available TiO2. Characterization included: transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller total specific surface area analysis, cryofixation scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and UV–visible spectrometry. The Ti: Hf and Ti:Zr ratios were verified and calculated using Rietveld refinement. The labelled NMs can serve as internal standards to track the extraction efficiency from complex matrices, and increase method robustness and traceability of characterization/quantification.

Erythrocyte fouling on micro-engineered membranes
Amar, Levy I. ; Guisado, Daniela ; Faria, Monica ; Jones, James P. ; Rijn, Cees J.M. van; Hill, Michael I. ; Leonard, Edward F. - \ 2018
Biomedical Microdevices 20 (2018)3. - ISSN 1387-2176
Blood - Cross-flow - Erythrocytes - Fouling - Microfiltration model - Microfluidics - Microsieve - Nanopores - Photolithography - Sieve

Crossflow microfiltration of plasma from blood through microsieves in a microchannel is potentially useful in many biomedical applications, including clinically as a wearable water removal device under development by the authors. We report experiments that correlate filtration rates, transmembrane pressures (TMP) and shear rates during filtration through a microscopically high channel bounded by a low intrinsic resistance photolithographically-produced porous semiconductor membrane. These experiments allowed observation of erythrocyte behavior at the filtering surface and showed how their unique deformability properties dominated filtration resistance. At low filtration rates (corresponding to low TMP), they rolled along the filter surface, but at higher filtration rates (corresponding to higher TMP), they anchored themselves to the filter membrane, forming a self-assembled, incomplete monolayer. The incompleteness of the layer was an essential feature of the monolayer’s ability to support sustainable filtration. Maximum steady-state filtration flux was a function of wall shear rate, as predicted by conventional crossflow filtration theory, but, contrary to theories based on convective diffusion, showed weak dependence of filtration on erythrocyte concentration. Post-filtration scanning electron micrographs revealed significant capture and deformation of erythrocytes in all filter pores in the range 0.25 to 2 μm diameter. We report filtration rates through these filters and describe a largely unrecognized mechanism that allows stable filtration in the presence of substantial cell layers.

The Globodera pallida SPRYSEC Effector GpSPRY-414-2 That Suppresses Plant Defenses Targets a Regulatory Component of the Dynamic Microtubule Network
Mei, Yuanyuan ; Wright, Kathryn M. ; Haegeman, Annelies ; Bauters, Lander ; Diaz-Granados, Amalia ; Goverse, Aska ; Gheysen, Godelieve ; Jones, John T. ; Mantelin, Sophie - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
The white potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, is an obligate biotrophic pathogen of a limited number of Solanaceous plants. Like other plant pathogens, G. pallida deploys effectors into its host that manipulate the plant to the benefit of the nematode. Genome analysis has led to the identification of large numbers of candidate effectors from this nematode, including the cyst nematode-specific SPRYSEC proteins. These are a secreted subset of a hugely expanded gene family encoding SPRY domain-containing proteins, many of which remain to be characterized. We investigated the function of one of these SPRYSEC effector candidates, GpSPRY-414-2. Expression of the gene encoding GpSPRY-414-2 is restricted to the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell and reducing its expression in G. pallida infective second stage juveniles using RNA interference causes a reduction in parasitic success on potato. Transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated that GpSPRY-414-2 disrupts plant defenses. It specifically suppresses effector-triggered immunity (ETI) induced by co-expression of the Gpa2 resistance gene and its cognate avirulence factor RBP-1. It also causes a reduction in the production of reactive oxygen species triggered by exposure of plants to the bacterial flagellin epitope flg22. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified a potato cytoplasmic linker protein (CLIP)-associated protein (StCLASP) as a host target of GpSPRY-414-2. The two proteins co-localize in planta at the microtubules. CLASPs are members of a conserved class of microtubule-associated proteins that contribute to microtubule stability and growth. However, disruption of the microtubule network does not prevent suppression of ETI by GpSPRY-414-2 nor the interaction of the effector with its host target. Besides, GpSPRY-414-2 stabilizes its target while effector dimerization and the formation of high molecular weight protein complexes including GpSPRY-414-2 are prompted in the presence of the StCLASP. These data indicate that the nematode effector GpSPRY-414-2 targets the microtubules to facilitate infection.
Data from: Biodiversity in species, traits and structure determines carbon stocks and uptake in tropical forests
Sande, M.T. van der; Poorter, L. ; Kooistra, L. ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Thonicke, Kirsten ; Thompson, Jill ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Garcia-Alaniz, Nashieli ; Jones, L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Mwampamba, T.H. ; Parr, T. ; Pena Claros, M. - \ 2018
biodiversity-ecosystem functioning - biomass dynamics - biomass growth - climate change mitigation - functional traits - species diversity - tropical forest
Impacts of climate change require that society urgently develops ways to reduce amounts of carbon in the atmosphere. Tropical forests present an important opportunity, as they take up and store large amounts of carbon. It is often suggested that forests with high biodiversity have large stocks and high rates of carbon uptake. Evidence is, however, scattered across geographic areas and scales, and it remains unclear whether biodiversity is just a co‐benefit or also a requirement for the maintenance of carbon stocks and uptake. Here, we perform a quantitative review of empirical studies that analyzed the relationships between plant biodiversity attributes and carbon stocks and carbon uptake in tropical forests. Our results show that biodiversity attributes related to species, traits or structure significantly affect carbon stocks or uptake in 64% of the evaluated relationships. Average vegetation attributes (community‐mean traits and structural attributes) are more important for carbon stocks, whereas variability in vegetation attributes (i.e., taxonomic diversity) is important for both carbon stocks and uptake. Thus, different attributes of biodiversity have complementary effects on carbon stocks and uptake. These biodiversity effects tend to be more often significant in mature forests at broad spatial scales than in disturbed forests at local spatial scales. Biodiversity effects are also more often significant when confounding variables are not included in the analyses, highlighting the importance of performing a comprehensive analysis that adequately accounts for environmental drivers. In summary, biodiversity is not only a co‐benefit, but also a requirement for short‐ and long‐term maintenance of carbon stocks and enhancement of uptake. Climate change policies should therefore include the maintenance of multiple attributes of biodiversity as an essential requirement to achieve long‐term climate change mitigation goals.
A Welcome Proposal to Amend the GMO Legislation of the EU
Eriksson, Dennis ; Harwood, Wendy ; Hofvander, Per ; Jones, Huw ; Rogowsky, Peter ; Stöger, Eva ; Visser, Richard G.F. - \ 2018
Trends in Biotechnology 36 (2018)11. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 1100 - 1103.
EU Directive - gene editing - GMO - new plant breeding techniques

Is the European Union (EU) regulatory framework for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) adequate for emerging techniques, such as genome editing? This has been discussed extensively for more than 10 years. A recent proposal from The Netherlands offers a way to break the deadlock. Here, we discuss how the proposal would affect examples from public plant research.

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