Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A versatile shear cell for investigation of structure of food materials under shear
Velichko, Evgenii ; Tian, Bei ; Nikolaeva, Tatiana ; Koning, Jeroen ; Duynhoven, John van; Bouwman, Wim G. - \ 2019
Colloids and Surfaces. A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 566 (2019). - ISSN 0927-7757 - p. 21 - 28.
Food colloids - Food mesostructure - Food texture - Shear-SANS - Shear-SAXS

A versatile cell for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments on samples under shear has been designed. To our knowledge, it is the first shear cell which can be used for both SAXS and SANS in respectively synchrotron or reactor beamlines. The cell is mainly intended for scattering experiments in so-called “1–2 plane geometry” but can also be modified into cone–plate and plate–plate rheological geometries, giving access to the 1–3 scattering plane. The latter two geometries, however, can only be used with neutron scattering. The final cell design is compact, which allows it to be used even with lab-based X-ray sources. A special thermostatic shell allows for the temperature control of the samples under investigation in the range from 5 up to 100 °C. Several X-ray and neutron scattering experiments performed with the cell have helped in better understanding of the structuring under shear of food materials, such as: cellulose suspensions, fat crystal networks and milk proteins.

Resilience and social capital : The engagement of fisheries communities in marine spatial planning
Bakker, Y.W. ; Koning, J. de; Tatenhove, J. van - \ 2019
Marine Policy 99 (2019). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 132 - 139.
Community Resilience - Fisheries - Marine Spatial Planning - Scotland - Social Capital

Between 2010 and 2016, the Orkney Islands Council, Highland Council and Marine Scotland have collaborated to develop a pilot Marine Spatial Plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters in Scotland. This paper explores the challenges of marine spatial planning processes by looking at the possibilities for fisheries communities to mobilize their social capital – in the form of bonding, bridging or linking – in order to re-position and to empower themselves in these processes. This paper aims to uncover the resilience of local communities that deploy social capital in order to influence MSP processes and safeguard their own interests. For this article ten weeks of qualitative fieldwork in the form of in-depth interviews and participant observation with stakeholders of the pilot marine spatial plan were conducted on the Orkney Islands in Scotland. The strong bonding social capital among fishermen in Orkney has resulted in a resilient community identity which allows for collaboration and self-organization, but also creates a defensive mentality which does not favor linking. Furthermore, a lack of trust in governmental authorities inhibits the mobilization of linking social capital among fishermen, obstructing the ability to access power through cross-scale connections. In response the fisheries community uses bridging social capital outside governance arenas to access networks and mobilize resources to strengthen its socio-economic and political position in support of future linking social capital. Researching this complex interrelation and functioning of social capital uncovers some of the social dimensions and socio-institutional constraints for fisheries engagement with and power in marine spatial planning.

Koning dineert met ambassadeur van Noord-Korea
Jongsma, Maarten - \ 2018

Nederland haalt voorzichtig de banden met Noord-Korea aan. De koning sprak onlangs zelfs al even met de Noord-Koreaanse VN-ambassadeur. Ondernemers bereiden een handelsmissie voor.

Leefbaarheidsinitiatieven op het platteland : analyse van eigenheid en eigenaarschap
Bock, Bettina ; During, Roel ; Dam, Rosalie van; Donders, Josine ; Kruit, Jeroen ; Pleijte, Marcel ; Witte, David de - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 89
In onze dorpen is het heel gewoon: inwoners steken de handen uit de
mouwen. Met grote en kleine initiatieven zorgen ze ervoor dat hun dorp
vitaal en leefbaar blijft. Dat is altijd al zo geweest. Dorpen hebben hun
eigen feesten en evenementen. Buren zorgen voor buren. Zo doen we dat.
Sinds onze koning het begrip participatiesamenleving introduceerde,
is er veel aandacht voor het enorme zelforganiserende vermogen in de
dorpen. En hoe gewoon wij dat vermogen ook vinden, het is tegelijkertijd
ontzettend bijzonder. Want mensen komen en gaan, initiatieven in
dorpen blijven. Hoe kan dat?
Dit jaar viert de P10 haar 10-jarig bestaan. Net als vijf jaar geleden lieten
we een onderzoek doen. Dit keer stonden bewonersinitiatieven en de
leefbaarheid in dorpen centraal, de grote gemene deler in de P10. We
vroegen ons af wat bewoners beweegt en hoe zij naar hun leefbaarheid
kijken. En we probeerden te achterhalen hoe wij als P10 het zelforganiserend
vermogen kunnen stimuleren en benutten in ons streven naar een
vitaal platteland.
Genome-wide association study for bone strength in laying hens
Raymond, Biaty ; Johansson, Anna M. ; McCormack, Heather A. ; Fleming, Robert H. ; Schmutz, Matthias ; Dunn, Ian C. ; Koning, Dirk Jan De - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Science 96 (2018)7. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2525 - 2535.
Bone strength - Genetic selection - Genome-wide association - Laying hens - Welfare

Bone fracture in egg laying hens is a growing welfare and economic concern in the industry. Although environmental conditions and management (especially nutrition) can exacerbate it, the primary cause of bone weakness and the resulting fractures is believed to have a genetic basis. To test this hypothesis, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify the loci associated with bone strength in laying hens. Genotype and phenotype data were obtained from 752 laying hens belonging to the same pure line population. These hens were genotyped for 580,961 SNPs, with 232,021 SNPs remaining after quality control. Each of the SNPs were tested for association with tibial breaking strength using the family-based score test for association. A total of 52 SNPs across chromosomes 1, 3, 8, and 16 were significantly associated with tibial breaking strength with the genome-wide significance threshold set as a corrected P value of 10e−5. Based on the local linkage disequilibrium around the significant SNPs, 5 distinct and novel QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 (2 QTLs), 3 (1 QTL), 8 (1 QTL) and 16 (1 QTL). The strongest association was detected within the QTL region on chromosome 8, with the most significant SNP having a corrected P value of 4e−7. A number of candidate genes were identified within the QTL regions, including the BRD2 gene that is required for normal bone physiology. Bone-related pathways involving some of the genes were also identified including chloride channel activity, which regulates bone reabsorption, and intermediate filament organization, which plays a role in the regulation of bone mass. Our result supports previous studies that suggest that bone strength is highly regulated by genetics. It is therefore possible to reduce bone fractures in laying hens through genetic selection and ultimately improve hen welfare.

Periconceptional maternal dairy-rich dietary pattern is associated with prenatal cerebellar growth
Parisi, Francesca ; Rousian, Melek ; Koning, Irene V. ; Willemsen, Sten P. ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. De; Steegers, Eric A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M. - \ 2018
PLoS One 13 (2018)5. - ISSN 1932-6203

Background Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been related to intrauterine brain development and neurodevelopmental disabilities in adult life. We aim to investigate associations between periconceptional maternal dietary patterns and prenatal cerebellar growth from the first trimester onwards. Materials and methods 126 women with singleton non-malformed pregnancies were enrolled before 8 weeks of gestation in the Rotterdam periconceptional cohort between 2013 and 2015. Periconceptional maternal dietary patterns were extracted from food frequency questionnaires and associated with blood biomarkers and micronutrient intakes. Serial two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound scans were performed at 9, 11, 22, 26 and 32 weeks of gestation for transcerebellar diameter (TCD) measurement. Linear mixed models were estimated to investigate associations between periconceptional maternal dietary patterns and longitudinal TCD measurements as a function of gestational age. Results We performed a median of 4 scans per pregnancy, resulting in 570 total datasets. The success rate of TCD measurements was 87% (range 65–100%), depending on gestational age. The Mediterranean, Western, egg-rich and dairy-rich dietary patterns were extracted, explaining 37.2% of the overall variance of food intake in this population. The dairy-rich dietary pattern was positively associated with cerebellar growth trajectories (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01; 0.03) pmm, p = 0.01). Maternal strong adherence to this dietary pattern increased TCD measurements by 0.8 standard deviation scores (SDs) compared to weak adherence, reflected in increased TCD estimates of 0.44 mm at 9 weeks (+6.8%), 0.88 mm at 22 weeks (+3.6%), and 1.17 mm at 32 weeks (+2.8%). No significant associations were detected for the Mediterranean, Western and egg-rich dietary patterns. Conclusions This study shows a positive association between periconceptional maternal adherence to a dairy-rich dietary pattern and human prenatal TCD measurements as a proxy of cerebellar growth. Next step is the investigation of the impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring.

Climate-smart land use requires local solutions, transdisciplinary research, policy coherence and transparency
Carter, Sarah ; Arts, Bas ; E. Giller, Ken ; Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Kok, Kasper ; Koning, Jessica De; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Salvini, Giulia ; Verchot, Louis ; Wollenberg, Eva ; Herold, Martin - \ 2018
Carbon Management (2018). - ISSN 1758-3004 - p. 291 - 301.
Successfully meeting the mitigation and adaptation targets of the Paris Climate Agreement (PA) will depend on strengthening the ties between forests and agriculture. Climate-smart land use can be achieved by integrating climate-smart agriculture (CSA) and REDD+. The focus on agriculture for food security within a changing climate, and on forests for climate change mitigation and adaptation, can be achieved simultaneously with a transformational change in the land-use sector. Striving for both independently will lead to competition for land, inefficiencies in monitoring and conflicting agendas. Practical solutions exist for specific contexts that can lead to increased agricultural output and forest protection. Landscape-level emissions accounting can be used to identify these practices. Transdisciplinary research agendas can identify and prioritize solutions and targets for integrated mitigation and adaptation interventions. Policy coherence must be achieved at a number of levels, from international to local, to avoid conflicting incentives. Transparency must lastly be integrated, through collaborative design of projects, and open data and methods. Climate-smart land use requires all these elements, and will increase the likelihood of successful REDD+ and CSA interventions. This will support the PA as well as other initiatives as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Early first trimester maternal ‘high fish and olive oil and low meat’ dietary pattern is associated with accelerated human embryonic development
Parisi, Francesca ; Rousian, Melek ; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M. ; Koning, Anton H.J. ; Willemsen, Sten P. ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de; Cetin, Irene ; Steegers, Eric A.P. - \ 2018
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (2018). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 1655 - 1662.
Background/objectives: Maternal dietary patterns were associated with embryonic growth and congenital anomalies. We aim to evaluate associations between early first trimester maternal dietary patterns and embryonic morphological development among pregnancies with non-malformed outcome. Subjects/methods: A total of 228 strictly dated, singleton pregnancies without congenital malformations were enrolled in a periconceptional hospital-based cohort. Principal component analysis was performed to extract early first trimester maternal dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaires. Serial transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) scans were performed between 6+0 and 10+2 gestational weeks and internal and external morphological criteria were used to define Carnegie stages in a virtual reality system. Associations between dietary patterns and Carnegie stages were investigated using linear mixed models. Results: A total of 726 3D US scans were included (median: three scans per pregnancy). The ‘high fish and olive oil and low meat’ dietary pattern was associated with accelerated embryonic development in the study population (β = 0.12 (95%CI: 0.00; 0.24), p < 0.05). Weak adherence to this dietary pattern delayed embryonic development by 2.1 days (95%CI: 1.6; 2.6) compared to strong adherence. The ‘high vegetables, fruit and grain’ dietary pattern accelerated embryonic development in the strictly dated spontaneous pregnancy subgroup without adjustment for energy intake. Conclusions: Early first trimester maternal dietary patterns impacts human embryonic morphological development among pregnancies without congenital malformations. The clinical meaning of delayed embryonic development needs further investigation.
Improving accuracy of bulls' predicted genomic breeding values for fertility using daughters' milk progesterone profiles
Tenghe, A.M.M. ; Bouwman, A.C. ; Berglund, B. ; Koning, D.J. de; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 5177 - 5193.
accuracy - dairy cattle - milk progesterone - multitrait genomic prediction
The main objective of this study was to investigate the benefit of accuracy of genomic prediction when combining records for an intermediate physiological phenotype in a training population with records for a traditional phenotype. Fertility was used as a case study, where commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) was the physiological phenotype, whereas the interval from calving to first service and calving interval were the traditional phenotypes. The potential accuracy of across-country genomic prediction and optimal recording strategies of C-LA were also investigated in terms of the number of farms and number of repeated records for C-LA. Predicted accuracy was obtained by estimating population parameters for the traits in a data set of 3,136 Holstein Friesian cows with 8,080 lactations and using a deterministic prediction equation. The effect of genetic correlation, heritability, and reliability of C-LA on the accuracy of genomic prediction were investigated. When the existing training population was 10,000 bulls with reliable estimated breeding value for the traditional trait, predicted accuracy for the physiological trait increased from 0.22 to 0.57 when 15,000 cows with C-LA records were added to the bull training population; but, when the interest was in predicting the traditional trait, we found no benefit from the additional recording. When the genetic correlation was higher between the physiological and traditional traits (0.7 instead of 0.3), accuracy increased less when adding the 15.000 cows with C-LA (from 0.51 to 0.63). In across-country predictions, we observed little to no increase in accuracy of the intermediate physiological phenotype when the training population from Sweden was large, but when accuracy increased the training population was small (200 cows), from 0.19 to 0.31 when 15,000 cows were added from the Netherlands (genetic correlation of 0.5 between countries), and from 0.19 to 0.48 for genetic correlation of 0.9. The predicted accuracy initially increased substantially when recording on the same farm was extended and multiple C-LA records per cow were used in prediction compared with single records; that is, accuracy increased from 0.33 with single records to 0.38 with multiple records (on average 1.6 records per cow) from 2 yr of recording C-LA. But, when the number C-LA per cow increased beyond 2 yr of recording, we noted no substantial benefit in accuracy from multiple records. For example, for 5 yr of recording (on average 2.5 records per cow), accuracy was 0.47; on doubling the recording period to 10 yr (on average 3.1 records per cow), accuracy increased by 0.07 units, whereas when C-LA was recorded for 15 yr (on average 3.3 records per cow) accuracy increased only by 0.05 units. Therefore, for genomic prediction using expensive equipment to record traits for training populations, it is important to optimize the recording strategy. The focus should be on recording more cows rather than continuous recording on the same cows.
CCDC 890378: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination
Wu, J. ; Thiyagarajan, S. ; Guerra, Célia Fonseca ; Eduard, Pieter ; Lutz, Martin ; Noordover, Bart A.J. ; Koning, Cor E. ; Es, D.S. van - \ 2017
WECBUE : isosorbide-2,5-dinitrile
Talk after theatrical play: ‘Tenzij Je een Beter Plan Hebt’
Driessen, Clemens - \ 2017
Periconceptional maternal ‘high fish and olive oil, low meat’ dietary pattern is associated with increased embryonic growth : The Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort (Predict) Study
Parisi, F. ; Rousian, M. ; Huijgen, N.A. ; Koning, A.H.J. ; Willemsen, S.P. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Cetin, I. ; Steegers, E.A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2017
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 50 (2017)6. - ISSN 0960-7692 - p. 709 - 716.
3D ultrasound - crown–rump length - embryonic volume - first trimester - maternal dietary patterns - periconceptional period - virtual reality
Objective: To investigate the association between periconceptional maternal dietary pattern and first-trimester embryonic growth. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 228 women with a singleton ongoing pregnancy, of which 135 were strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies and 93 were pregnancies achieved after in-vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). All women underwent serial transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) examinations from 6 + 0 to 13 + 0 weeks' gestation. Crown–rump length (CRL) and embryonic volume (EV) measurements were performed using a virtual reality system. Information on periconceptional maternal dietary intake was collected via food frequency questionnaires. Principal component analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. Associations between dietary patterns and CRL and EV trajectories were investigated using linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: A median of five (range, one to seven) 3D-US scans per pregnancy were performed. Of 1162 datasets, quality was sufficient to perform CRL measurements in 991 (85.3%) and EV measurements in 899 (77.4%). A dietary pattern comprising high intake of fish and olive oil and a very low intake of meat was identified as beneficial for embryonic growth. In strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies, strong adherence to the ‘high fish and olive oil, low meat’ dietary pattern was associated with a 1.9 mm (95% CI, 0.1–3.63 mm) increase in CRL (+14.6%) at 7 weeks and a 3.4 mm (95% CI, 0.2–7.81 mm) increase (+6.9%) at 11 weeks, whereas EV increased by 0.06 cm3 (95% CI, 0.01–0.13 cm3) (+20.4%) at 7 weeks and 1.43 cm3 (95% CI, 0.99–1.87 cm3) (+14.4%) at 11 weeks. No significant association was observed in the total study population or in the IVF/ICSI subgroup. Conclusion: Periconceptional maternal adherence to a high fish and olive oil, low meat dietary pattern is positively associated with embryonic growth in spontaneously conceived pregnancies.
Biodiversity within and between European Red dairy breeds – conservation through utilization
Hinrichs, D. ; Calus, M.P.L. ; Koning, Dirk Jan De; Bennewitz, J. ; Meuwissen, T. ; Thaller, G. ; Szyda, J. ; Tetens, J. ; Juskiene, V. ; Guldbrandtsen, B. - \ 2017
In: Book of Abstracts of the 68th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of abstracts 23) - ISBN 9789086863129 - p. 82 - 82.
Red dairy breeds across Europe represent a unique source of genetic diversity and are partly organized in transnational breeding programs but are also well adapted to local conditions. ReDiverse’s objective is to develop and to set in place collaborative and integrated novel breeding and management concepts to achieve a resilient and competitive use of these resources and to strengthen best practices for small farm holders to improve product quality and to supply ecosystem services according to their specific circumstances. The challenge of establishing appropriate breeding and maintenance strategies for diverse farm systems and regional markets is met by multi-actor operations considering economic, structural and social diversity in participating countries to offer tailored solutions. The holistic approach relies on integrative research of scientists in the fields of animal genetics, proteomics, economy and social sciences. Cutting edge technology such as large scale genomic and proteomic tools will be implemented to enhance genetic progress and to characterize specific properties. Innovative survey approaches will assess the impact of the sector on social acceptance and the needs of farmers. The project will generate novel knowledge and concepts that will be timely disseminated to lead-users in the breeding and dairy industries, food sector, farmers’ cooperatives and among farmers.
Is nudgen naar volkorenbrood mogelijk? : Nederlanders moeten meer vezels eten
Vingerhoeds, M.H. ; Koning, Rosella ; Kleef, E. van - \ 2017
Voeding Nu (2017)5. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 24 - 27.
De consumptie van voldoende vezels is een belangrijke factor in
het voorkomen van welvaartsaandoeningen, zoals obesitas, diabetes
II, hart- en vaatziekten en bepaalde vormen van kanker.
Per dag wordt geadviseerd 30 tot 40 gram vezels te eten. De huidige
inname is gemiddeld echter slechts 18-23 gram per dag (1,2).
Het lijkt daarom een goede zaak de consumptie van bijvoorbeeld
volkorenbrood te stimuleren. Nudging blijkt echter niet steeds de
gewenste resultaten te hebben.
Rural livelihoods and agricultural commercialization in colonial Uganda: conjunctures of external influences and local realities
Haas, Michiel A. de - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Ewout Frankema, co-promotor(en): Niek Koning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436281 - 250
cum laude - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - communities - rural areas - farmers - history - colonies - colonialism - income - gender - social inequalities - food crops - cash crops - uganda - east africa - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - gemeenschappen - platteland - boeren - geschiedenis - kolonies - kolonialisme - inkomen - geslacht (gender) - sociale ongelijkheden - voedselgewassen - marktgewassen - oost-afrika

The economic history of Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by geographically and temporally dispersed booms and busts. The export-led ‘cash-crop revolution’ in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era is a key example of an economic boom. This thesis examines how external influences and local realities shaped the nature, extent and impact of the ‘cash-crop revolution’ in colonial Uganda, a landlocked country in central east Africa, where cotton and coffee production for global markets took off following completion of a railway to the coast. The thesis consists of five targeted ‘interventions’ into contemporary debates of comparative African development. Each of these five interventions is grounded in the understanding that the ability of rural Africans to respond to and benefit from trade integration during the colonial era was mediated by colonial policies, resource endowments and local institutions.

The first chapter reconstructs welfare development of Ugandan cash-crop farmers. Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This chapter presents a new approach to reconstructing rural living standards in a historical context, building upon the well-established real wage literature, but moving beyond it to capture rural realities, employing sub-national rural survey, census, and price data. The approach is applied to colonial and early post-colonial Uganda (1915–70), and yields a number of findings. While an expanding smallholder-based cash-crop sector established itself as the backbone of Uganda’s colonial economy, farm characteristics remained largely stagnant after the initial adoption of cash crops. Smallholders maintained living standards well above subsistence level, and while the profitability of cash crops was low, their cultivation provided a reliable source of cash income. At the same time, there were pronounced limits to rural welfare expansion. Around the time of decolonization, unskilled wages rose rapidly while farm incomes lagged behind. As a result, an urban–rural income reversal took place. The study also reveals considerable differences within Uganda, which were mediated to an important extent by differential resource endowments. Smallholders in Uganda’s banana regions required fewer labour inputs to maintain a farm income than their grain-farming counterparts, creating opportunities for additional income generation and livelihood diversification.

The second chapter zooms in on labour migration which connected Belgian-controlled Ruanda-Urundi to British-controlled Buganda, the central province of Uganda on the shores of Lake Victoria. The emergence of new labour mobility patterns was a key aspect of economic change in colonial Africa. Under conditions of land abundance and labour scarcity, the supply of wage labour required either the ‘pull’ forces of attractive working conditions and high wages, or the ‘push’ forces of taxation and other deliberate colonial interventions. Building upon primary sources, I show that this case diverges from the ‘conventional’ narrative of labour scarcity in colonial Africa. I argue that Ruanda-Urundi should be regarded as labour abundant and that migrants were not primarily ‘pushed’ by colonial labour policies, but rather by poverty and limited access to agricultural resources. This explains why they were willing to work for low wages in Buganda. I show that African rural employers were the primary beneficiaries of migrant labour, while colonial governments on both sides of the border were unable to control the course of the flow. As in the first chapter, this chapter highlights that the effects of trade integration on African rural development were uneven, and mediated by differences in resource endowments, local institutions and colonial policies.

The third chapter zooms out of the rural economy, evaluating the broader opportunity structures faced by African men and women in Uganda, and discussing the interaction of local institutions and colonial policies as drivers of uneven educational and occupational opportunities. The chapter engages with a recent article by Meier zu Selhausen and Weisdorf (2016) to show how selection biases in, and Eurocentric interpretations of, parish registers have provoked an overly optimistic account of European influences on the educational and occupational opportunities of African men and women. We confront their dataset, drawn from the marriage registers of the Anglican Cathedral in Kampala, with Uganda’s 1991 census, and show that trends in literacy and numeracy of men and women born in Kampala lagged half a century behind those who wedded in Namirembe Cathedral. We run a regression analysis showing that access to schooling during the colonial era was unequal along lines of gender and ethnicity. We foreground the role of Africans in the spread of education, argue that European influences were not just diffusive but also divisive, and that gender inequality was reconfigured rather than eliminated under colonial rule. This chapter also makes a methodological contribution. The renaissance of African economic history in the past decade has opened up new research avenues to study the long-term social and economic development of Africa. We show that a sensitive treatment of African realities in the evaluation of European colonial legacies, and a critical stance towards the use of new sources and approaches, is crucial.

The fourth chapter singles out the role of resource endowments in explaining Uganda’s ‘cotton revolution’ in a comparative African perspective. Why did some African smallholders adopt cash crops on a considerable scale, while most others were hesitant to do so? The chapter sets out to explore the importance of factor endowments in shaping the degrees to which cash crops were adopted in colonial tropical Africa. We conduct an in-depth case study of the ‘cotton revolution’ in colonial Uganda to put the factor endowments perspective to the test. Our empirical findings, based on an annual panel data analysis at the district-level from 1925 until 1960, underscore the importance of Uganda’s equatorial bimodal rainfall distribution as an enabling factor for its ‘cotton revolution’. Evidence is provided at a unique spatial micro-level, capitalizing on detailed household surveys from the same period. We demonstrate that previous explanations associating the variegated responses of African farmers to cash crops with, either the role of colonial coercion, or the distinction between ‘forest/banana’ and ‘savannah/grain’ zones, cannot explain the widespread adoption of cotton in Uganda. We argue, instead, that the key to the cotton revolution were Uganda’s two rainy seasons, which enabled farmers to grow cotton while simultaneously pursuing food security. Our study highlights the importance of food security and labour seasonality as important determinants of uneven agricultural commercialization in colonial tropical Africa.

The fifth and final chapter further investigates the experience of African smallholders with cotton cultivation, providing a comparative explanatory analysis of variegated cotton outcomes, focusing in particular on the role of colonial and post-colonial policies. The chapter challenges the widely accepted view that (i) African colonial cotton projects consistently failed, that (ii) this failure should be attributed to conditions particular to Africa, which made export cotton inherently unviable and unprofitable to farmers, and that (iii) the repression and resistance often associated with cotton, all resulted from the stubborn and overbearing insistence of colonial governments on the crop per se. I argue along three lines. Firstly, to show that cotton outcomes were diverse, I compare cases of cotton production in Sub-Saharan Africa across time and space. Secondly, to refute the idea that cotton was a priori unattractive, I argue that the crop had substantial potential to connect farmers to markets and contribute to poverty alleviation, particularly in vulnerable, marginal and landlocked areas. Thirdly, to illustrate how an interaction between local conditions and government policies created conducive conditions for cotton adoption, I zoom in on the few yet significant ‘cotton success stories’ in twentieth century Africa. Smallholders in colonial Uganda adopted cotton because of favourable ecological and marketing conditions, and policies had an auxiliary positive effect. Smallholders in post-colonial Francophone West Africa faced much more challenging local conditions, but benefitted from effective external intervention and coordinated policy. On a more general level, this chapter demonstrates that, from a perspective of rural development, colonial policies should not only be seen as overbearing and interventionist, but also as inadequate, failing to aid rural Africans to benefit from new opportunities created by trade integration.

Food security, agricultural policies and economic growth : Long-term dynamics in the past, present and future
Koning, Niek - \ 2017
Taylor and Francis Inc. - ISBN 9781138803046 - 274 p.
Using a political-economic approach supplemented with insights from human ecology, this volume analyzes the long-term dynamics of food security and economic growth. The book begins by discussing the nature of preindustrial food crises and the changes that have occurred since the 19th century with the ascent of technical science and the fossil fuel revolution. It explains how these changes improved living standards but that the realization of this improvement was usually dependent on government support for smallholder modernization. The author sets out how the evolution of food security in different regions has been influenced by farm policy choices and how these choices were shaped by local societal characteristics, international relations and changing configurations in metropolitan countries. Separate chapters are devoted to the interaction of this evolution with debates on food security and economic growth and with international economic policies. The final chapters highlight the new challenges for global food security that will arise as traditional sources of biomass production and the more easily extractable reserves of fossil biomass become depleted or can no longer be used. Overall, the book emphasizes the inadequacy of current explanations with regard to these challenges. It explores what is needed to ensure a sustainable future and calls for a rethinking of these issues; a necessary reflection in today’s unstable global political situation.
Isohexide Dinitriles : A Versatile Family of Renewable Platform Chemicals
Wu, Jing ; Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam ; Guerra, Célia Fonseca ; Eduard, Pieter ; Lutz, Martin ; Noordover, Bart A.J. ; Koning, Cor E. ; Es, Daan S. van - \ 2017
ChemSusChem 10 (2017)16. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 3202 - 3211.
Biomass - Crystal structures - Epimers - Isohexides - Oxygen heterocycles
Building blocks of isohexides extended by one carbon atom at the 2- or 5-positions are now synthetically accessible by a convenient, selective, base-catalyzed epimerization of the corresponding dinitriles. Kinetic experiments using the strong organic base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) show that all three possible isohexide dinitrile isomers exist within a dynamic equilibrium. An epimerization mechanism based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations is proposed. Structural identification of all three possible isomers is based on NMR analysis and single crystal x-ray crystallography. DFT calculations confirm that the observed crystal structures are indeed the lowest energy conformers of these isohexide derivatives.
'Vrije markt kan Afrika niet voeden'
Koning, Niek ; Bulte, Erwin ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2017

Afrikaanse overheden moeten ingrijpen in de economie om dreigende honger te voorkomen, stelt de Wageningse landbouweconoom Niek Koning in een nieuw boek. Hij pleit voor voedselbuffers. Andere economen hebben daar minder vertrouwen in.

The challenge of financing the implementation of Natura 2000 – Empirical evidence from six European Union Member States
Geitzenauer, Maria ; Blondet, Marieke ; Koning, Jessica De; Ferranti, Francesca ; Sotirov, Metodi ; Weiss, Gerhard ; Winkel, Georg - \ 2017
Forest Policy and Economics 82 (2017). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 3 - 13.
Natura 2000, which is the core pillar of the European Union's biodiversity conservation policy, is an ambitious and complex venture that requires funding to be successful. A major challenge is said to be a lack of available funding, and a low uptake of allocated funds is also reported. However, in in-depth analysis has still not been produced to assess the approaches to funding, the reasons for these approaches and their impact regarding the achievement of the aims of Natura 2000. Thus, with this article, we intend to fill this gap. To accomplish this, a case study analysis was carried out in six selected EU Member States: Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK.

In our study, we perceived different approaches which we sum up to two main types of approaches that were present in the Member States to different degrees. The first type was to find the funding necessary for the required activities, and the second was to delay the implementation of Natura 2000. The major reasons for the different approaches were related to domestic political power realities. The funding approaches impacted onto the attractiveness of EU co-financing instruments, and the sustainability of the schemes. Alternative approaches were either absent or declining in importance. The economic benefits were not perceived on the ground.

We conclude that neither a “one size fits all” approach to funding Natura 2000 will work nor will a universal claim for “more money”. Therefore, a successful funding strategy ultimately necessitates effective interventions at institutional levels, the business environment and the local level.
Chickens selected for different natural antibody levels differ in mortality to intratracheal aerial pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Matthijs, M.G.R. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Dwars, R.M. ; Koning, D.B. de; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2017
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