Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Scientific Opinion about the Guidance of the Chemical Regulation Directorate (UK) on how aged sorption studies for pesticides should be conducted, analysed and used in regulatory assessments
Ockleford, C. ; Hernandez-Jerez, A.F. ; Hougaard Bennekou, S. ; Klein, M. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berny, P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Duquesne, S. ; Grilli, S. ; Kuhl, T. - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)8. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 86 p.
plant protection products, aged sorption, guidance, modelling, leaching, review
The EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues reviewed the guidance on how aged sorption studies for pesticides should be conducted, analysed and used in regulatory assessment. The inclusion of aged sorption is a higher tier in the groundwater leaching assessment. The Panel based its review on a test with three substances taken from a data set provided by the European Crop Protection Association. Particular points of attention were the quality of the data provided, the proposed fitting procedure of aged sorption experiments and the proposed method for combining results obtained from aged sorption studies and lower‐tier studies on degradation and adsorption. Aged sorption was a relevant process in all cases studied. The test revealed that the guidance could generally be well applied and resulted in robust and plausible results. The Panel considers the guidance suitable for use in the groundwater leaching assessment after the recommendations in this Scientific Opinion have been implemented, with the exception of the use of field data to derive aged sorption parameters. The Panel noted that the draft guidance could only be used by experienced users because there is no software tool that fully supports the work flow in the guidance document. It is therefore recommended that a user‐friendly software tool be developed. Aged sorption lowered the predicted concentration in groundwater. However, because aged sorption experiments may be conducted in different soils than lower‐tier degradation and adsorption experiments, it cannot be guaranteed that the higher tier predicts lower concentrations than the lower tier, while lower tiers should be more conservative than higher tiers. To mitigate this problem, the Panel recommends using all available higher‐ and lower‐tier data in the leaching assessment. The Panel further recommends that aged sorption parameters for metabolites be derived only from metabolite‐dosed studies. The formation fraction can be derived from parent‐dosed degradation studies, provided that the parent and metabolite are fitted with the best‐fit model, which is the double first‐order in parallel model in the case of aged sorption.
Scientific Opinion on the state of the science on pesticide risk assessment for amphibians and reptiles
Ockleford, C. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berny, P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Duquesne, S. ; Grilli, S. ; Hernandez-Jerez, A.F. ; Hougaard Bennekou, S. ; Klein, M. ; Kuhl, T. - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 301 p.
amphibians, reptiles, risk assessment, pesticides, protection goals, effects, population
Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the potential development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for amphibians and reptiles. The coverage of the risk to amphibians and reptiles by current risk assessments for other vertebrate groups was investigated. Available test methods and exposure models were reviewed with regard to their applicability to amphibians and reptiles. Proposals were made for specific protection goals aiming to protect important ecosystem services and taking into consideration the regulatory framework and existing protection goals for other vertebrates. Uncertainties, knowledge gaps and research needs were highlighted.
Scientific Opinion on the state of the art of Toxicokinetic/Toxicodynamic (TKTD) effect models for regulatory risk assessment of pesticides for aquatic organisms
Ockleford, Colin ; Adriaanse, Paulien ; Berny, Philippe ; Brock, Theodorus ; Duquesne, Sabine ; Grilli, Sandro ; Hernandez‐Jerez, Antonio F. ; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard ; Klein, Michael ; Kuhl, Thomas ; Laskowski, Ryszard ; Machera, Kyriaki ; Pelkonen, Olavi ; Pieper, Silvia ; Smith, Robert H. ; Stemmer, Michael ; Sundh, Ingvar ; Tiktak, Aaldrik ; Topping, Christopher J. ; Wolterink, Gerrit ; Cedergreen, Nina ; Charles, Sandrine ; Focks, Andreas ; Reed, Melissa ; Arena, Maria ; Ippolito, Alessio ; Byers, Harry ; Teodorovic, Ivana - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)8. - ISSN 1831-4732
Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) developed an opinion on the state of the art of Toxicokinetic/Toxicodynamic (TKTD) models and their use in prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) for pesticides and aquatic organisms. TKTD models are species‐ and compound‐specific and can be used to predict (sub)lethal effects of pesticides under untested (time‐variable) exposure conditions. Three different types of TKTD models are described, viz., (i) the ‘General Unified Threshold models of Survival’ (GUTS), (ii) those based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEBtox models), and (iii) models for primary producers. All these TKTD models follow the principle that the processes influencing internal exposure of an organism, (TK), are separated from the processes that lead to damage and effects/mortality (TD). GUTS models can be used to predict survival rate under untested exposure conditions. DEBtox models explore the effects on growth and reproduction of toxicants over time, even over the entire life cycle. TKTD model for primary producers and pesticides have been developed for algae, Lemna and Myriophyllum. For all TKTD model calibration, both toxicity data on standard test species and/or additional species can be used. For validation, substance and species‐specific data sets from independent refined‐exposure experiments are required. Based on the current state of the art (e.g. lack of documented and evaluated examples), the DEBtox modelling approach is currently limited to research applications. However, its great potential for future use in prospective ERA for pesticides is recognised. The GUTS model and the Lemna model are considered ready to be used in risk assessment.
Investigation into experimental toxicological properties of plant protection products having a potential link to Parkinson's disease and childhood leukaemia
Ockleford, C. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berny, P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Duquesne, S. ; Grilli, S. ; Hernandez-Jerez, A.F. ; Hougaard Bennekou, S. ; Klein, M. ; Kuhl, T. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)3. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 325 p.
AOP, Parkinson’s disease, childhood leukaemia, infant leukaemia, pesticides, epidemiology
In 2013, EFSA published a literature review on epidemiological studies linking exposure to pesticides and human health outcome. As a follow up, the EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their residues (PPR Panel) was requested to investigate the plausible involvement of pesticide exposure as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and childhood leukaemia (CHL). A systematic literature review on PD and CHL and mode of actions for pesticides was published by EFSA in 2016 and used as background documentation. The Panel used the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) conceptual framework to define the biological plausibility in relation to epidemiological studies by means of identification of specific symptoms of the diseases as AO. The AOP combines multiple information and provides knowledge of biological pathways, highlights species differences and similarities, identifies research needs and supports regulatory decisions. In this context, the AOP approach could help in organising the available experimental knowledge to assess biological plausibility by describing the link between a molecular initiating event (MIE) and the AO through a series of biologically plausible and essential key events (KEs). As the AOP is chemically agnostic, tool chemical compounds were selected to empirically support the response and temporal concordance of the key event relationships (KERs). Three qualitative and one putative AOP were developed by the Panel using the results obtained. The Panel supports the use of the AOP framework to scientifically and transparently explore the biological plausibility of the association between pesticide exposure and human health outcomes, identify data gaps, define a tailored testing strategy and suggests an AOP's informed Integrated Approach for Testing and Assessment (IATA).
Scientific Opinion of the PPR Panel on the follow‐up of the findings of the External Scientific Report ‘Literature review of epidemiological studies linking exposure to pesticides and health effects’
Ockleford, C. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berny, P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Duquesne, S. ; Grilli, S. ; Hougaard Bennekou, S. ; Klein, M. ; Kuhl, T. ; Laskowski, R. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)10. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 101 p.
epidemiology, pesticides, risk assessment, quality assessment, evidence synthesis, lines of evidence, weight-of-evidence
In 2013, EFSA published a comprehensive systematic review of epidemiological studies published from 2006 to 2012 investigating the association between pesticide exposure and many health outcomes. Despite the considerable amount of epidemiological information available, the quality of much of this evidence was rather low and many limitations likely affect the results so firm conclusions cannot be drawn. Studies that do not meet the ‘recognised standards’ mentioned in the Regulation (EU) No 1107/2009 are thus not suited for risk assessment. In this Scientific Opinion, the EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their residues (PPR Panel) was requested to assess the methodological limitations of pesticide epidemiology studies and found that poor exposure characterisation primarily defined the major limitation. Frequent use of case–control studies as opposed to prospective studies was considered another limitation. Inadequate definition or deficiencies in health outcomes need to be avoided and reporting of findings could be improved in some cases. The PPR Panel proposed recommendations on how to improve the quality and reliability of pesticide epidemiology studies to overcome these limitations and to facilitate an appropriate use for risk assessment. The Panel recommended the conduct of systematic reviews and meta‐analysis, where appropriate, of pesticide observational studies as useful methodology to understand the potential hazards of pesticides, exposure scenarios and methods for assessing exposure, exposure–response characterisation and risk characterisation. Finally, the PPR Panel proposed a methodological approach to integrate and weight multiple lines of evidence, including epidemiological data, for pesticide risk assessment. Biological plausibility can contribute to establishing causation.
A proposed ring-test protocol for the emergent sediment-rooted macrophyte, Glyceria maxima in a water-sediment system
Arts, G.H.P. ; Davies, J. ; Kubitzah, Johanna ; Kuhl, K. ; Ratte, M. - \ 2017
A proposed ring-test protocol for the emergent macrophyte, glyceria maxima, in a water-sediment system
Arts, G.H.P. ; Davies, J. ; Kubitzah, Johanna ; Kuhl, K. ; Ratte, M. - \ 2017
Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms
Ockleford, C. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berny, P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Duquesne, S. ; Grilli, S. ; Hernandez-Jerez, A.F. ; Hougaard Bennekou, S. ; Klein, M. ; Kuhl, T. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)2. - 225 p.
Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks and scientific developments. Proposals are made for specific protection goals for in-soil organisms being key drivers for relevant ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes such as nutrient cycling, soil structure, pest control and biodiversity. Considering the time-scales and biological processes related to the dispersal of the majority of in-soil organisms compared to terrestrial non-target arthropods living above soil, the Panel proposes that in-soil environmental risk assessments are made at in- and off-field scale considering field boundary levels. A new testing strategy which takes into account the relevant exposure routes for in-soil organisms and the potential direct and indirect effects is proposed. In order to address species recovery and long-term impacts of PPPs, the use of population models is also proposed.
Smallholder Agriculture and Climate Change
Cohn, Avery S. ; Newton, Peter ; Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana ; Kuhl, Laura ; Samberg, Leah ; Ricciardi, Vincent ; Manly, Jessica R. ; Northrop, Sarah - \ 2017
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42 (2017). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 347 - 375.
Adaptation - Governance - Impacts - Mitigation - Policy - Spatial analysis
Hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people directly depend on smallholder farming systems. These people now face a changing climate and associated societal responses. We use mapping and a literature review to juxtapose the climate fate of smallholder systems with that of other agricultural systems and population groups. Limited direct evidence contrasts climate impact risk in smallholder agricultural systems versus other farming systems, but proxy evidence suggests high smallholder vulnerability. Smallholders distinctively adapt to climate shocks and stressors. Their future adaptive capacity is uncertain and conditional upon the severity of climate change and socioeconomic changes from regional development. Smallholders present a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation paradox. They emit a small amount of CO2 per capita and are poor, making GHG regulation unwarranted. But they produce GHG-intensive food and emit disproportionate quantities of black carbon through traditional biomass energy. Effectively accounting for smallholders in mitigation and adaption policies is critical and will require innovative solutions to the transaction costs that enrolling smallholders often imposes. Together, our findings show smallholder farming systems to be a critical fulcrum between climate change and sustainable development.
A proposed ring-test protocol for the emergent macrophyte, Glyceria Maxima, in a water-sediment system
Davies, J. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Kubitzah, Johanna ; Kuhl, K. ; Ratte, M. - \ 2017
Glyceria Work Group. Update Presentation
Davies, J. ; Kuhl, K. ; Arts, G.H.P. - \ 2016
Soutien aux Coopératives Agricoles : résumé
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
[Brussels] : European Commission, DG Agriculture and Rural Development - 5
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : synthetic summary
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 3
coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - landen van de europese unie - cooperatives - cooperative activities - european union countries
This report provides the overall conclusions of the full study. It was carried out by a European research consortium during 2011 and 2012. Data gathered in all 27 Member States have been presented and analysed in separate country reports. The data collected were also used in preparing eight sector reports, focusing on the role of cooperatives in each of these sectors. At the EU level a number of analyses were performed, studying aspects such as the institutional environment, internal governance, and the position of cooperatives in food supply chains.
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : executive summary
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 8
coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - landen van de europese unie - cooperatives - cooperative activities - european union countries
The imbalances in bargaining power between the contracting parties in the food supply chain have drawn much scholarly attention but have also been closely examined by policy makers. The European Commission is committed to facilitate the restructuring of the agricultural sector by encouraging the creation of voluntary agricultural producer organisations. DG Agriculture and Rural Development has launched a large study, “Support for Farmers' Cooperatives” (hereafter: SFC), to provide background knowledge that will help farmers organise themselves in cooperatives as a means to consolidate their market orientation and so generate a solid market income.
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : case study report internationalisation of sugar cooperatives: Cosun, Südzucker/Agrana, Tereos
Filippi, M. ; Kühl, R. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 30
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : final report
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen UR - 127
Environmental risk assessment: methods for comprehensive evaluation and quick scan
Lenteren, J.C. van; Loomans, A.J.M. - \ 2006
In: Environmental Impact of Invertebrates for Biological Control of Arthropods / Bigler, Franz, Babendreier, Dirk, Kuhl, V., Wallingford : CABI - ISBN 0851990584 - p. 255 - 272.
Fine-scale measurements of diffusivity in a microbial mat with NMR imaging
Wieland, A. ; Dusschoten, D. van; Damgaard, L.R. ; Beer, D. de; Kuhl, M. ; As, H. van - \ 2001
Limnology and Oceanography 46 (2001). - ISSN 0024-3590 - p. 248 - 259.
Noninvasive 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging was used to investigate the diffusive properties of microbial mats in two dimensions. Pulsed field gradient NMR was used to acquire images of the H2O diffusion coefficient, Ds and multiecho imaging NMR was used to obtain images of the water density in two structurally different microbial mats sampled from Solar Lake (Egypt). We found a pronounced lateral and vertical variability of both water density and water diffusion coefficient, correlated with the laminated and heterogeneous distribution of microbial cells and exopolymers within the mats. The average water density varied from 0.5 to 0.9, whereas the average water diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.4 to 0.9 relative to the values obtained in the stagnant water above the mat samples. The apparent water diffusivities estimated from NMR imaging compared well to apparent O2 diffusivities measured with a diffusivity microsensor. Analysis of measured O2 concentration profiles with a diffusion-reaction model showed that both the magnitude of calculated rates and the depth distribution of calculated O2 consumption/production zones changed when the observed variations of diffusivity were taken into account. With NMR imaging, diffusivity can be determined at high spatial resolution, which can resolve inherent lateral and vertical heterogeneities found in most natural benthic systems.
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