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A proposed ring-test protocol for the emergent sediment-rooted macrophyte, Glyceria maxima in a water-sediment system
Arts, G.H.P. ; Davies, J. ; Kubitzah, Johanna ; Kuhl, K. ; Ratte, M. - \ 2017
A proposed ring-test protocol for the emergent macrophyte, glyceria maxima, in a water-sediment system
Arts, G.H.P. ; Davies, J. ; Kubitzah, Johanna ; Kuhl, K. ; Ratte, M. - \ 2017
Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms
Ockleford, C. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berny, P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Duquesne, S. ; Grilli, S. ; Hernandez-Jerez, A.F. ; Hougaard Bennekou, S. ; Klein, M. ; Kuhl, T. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)2. - 225 p.
Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks and scientific developments. Proposals are made for specific protection goals for in-soil organisms being key drivers for relevant ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes such as nutrient cycling, soil structure, pest control and biodiversity. Considering the time-scales and biological processes related to the dispersal of the majority of in-soil organisms compared to terrestrial non-target arthropods living above soil, the Panel proposes that in-soil environmental risk assessments are made at in- and off-field scale considering field boundary levels. A new testing strategy which takes into account the relevant exposure routes for in-soil organisms and the potential direct and indirect effects is proposed. In order to address species recovery and long-term impacts of PPPs, the use of population models is also proposed.
Smallholder Agriculture and Climate Change
Cohn, Avery S. ; Newton, Peter ; Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana ; Kuhl, Laura ; Samberg, Leah ; Ricciardi, Vincent ; Manly, Jessica R. ; Northrop, Sarah - \ 2017
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42 (2017). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 347 - 375.
Adaptation - Governance - Impacts - Mitigation - Policy - Spatial analysis
Hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people directly depend on smallholder farming systems. These people now face a changing climate and associated societal responses. We use mapping and a literature review to juxtapose the climate fate of smallholder systems with that of other agricultural systems and population groups. Limited direct evidence contrasts climate impact risk in smallholder agricultural systems versus other farming systems, but proxy evidence suggests high smallholder vulnerability. Smallholders distinctively adapt to climate shocks and stressors. Their future adaptive capacity is uncertain and conditional upon the severity of climate change and socioeconomic changes from regional development. Smallholders present a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation paradox. They emit a small amount of CO2 per capita and are poor, making GHG regulation unwarranted. But they produce GHG-intensive food and emit disproportionate quantities of black carbon through traditional biomass energy. Effectively accounting for smallholders in mitigation and adaption policies is critical and will require innovative solutions to the transaction costs that enrolling smallholders often imposes. Together, our findings show smallholder farming systems to be a critical fulcrum between climate change and sustainable development.
A proposed ring-test protocol for the emergent macrophyte, Glyceria Maxima, in a water-sediment system
Davies, J. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Kubitzah, Johanna ; Kuhl, K. ; Ratte, M. - \ 2017
Glyceria Work Group. Update Presentation
Davies, J. ; Kuhl, K. ; Arts, G.H.P. - \ 2016
Soutien aux Coopératives Agricoles : résumé
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
[Brussels] : European Commission, DG Agriculture and Rural Development - 5
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : synthetic summary
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 3
coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - landen van de europese unie - cooperatives - cooperative activities - european union countries
This report provides the overall conclusions of the full study. It was carried out by a European research consortium during 2011 and 2012. Data gathered in all 27 Member States have been presented and analysed in separate country reports. The data collected were also used in preparing eight sector reports, focusing on the role of cooperatives in each of these sectors. At the EU level a number of analyses were performed, studying aspects such as the institutional environment, internal governance, and the position of cooperatives in food supply chains.
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : executive summary
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 8
coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - landen van de europese unie - cooperatives - cooperative activities - european union countries
The imbalances in bargaining power between the contracting parties in the food supply chain have drawn much scholarly attention but have also been closely examined by policy makers. The European Commission is committed to facilitate the restructuring of the agricultural sector by encouraging the creation of voluntary agricultural producer organisations. DG Agriculture and Rural Development has launched a large study, “Support for Farmers' Cooperatives” (hereafter: SFC), to provide background knowledge that will help farmers organise themselves in cooperatives as a means to consolidate their market orientation and so generate a solid market income.
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : case study report internationalisation of sugar cooperatives: Cosun, Südzucker/Agrana, Tereos
Filippi, M. ; Kühl, R. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 30
Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : final report
Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen UR - 127
Environmental risk assessment: methods for comprehensive evaluation and quick scan
Lenteren, J.C. van; Loomans, A.J.M. - \ 2006
In: Environmental Impact of Invertebrates for Biological Control of Arthropods / Bigler, Franz, Babendreier, Dirk, Kuhl, V., Wallingford : CABI - ISBN 0851990584 - p. 255 - 272.
Fine-scale measurements of diffusivity in a microbial mat with NMR imaging
Wieland, A. ; Dusschoten, D. van; Damgaard, L.R. ; Beer, D. de; Kuhl, M. ; As, H. van - \ 2001
Limnology and Oceanography 46 (2001). - ISSN 0024-3590 - p. 248 - 259.
Noninvasive 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging was used to investigate the diffusive properties of microbial mats in two dimensions. Pulsed field gradient NMR was used to acquire images of the H2O diffusion coefficient, Ds and multiecho imaging NMR was used to obtain images of the water density in two structurally different microbial mats sampled from Solar Lake (Egypt). We found a pronounced lateral and vertical variability of both water density and water diffusion coefficient, correlated with the laminated and heterogeneous distribution of microbial cells and exopolymers within the mats. The average water density varied from 0.5 to 0.9, whereas the average water diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.4 to 0.9 relative to the values obtained in the stagnant water above the mat samples. The apparent water diffusivities estimated from NMR imaging compared well to apparent O2 diffusivities measured with a diffusivity microsensor. Analysis of measured O2 concentration profiles with a diffusion-reaction model showed that both the magnitude of calculated rates and the depth distribution of calculated O2 consumption/production zones changed when the observed variations of diffusivity were taken into account. With NMR imaging, diffusivity can be determined at high spatial resolution, which can resolve inherent lateral and vertical heterogeneities found in most natural benthic systems.
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