Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Conservation Science and Practice Must Engage With the Realities of Complex Tropical Landscapes
Boedhihartono, A.K. ; Bongers, F. ; Boot, R.G.A. ; Dijk, Jerry van; Jeans, Helen ; Kuijk, Marijke van; Koster, H. ; Reed, James ; Sayer, J. ; Sunderland, Terry ; Turnhout, E. ; Vianen, J. van; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2018
Tropical conservation science 11 (2018). - ISSN 1940-0829 - p. 1 - 7.
There is a growing disconnect between the international conferences where grand solutions for tropical conservation are designed and the complex local realities in tropical landscapes where plans need to be implemented. Every tropical landscape is different and no “one size will fit all.” There is a tendency for global processes to prescribe simple generalized solutions that provide good sound bites that can be communicated with political actors and the media. Sustainable outcomes in tropical landscapes require locally adapted, unique approaches supported by long-term processes of learning and adaptation. Tropical biologists and conservationists can play a key role by establishing effective local–global links and by directly engaging in local policy discourses while remaining connected to evolving political imperatives
Biomass dynamics in a logged forest : the role of wood density
Nam, Vu Thanh ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Kuijk, Marijke van - \ 2018
Journal of Plant Research 131 (2018)4. - ISSN 0918-9440 - p. 611 - 621.
Biomass - Carbon dynamics - Demographic rates - Tropical forest - Vietnam

Wood density (WD) is believed to be a key trait in driving growth strategies of tropical forest species, and as it entails the amount of mass per volume of wood, it also tends to correlate with forest carbon stocks. Yet there is relatively little information on how interspecific variation in WD correlates with biomass dynamics at the species and population level. We determined changes in biomass in permanent plots in a logged forest in Vietnam from 2004 to 2012, a period representing the last 8 years of a 30 years logging cycle. We measured diameter at breast height (DBH) and estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) growth, mortality, and net AGB increment (the difference between AGB gains and losses through growth and mortality) per species at the individual and population (i.e. corrected for species abundance) level, and correlated these with WD. At the population level, mean net AGB increment rates were 6.47 Mg ha−1 year−1 resulting from a mean AGB growth of 8.30 Mg ha−1 year−1, AGB recruitment of 0.67 Mg ha−1 year−1 and AGB losses through mortality of 2.50 Mg ha−1 year−1. Across species there was a negative relationship between WD and mortality rate, WD and DBH growth rate, and a positive relationship between WD and tree standing biomass. Standing biomass in turn was positively related to AGB growth, and net AGB increment both at the individual and population level. Our findings support the view that high wood density species contribute more to total biomass and indirectly to biomass increment than low wood density species in tropical forests. Maintaining high wood density species thus has potential to increase biomass recovery and carbon sequestration after logging.

Gas sensing performance at room temperature of nanogap interdigitated electrodes for detection of acetone at low concentration
Minh, Q.N. ; Tong, H.D. ; Kuijk, A. ; Bent, F. van de; Beekman, P. ; Rijn, C.J.M. Van - \ 2017
RSC Advances : An international journal to further the chemical sciences 7 (2017)79. - ISSN 2046-2069 - p. 50279 - 50286.
A facile approach for the fabrication of large-scale interdigitated nanogap electrodes (nanogap IDEs) with a controllable gap was demonstrated with conventional micro-fabrication technology to develop chemocapacitors for gas sensing applications. In this work, interdigitated nanogap electrodes (nanogap IDEs) with gaps from 50-250 nm have been designed and processed at full wafer-scale. These nanogap IDEs were then coated with poly(4-vinyl phenol) as a sensitive layer to form gas sensors for acetone detection at low concentrations. These acetone sensors showed excellent sensing performance with a dynamic range from 1000 ppm to 10 ppm of acetone at room temperature and the observed results are compared with conventional interdigitated microelectrodes according to our previous work. Sensitivity and reproducibility of devices are discussed in detail. Our approach of fabrication of nanogap IDEs together with a simple coating method to apply the sensing layer opens up possibilities to create various nanogap devices in a cost-effective manner for gas sensing applications.
Chemical changes and increased degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes
Kuijk, Sandra J.A. van; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Baars, Johan J.P. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Río, José C. del; Rencoret, Jorge ; Gutiérrez, Ana ; Ruijter, Norbert C.A. de; Cone, John W. - \ 2017
Biomass and Bioenergy 105 (2017). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 381 - 391.
Alkylitaconic acids - Enzymatic saccharification - Fungal treatment - In vitro rumen degradability - Lignocellulosic biomass - Selective lignin degradation
Wheat straw and oak wood chips were incubated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks. Samples from the fungal treated substrates were collected every week for chemical characterization. L. edodes continuously grew during the 8 weeks on both wheat straw and oak wood chips, as determined by the ergosterol mass fraction of the dry biomass. C. subvermispora colonized both substrates during the first week, stopped growing on oak wood chips, and resumed growth after 6 weeks on wheat straw. Detergent fiber analysis and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed a selective lignin degradation in wheat straw, although some carbohydrates were also degraded. L. edodes continuously degraded lignin and hemicelluloses in wheat straw while C. subvermispora degraded lignin and hemicelluloses only during the first 5 weeks of treatment after which cellulose degradation started. Both fungi selectively degraded lignin in wood chips. After 4 weeks of treatment, no significant changes in chemical composition were detected. In contrast to L. edodes, C. subvermispora produced alkylitaconic acids during fungal treatment, which paralleled the degradation and modification of lignin indicating the importance of these compounds in delignification. Light microscopy visualized a dense structure of wood chips which was difficult to penetrate by the fungi, explaining the relative lower lignin degradation compared to wheat straw measured by chemical analysis. All these changes resulted in an increased in in vitro rumen degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips. In addition, more glucose and xylose were released after enzymatic saccharification of fungal treated wheat straw compared to untreated material.
Preparation and gas sensing properties of nanocomposite polymers on micro-Interdigitated electrodes for detection of volatile organic compounds at room temperature
Nguyen, Quyen ; Kuijk, Anke ; Pujari, Sidharam P. ; Bent, Franc van de; Baggerman, Jacob ; Duy Tong, Hien ; Zuilhof, Han ; Rijn, Cees J.M. van - \ 2017
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 252 (2017). - ISSN 0925-4005 - p. 1098 - 1104.
Acetone - Chemocapacitor - Gas sensor - Micro interdigitated electrodes - Nanocomposite - Poly (4-vinyl phenol) - VOCs

A room-temperature chemocapacitive gas sensor based on polymeric nanocomposites (NCs) consisting of amine-terminated silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs-NH2) and poly (4-vinylphenol) was fabricated on a micro-gap interdigitated electrode (M-IDE), and used for the detection of acetone. Several polymers were explored to capture acetone, of which poly (4-vinylphenol) showed best results. The response of the sensor was significantly improved by the addition of silicon nanoparticles to the polymer layer. The response characteristics of the NC film towards volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined and compared with the pristine polymeric layer in this study. It was shown that the polymeric NC layer can detect acetone at room temperature within one minute. The sensing response towards acetone at room temperature proved that the turn–on and −off exposure to this analyte was reversible with good reproducibility (5% decay) after multiple cycles of gas exposure. The proof-of-concept results are promising for the development of novel gas detectors that are applicable in many fields such as industrial and laboratorial security.

Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Rio, José C. del; Rencoret, Jorge ; Gutiérrez, Ana ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 7 (2016). - ISSN 1674-9782 - 14 p.
Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 wk and the changes
occurring during fungal degradation were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
and detergent fiber analysis.
Results: L. edodes preferentially degraded lignin, with only limited cellulose degradation, in wheat straw and
wood chips, leaving a substrate enriched in cellulose. Syringyl (S)-lignin units were preferentially degraded than
guaiacyl (G)-lignin units, resulting in a decreased S/G ratio. A decreasing S/G ratio (wheat straw: r = −0.72, wood
chips: r = −0.75) and selective lignin degradation (wheat straw: r = −0.69, wood chips: r = −0.88) were correlated
with in vitro gas production (IVGP), a good indicator for rumen degradability.
Conclusions: L. edodes treatment increased the IVGP of wheat straw and wood chips. Effects on IVGP were
similar for wheat straw and wood chips indicating that lignin content and 3D-structure of cell walls influence
in vitro rumen degradability more than lignin composition.
Keywords: Fungal treatment, In vitro rumen degradability, Lignocellulosic biomass, Py-GC/MS
The effect of particle size and amount of inoculum on fungal treatment of wheat straw and wood chips
Kuijk, Sandra J.A. van; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Baars, Johan J.P. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Cone, John W. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 7 (2016)1. - ISSN 1674-9782
Amount of inoculum - Fungal treatment - In vitro rumen degradability - Lignin degradation - Lignocellulosic biomass - Particle size

Background: The aim of this study was to optimize the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by stimulating the colonization. Wheat straw and wood chips were treated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes with various amounts of colonized millet grains (0.5, 1.5 or 3.0 % per g of wet weight of substrate) added to the substrates. Also, wheat straw and wood chips were chopped to either 0.5 or 2 cm. Effectiveness of the fungal treatment after 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 wk of incubation was determined by changes in chemical composition, in vitro gas production (IVGP) as a measure for rumen degradability, and ergosterol content as a measure of fungal biomass. Results: Incomplete colonization was observed for C. subvermispora treated wheat straw and L. edodes treated wood chips. The different particle sizes and amounts of inoculum tested, had no significant effects on the chemical composition and the IVGP of C. subvermispora treated wood chips. Particle size did influence L. edodes treatment of wheat straw. The L. edodes treatment of 2 cm wheat straw resulted in a more selective delignification and a higher IVGP than the smaller particles. Addition of 1.5 % or 3 % L. edodes inoculum to wheat straw resulted in more selective delignification and a higher IVGP than addition of 0.5 % inoculum. Conclusion: Particle size and amount of inoculum did not have an effect on C. subvermispora treatment of wood chips. At least 1.5 % L. edodes colonized millet grains should be added to 2 cm wheat straw to result in an increased IVGP and acid detergent lignin (ADL) degradation.

Allometric equations for aboveground and belowground biomass estimations in an evergreen forest in Vietnam
Nam, Vu Thanh ; Kuijk, Marijke Van; Anten, Niels P.R. - \ 2016
PLoS ONE 11 (2016)6. - ISSN 1932-6203

Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent in vitro rumen degradation
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2016
Animal Feed Science and Technology 213 (2016). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 22 - 28.
The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas production (IVGP), which is a model for rumen degradation, in comparison to fungal treatment without additives. First urea, manganese and linoleic acid were added separately to C. subvermispora or L. edodes treatment of wheat straw and wood chips. Only manganese and linoleic acid addition improved lignin degradation and IVGP compared to the same treatment without additives. Mn (150 μg/g wheat straw) influenced C. subvermispora treatment most. A combination of manganese and linoleic acid was also applied since both act on manganese peroxidase. This combination did indeed increase lignin degradation in wheat straw by C. subvermispora, but IVGP was not changed. None of the additions had a significant effect on the other fungus–substrate combinations tested here
Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass
Kuijk, S.J.A. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): John Cone; Anton Sonnenberg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576544 - 191 p.
lignocellulosic wastes - fungi - treatment - ruminant feeding - rumen digestion - wheat straw - wood chips - livestock feeding - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition - lignocellulosehoudend afval - schimmels - behandeling - herkauwersvoeding - pensvertering - tarwestro - houtspaanders - veevoeding - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding

Summary PhD thesis Sandra J.A. van Kuijk

Carbohydrates in plant cell walls are highly fermentable and could be used as a source for ruminant nutrition or biofuel production. The presence of lignin in cell walls hampers the utilization of these carbohydrates and should thus be removed. In this thesis, the possibilities of a fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass are investigated.

A review of the scientific literature focusing on the potential of fungal treatments to increase the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass in ruminants feed ingredients is presented in Chapter 2. A prerequisite to the effective use of high lignocellulose feed ingredients is lignin removal, since lignin is negatively correlated to in vitro rumen degradability. Selective lignin degrading fungi have proven to increase in vitro rumen degradability with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii showing the greatest potential. The effectiveness of fungal treatment is not only dependent on the choice of fungal strain, but also on the choice of substrate and culture conditions.

Based on the literature review, four different edible fungal species, i.e. Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, P. eryngii and P. ostreatus were chosen to treat four different substrates, i.e. miscanthus, rice straw, wheat straw and wood chips. The results of these fungal-substrate combinations are described in Chapter 3 and confirm that fungal species, substrate and incubation time are important factors in fungal treatment. The most promising fungus-substrate combinations are L. edodes treatment of wheat straw and L. edodes treatment of wood chips. These two fungus-substrate combinations were used in a more detailed characterization of changes in lignin upon fungal treatment.

In Chapter 4, a study is described where L. edodes treated wheat straw and wood chips are analyzed by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) confirming the selective lignin degradation as determined with the detergent fiber analysis. Structural changes in lignin were observed with preferential degradation of syringyl (S) lignin units over guaiacyl (G) lignin units by L. edodes. Upon fungal delignification, a number of degradation products of lignin were observed. The building blocks in the original lignin consist of phenolic groups with 3 C-atoms in the side chain, while degradation products consist of phenolic groups with 0 to 2 C-atoms in the side chain. The ratio between side chain degradation products and original compounds was increasing in both wheat straw and wood chips upon L. edodes treatment. Besides side chain degradation, L. edodes modified the Cα-atom of the side chain by oxidation. Although correlations were found, a clear relationship between lignin composition and in vitro rumen degradability could not be demonstrated.

The safety of a fungal treatment of ruminant feed ingredients requires the used fungus to have a Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) status. The literature data compiled in Chapter 2 indicates C. subvermispora, which does not have a GRAS status, as one of the most promising fungi for fungal treatment. For this reason this fungus was included in the remaining chapters. This fungus was researched in Chapter 5 with the substrates wheat straw and wood chips and compared to L. edodes. Both fungi selectively degraded lignin and improved in vitro rumen degradability and the amount of sugar released upon enzymatic saccharification. L. edodes continuously grew on wheat straw and wood chips while degrading lignin and hemicellulose at the same time. C. subvermispora colonized the wheat straw within the first week of treatment and starts degrading lignin and hemicellulose thereafter. Growth continued again after 5 weeks, which was accompanied by cellulose degradation. On wood chips, C. subvermispora stopped growing after the first week of treatment, while lignin degradation continued until 4 weeks of treatment. From 5 weeks onwards, no chemical changes were observed in wood chips. One of the explanations for this lack of change is the dense structure of the wood as observed with light microscopy. Both fungi degraded hemicellulose simultaneously with lignin. The loss of carbohydrates during fungal treatment and the long treatment times of up to 8 weeks represent a major disadvantage of fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

In Chapter 6, the incubation of C. subvermispora and L. edodes with wheat straw and wood chips were supplemented with urea to stimulate growth, and manganese and linoleic acid to stimulate lignin degradation via the enzyme manganese peroxidase produced by the fungi. Addition of manganese increased the selectivity of C. subvermispora treatment of wheat straw within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Addition of 150 µg manganese per g substrate improved lignin degradation and in vitro rumen degradability the most. A combination of manganese and linoleic acid did not show synergistic effects.

In Chapter 7 the particle size of wheat straw and wood chips, and the amount of C. subvermispora or L. edodes at the start of the treatment was varied. The amount of fungus added at the start of the treatment did not have an effect on colonization rate, lignin degradation or in vitro rumen degradability. L. edodes treatment of wheat straw chopped to 2 cm particles resulted in a higher lignin degradation and in vitro rumen degradability compared to L. edodes treatment of wheat straw chopped to a length of 0.5 cm. The particle size of wood chips did not have an effect on C. subvermispora treatment. In C. subvermispora treated wheat straw and L. edodes treated wood chips, a reduced growth was observed, which was unexpected based on results from previous experiments. A toxic compound to fungi (fungicide) was identified.

This thesis describes the potential of fungal treatment to increase utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Fungal treatment resulted in an increased in vitro rumen degradability, and thus an increased cellulose accessibility. The same theory applies for biofuel production in which fungal treatment results in an increased accessibility of cellulose for enzymes. The major disadvantages of this low cost, relatively simple and environmentally-friendly biotechnological treatment are the loss of carbohydrates during the relatively long process of fungal incubation. Future studies should focus on optimization of the fungal treatment to enable large scale application.

Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to selectively degrade lignin
Kuijk, Sandra van - \ 2015
Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to selectively degrade lignin
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Biorefinery of Lignocellulosic Materials. - - p. 203 - 206.
Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2015
Animal Feed Science and Technology 209 (2015). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 40 - 50.
The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic biomass and to make the carbohydrates in the lignocellulose available for rumen microbes. Wheat straw, miscanthus, wood chips and rice straw were used as models for lignocellulosic biomass. Samples obtained after 12 wks of incubation were assessed for fungal growth, in vitro gas production (IVGP72) as measure of rumen fermentation capacity and fibre composition. Most effects on IVGP72 and lignin degradation were found after 12 wks of fungal treatment. Twelve weeks of treatment with L. edodes improved the IVGP72 of wheat straw by 58.5 ml/g OM (23.1% increase), of miscanthus by 80.5 ml/g OM (43.7% increase) and of wood chips by 123.4 ml/g OM (229% increase). All fungi improved the IVGP72 of wood chips. Although all fungi grew on rice straw, the IVGP72 was not improved. All four fungal species caused increased cellulose concentration of wheat straw, miscanthus and wood chips. However, when expressed as absolute amounts, cellulose degradation occurred. In wheat straw and miscanthus, lignin was degraded best by L. edodes. Improvement of IVGP72 by L. edodes was correlated to lignin degradation. Lignin degradation and dry matter loss were correlated to the mycelium growth of L. edodes. These correlations differed between substrates and fungi. Fungal growth was not always a good predictor for the performance of the fungus. Here, L. edodes performed best, regarding IVGP72 and selective lignin degradation.
Rumen degradability of wheat straw is related to changes in lignin properties after fungal treatment
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2015
In: Book of abstracts of 2015 Joint Annual Meeting of ADSA-ASAS. - - p. 605 - 605.
The aim was to improve the rumen degradability of wheat straw (WS), which has relatively high cell wall content. Plant cell walls consist of hemicellulose and cellulose that are bound to lignin. These carbohydrates can be an important source of energy for rumen microbes. However, rumen microbes cannot degrade lignin, which blocks the availability of the carbohydrates. The availability of carbohydrates can be increased when lignin is removed in a pre-treatment. In nature, dead plants can be degraded by fungi. Some fungal species degrade lignin without consuming cellulose during vegetative growth. One of the selective lignin degrading fungi, Lentinula edodes was used to test the improvement in rumen degradability of WS. Two conditions were tested in triplicate: autoclaved WS inoculated with L. edodes and autoclaved WS as control. After 12 weeks of incubation at 24°C, rumen degradability was determined with the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique (Cone et al., 1996). Lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content were determined according to the methods described by Van Soest et al. (1991). Changes in chemical composition and IVGP upon fungal treatment were compared with the control, using the generalized linear model method in SAS (v9.3). To test the effect of changes in lignin structure and properties, pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) was done on fungal treated WS and the control. L. edodes treatment for 12 weeks increased (P <0.05) IVGP of WS compared with untreated WS. Cellulose content was unchanged, while hemicellulose and lignin content decreased (P <0.05). In addition to a decrease in total lignin, py-GC/MS showed an increasing amount of lignin degradation products. Upon L. edodes treatment not only a total degradation of lignin occurred, but the composition of lignin also changed. Lignin in WS consists of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units in a 1:1 ratio. L. edodes degraded more S than G units, since the S/G ratio decreased. This decrease in S/G ratio was correlated to an increase in IVGP. We conclude that the L. edodes treatment increased the IVGP of WS, which was correlated to both lignin content and composition.
Rumen degradability of wheat straw is related to changes in lignin properties after fungal treatment
Kuijk, Sandra van - \ 2015
Baseline assessment of the coral reef fish assemblages of St. Eustatius
Kuijk, T. van; Graaf, M. de; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. ; Boman, E. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C058/15) - 49
vissen - koraalriffen - aquatische gemeenschappen - aquatische ecologie - mariene parken - sint eustatius - fishes - coral reefs - aquatic communities - aquatic ecology - marine parks
In this study we present a fishery independent survey of the finfish populations at depths ranging from 5-30 m in the shallow reef habitats around the island of St. Eustatius.
Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2015
Biotechnology Advances 33 (2015)1. - ISSN 0734-9750 - p. 191 - 202.
white-rot fungi - solid-state fermentation - in-vitro digestibility - chromatography mass-spectrometry - spent wheat straw - oil palm fronds - pleurotus-ostreatus - ceriporiopsis-subvermispora - chemical-composition - trametes-versicolor
In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and allow the development of superior fungal strains to degrade lignin in biomass.
Fungal pre-treatment increases in vitro rumen degradability of wheat straw
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of the WIAS Science Day 2015 - Facing the Future. - WIAS - p. 16 - 16.
Fungal pro-treatment increases in vitro rumen degradability of wheat straw
Kuijk, Sandra van - \ 2015
Fungi turn waste into feed and fuel
Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2014
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