Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Tracking the Transport of Silver Nanoparticles in Soil : a Saturated Column Experiment
Mahdi, Karrar N.M. ; Peters, Ruud ; Ploeg, Martine van der; Ritsema, Coen ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2018
Water Air and Soil Pollution 229 (2018)10. - ISSN 0049-6979
Leaching - Silver nanoparticles - Soil - Transport

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter the environment when released from products containing them. As AgNPs enter soil, they are often retained in the soil profile and/or leached to the groundwater. This research assessed the transport of AgNPs in their “particle form” through the soil profile using a series of columns. Three soil types were put into soil columns: LSH (loam with high organic matter (OM)), LSL (loam with low OM), and Sand (no OM). The results showed that AgNP transport and retention in soil as well as particle size changes are affected by soil organic matter (OM) and the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil. OM affected the transport and retention of AgNPs. This was evident in the LSH columns where the OM concentration was the highest and the AgNP content the lowest in the soil layers and in the effluent water. The highest transported AgNP content was detected in the Sand columns where OM was the lowest. CEC had an impact on the particle size of the AgNPs that were retained in the soil layers. This was clear in columns packed with high CEC-containing soils (LSL and LSH) where AgNP particle size decreased more substantially than in the columns packed with sand. However, the decrease in AgNP sizes in the effluent water was less than the decrease in particle size of AgNPs transported through but retained in the soil. This means that the AgNPs that reached the effluent were transported directly from the first layer through the soil macropores. This work highlights the ability to track AgNPs at low concentrations (50 μg kg−1) and monitor the changes in particle size potential as the particles leach through soil all of which increases our knowledge about AgNP transport mechanisms in porous media.

Perchloraat in kasgrond Bioteelt : Resultaat uitspoelproef voor vermindering perchloraat concentratie in de biologische kasteelt
Voogt, Wim ; Winkel, Aat van - \ 2018
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport WPR 765) - 22
certain fertilisers. This ion can be taken up by plants quite easily and will be transported partly into fruits, hence the norms for ClO4 - will be exceeded easily. Experiments have been carried out to leach out the soil by flushing. It appeared that ClO4 - can be leached out quite easily, but it requires a lot of water and the strategy has to be adapted to the soil type.
How China's nitrogen footprint of food has changed from 1961 to 2010
Guo, Mengchu ; Chen, Xiaohui ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Jiang, Rongfeng ; Galloway, James N. ; Leach, Allison M. ; Cattaneo, Lia R. ; Oenema, Oene ; Ma, Lin ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)10. - ISSN 1748-9318
China - Nitrogen footprint - nitrogen losses - virtual nitrogen factor
People have increased the amount of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment as a result of food production methods and consumption choices. However, the connection between dietary choices and environmental impacts over time has not yet been studied in China. Here we combine a nitrogen footprint tool, the N-Calculator, with a food chain model, NUFER (NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use), to analyze the N footprint of food in China. We use the NUFER model to provide a detailed estimation of the amounts and forms of Nr released to the environment during food production, which is then used to calculate virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs, unit: kg N released/kg N in product) of major food items. The food N footprint consists of the food consumption N footprint and food production N footprint. The average per capita food N footprint increased from 4.7 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 1960s to 21 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 2000s, and the national food N footprint in China increased from 3.4 metric tons (MT) N yr-1 in the 1960s to 28 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. The proportion of the food N footprint that is animal-derived increased from 37% to 54% during this period. The food production N footprint accounted for 84% of the national food N footprint in the 2000s, compared to 62% in the 1960s. More Nr has been added to the food production systems to produce enough food for a growing population that is increasing its per-capita food consumption. The increasing VNFs in China indicate that an increasing amount of Nr is being lost per unit of N embedded in food products consumed by humans in the past five decades. National N losses from food production increased from 6 MT N yr-1 in the 1960s to 23 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. N was lost to the environment in four ways: ammonia (NH3) emissions and dinitrogen (N2) emissions through denitrification (each account for nearly 40%), N losses to water systems (20%), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (1%). The average per capita food N footprint in China is relatively high compared with those of developed countries in the 2000s. To reduce the food N footprint in China, it is important to both reduce the Nr losses during food production and encourage diets associated with a lower N footprint, such as shifting towards a more plant-based diet.
Moving beyond the MSY concept to reflect multidimensional fisheries management objectives
Rindorf, Anna ; Mumford, John ; Baranowski, Paul ; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe ; García, Dorleta ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Kempf, Alexander ; Leach, Adrian ; Levontin, Polina ; Mace, Pamela ; Mackinson, Steven ; Maravelias, Christos ; Prellezo, Raúl ; Quetglas, Antoni ; Tserpes, George ; Voss, Rüdiger ; Reid, David G. - \ 2017
Marine Policy 85 (2017). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 33 - 41.
Inclusive governance - Management objectives - MEY - MSOY - MSY - Sustainability pillars
Maximising the long term average catch of single stock fisheries as prescribed by the globally-legislated MSY objective is unlikely to ensure ecosystem, economic, social and governance sustainability unless an effort is made to explicitly include these considerations. We investigated how objectives to be maximised can be combined with sustainability constraints aiming specifically at one or more of these four sustainability pillars. The study was conducted as a three-year interactive process involving 290 participating science, industry, NGO and management representatives from six different European regions. Economic considerations and inclusive governance were generally preferred as the key objectives to be maximised in complex fisheries, recognising that ecosystem, social and governance constraints are also key aspects of sustainability in all regions. Relative preferences differed between regions and cases but were similar across a series of workshops, different levels of information provided and the form of elicitation methods used as long as major shifts in context or stakeholder composition did not occur. Maximising inclusiveness in governance, particularly the inclusiveness of affected stakeholders, was highly preferred by participants across the project. This suggests that advice incorporating flexibility in the interpretation of objectives to leave room for meaningful inclusiveness in decision-making processes is likely to be a prerequisite for stakeholder buy-in to management decisions.
Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania
Hutton, Mary Olivia ; Leach, A.M. ; Leip, Adrian ; Galloway, J.N. ; Bekunda, M. ; Sullivan, C. ; Lesschen, J.P. - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326
We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr−1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.
Silver nanoparticles in soil: Aqueous extraction combined with single-particle ICP-MS for detection and characterization
Mahdi, Karrar N.M. ; Peters, Ruud J.B. ; Klumpp, Erwin ; Bohme, Steffi ; Ploeg, Martine Van der; Ritsema, Coen ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2017
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management 7 (2017). - ISSN 2215-1532 - p. 24 - 33.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a growing number of applications and products. Previous studies showed AgNPs can leach from these products to the environment. As a result of AgNPs leaching, sediment, soil and sludge-treated soils may be contaminated with AgNPs. Methods to detect, quantify and characterize AgNPs in soil are urgently needed. This study describes the development and validation of a method for the extraction, quantification and particle size determination of AgNPs in soils. The final method consists of pre-wetting the sample followed by an aqueous extraction, using sonication to re-suspend adsorbed AgNPs, and analysis of the aqueous extract with single particle ICP-MS. Validation of the method showed that the recovery of AgNPs spiked to soil was 44% for sandy soil and 42% for clayey soil. Although this recovery is relatively low, the repeatability and reproducibility values of the particle concentration were within the limits of Horwitz ratio, which makes the method suitable for its purpose. Further, the method concentration detection limit, LODc., is 5 μg kg−1 soil. The developed method can be applied in eco-toxicological and risk-assessments studies for AgNP in the soil environment.
State Obligations with regard to the Extraterritorial Activities of Companies Domiciled on their Territories : Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law
Bernaz, N. - \ 2016
In: Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law / Buckley, Carla M., Donald, Alice, Leach, Philip, Brill (Nottingham Studies on Human Rights ) - ISBN 9789004284241 - p. 435 - 453.
European Court of Human Rights; Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; treaty monitoring bodies; fragmentation; jurisprudence; Inter-American Court of Human Rights; African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights; African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights; pluralism
The MSY concept in a multi-objective fisheries environment - Lessons from the North Sea
Kempf, Alexander ; Mumford, John ; Levontin, Polina ; Leach, Adrian ; Hoff, Ayoe ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Vinther, Morten ; Stäbler, Moritz ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Smout, Sophie ; Frost, Hans ; Burg, Sander van den; Ulrich, Clara ; Rindorf, Anna - \ 2016
Marine Policy 69 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 146 - 158.
Bio-economic - MEY - Mixed fisheries - MSY - Multi species - North Sea

One of the most important goals in current fisheries management is to maintain or restore stocks above levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield (MSY). However, it may not be feasible to achieve MSY simultaneously for multiple species because of trade-offs that result from interactions between species, mixed fisheries and the multiple objectives of stakeholders. The premise in this study is that MSY is a concept that needs adaptation, not wholesale replacement. The approach chosen to identify trade-offs and stakeholder preferences involved a process of consulting and discussing options with stakeholders as well as scenario modelling with bio-economic and multi-species models. It is difficult to intuitively anticipate the consequences of complex trade-offs and it is also complicated to address them from a political point of view. However, scenario modelling showed that the current approach of treating each stock separately and ignoring trade-offs may result in unacceptable ecosystem, economic or social effects in North Sea fisheries. Setting FMSY as a management target without any flexibility for compromises may lead to disappointment for some of the stakeholders. To treat FMSY no longer as a point estimate but rather as a "Pretty Good Yield" within sustainable ranges was seen as a promising way forward to avoid unacceptable outcomes when trying to fish all stocks simultaneously at FMSY. This study gives insights on how inclusive governance can help to reach consensus in difficult political processes, and how science can be used to make informed decisions inside a multi-dimensional trade-off space.

Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake : The case of vegetable enriched pasta
Oliviero, Teresa ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2016
Trends in Food Science and Technology 51 (2016). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 58 - 64.
Functional food - Glucoraphanin - Pasta - Vitamin C - β-carotene

Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food eaten daily or weekly that constitutes a dominant moiety of the diet in many countries. Moreover, dried pasta is an affordable, long shelf-life product that can well preserve phytochemicals. Scope and approach: With this viewpoint article, all the production and cooking steps of pasta enriched with vegetables are analysed, highlighting their effect on its quality. Alternative processing conditions are proposed based on the findings of the existing literature and on data obtained on pasta enriched with broccoli and with carrot. Finally, recommendations to food companies to design and manufacture such pasta are provided. Key findings and conclusions: Considering the portion size and the percentage of vegetables that can be added, vegetable pasta can significantly contribute to the recommended vegetable intake per day. However, production and cooking of pasta affect its nutritional value: bioactive compounds occurring in vegetables can leach into boiling water or can be thermally degraded. Moreover, the incorporation of vegetables has a dilution effect of the gluten network, leading to changing of pasta sensorial attributes and to a potential increase of the glycaemic index for a higher starch granules swelling. Therefore, such approach is successful only if processing conditions are optimized to keep in the final product the desired nutritional characteristics of the vegetables.

Low organotin contamination of harbour sediment in Svalbard
Den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J. van; Szczybelski, Ariadna S. ; Den Brink, Nico W. van; Kotterman, Michiel J.J. ; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F. ; Evenset, Anita ; Murk, Albertinka J. - \ 2016
Polar Biology 39 (2016)10. - ISSN 0722-4060 - p. 1699 - 1709.
Arctic - Contaminants - Kongsfjorden - Pollution - Sediment - Shipping - Spitsbergen - TBT

Arctic sea routes are opening up for maritime transport due to sea ice retreat leading to increasing human activities in the Arctic and concomitant pressures on the environment. Organotin compounds are used in antifouling paints of large seagoing vessels and are known to leach into the marine environment and accumulate in sediments and biota. As organotin levels in Svalbard sediments have not been documented in peer-reviewed literature before, this study describes the levels in sediment of harbours around Svalbard (Ny-Ålesund, Longyearbyen, Svea, Pyramiden and Barentsburg). Organotin levels in sediments of Svalbard harbours were low (below the detection limit up to 14 ng Sn/g dw sum-butyltin) compared to other Arctic regions with a longer history of shipping. Levels were below known no effect levels and in accordance, no imposex was found in marine whelks from Ny-Ålesund harbour. Of all other analysed compounds in sediments of Kongsfjorden (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated compounds) PAH levels were highest and in one sample above action levels. It is advised to continue monitoring contaminant levels, for which the current results form a good basis. If contaminant levels rise, mitigation measures can be taken in time.

Protecting the environment through insect farming as a means to produce protein for use as livestock, poultry, and aquaculture feed
Tomberlin, J.K. ; Huis, A. van; Benbow, M.E. ; Jordan, H. ; Astuti, D.A. ; Azzollini, D. ; Banks, I. ; Bava, V. ; Borgemeister, C. ; Cammack, J.A. ; Chapkin, R.S. ; Cickova, H. ; Crippen, T.L. ; Day, A. ; Dicke, M. ; Drew, D.W.J. ; Emhart, C. ; Epstein, M. ; Finke, M. ; Fischer, C.H. ; Gatlin, D. ; Grabowski, N.Th. ; He, C. ; Heckman, L. ; Hubert, A. ; Jacobs, J. ; Josephs, J. ; Khanal, S.K. ; Kleinfinger, J.F. ; Klein, G. ; Leach, C. ; Liu, Y. ; Newton, G.L. ; Olivier, R. ; Pechal, J.L. ; Picard, C.J. ; Rojo, S. ; Roncarati, A. ; Sheppard, C. ; Tarone, A.M. ; Verstappen, B. ; Vickerson, A. ; Yang, H. ; Yen, A.L. ; Yu, Z. ; Zhang, J. ; Zheng, L. - \ 2015
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 1 (2015)4. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 307 - 309.
Securing protein for the approximate 10 billion humans expected to inhabit our planet by 2050 is a major priority for the global community. Evidence has accrued over the past 30 years that strongly supports and justifies the sustainable use of insects as a means to produce protein products as feed for pets, livestock, poultry, and aquacultured species. Researchers and entrepreneurs affiliated with universities and industries, respectively, from 18 nations distributed across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia contributed to the development of this article, which is an indication of the global interest on this topic. A brief overview of insects as feed for the aquaculture industry along with a review of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), as a model for such systems is provided.
Nitrogen : too much of a vital resource : Science Brief
Erisman, J.W. ; Galloway, J.N. ; Dise, N.B. ; Sutton, M.A. ; Bleeker, A. ; Grizzetti, B. ; Leach, A.M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
Zeist, The Netherlands : WWF Netherlands (WWF science brief NL ) - ISBN 9789074595223 - 27
stikstofkringloop - waterverontreiniging - eutrofiëring - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - terrestrische ecosystemen - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - milieubeleid - nitrogen cycle - water pollution - eutrophication - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - terrestrial ecosystems - scientific research - environmental policy
It is now clear that the nitrogen problem is one of the most pressing environmental issues that we face. But in spite of the enormity of our influence on the N cycle and consequent implications for the environment and for human well-being, there is surprisingly little attention paid to the issue. While biodiversity loss and climate change have spawned huge budgets to create national and multidisciplinary programs, global organizations, political and media attention, the N challenge remains much less apparent in our thinking and actions. This is because we are educated with the important role that N plays with regard to food security. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the N challenge, and to provide options for decreasing the negative impacts of excess N.
Comment : Ebola: limitations of correcting misinformation
Chandler, C. ; Fairhead, J. ; Kelly, A. ; Leach, M. ; Martineau, F. ; Mokuwa, E. ; Richards, P. - \ 2015
The Lancet 385 (2015)9975. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1275 - 1277.
health - africa
Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change
Erisman, J.W. ; Leach, A. ; Adams, M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2014
In: Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity / Sutton, M.A., Mason, K.E., Sheppard, L.J., Sverdrup, H., Haeuber, R., Hicks, W.K., Dordrecht : Springer - p. 493 - 505.
Ecosystem services are defined as the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Ecosystem services are being impacted by many human induced stresses, one of them being nitrogen (N) deposition and its interactions with other pollutants and climate change. It is concluded that N directly or indirectly affects a wide range of provi- sioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ecosystem services, many of which are interrelated. When considering the effects of N on ecosystem services, it is important to distinguish between different types of ecosystems/species and the protection against N impacts should include other aspects related to N, in addition to biodi- versity. The Working Group considered the following priorities of ecosystem services in relation to N: biodiversity; air quality/atmosphere; ecosystem changes; NO3 leaching; climate regulation and cultural issues. These are the services for which the best evidence is available in the literature. There is a conflicting interest between greenhouse gas ecosystem services and biodiversity protection; up to some point of increasing N inputs, net greenhouse gas uptake is improved, while biodiversity is already adversely affected.
Innovative approaches to improve sustainability of physical distribution in the Dutch agro-food industry
Pieters, R. ; Bogers, E. ; Glöckner, H.H. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Weijers, S. - \ 2014
Since the publication of the Brundlandt report (1987), organizations have put sustainability at the top of their agendas (Szekely & Knirsch, 2005). Nowadays sustainability is incorporated into the strategy of almost all organizations (De Ron, 2001; McDonough & Braungart, 2002). The agro-food sector has a long history of sustainable awareness on the use of land, water, pesticides, fertilizers and energy (Leaver, 2011; Leach et al., 2012). Most literature on transportation of agro business products concentrates on food security (Henson & Caswell, 1999; Maloni & Brown, 2006; Godfray et al., 2010). Few studies have addressed the role of sustainability when transporting agro-food product. But how do logistics service providers, shippers and private carriers in the agro-food industry translate strategic policies into tangible innovative sustainable physical distribution? This paper focuses on sustainability in physical distribution of agro-food products and the role logistics service providers, shippers and private carriers play in this process. Do they approach sustainability as an integrated and repeatable phenomenon or is it seen as a singular action concerning individual situations? And what are the new, innovative ideas concerning making physical distribution more sustainable which are generated by this process? The purpose of this study is to help increase our understanding on how the relationship between shipper, private carrier and logistics service provider in the food industry relates to improving sustainability. If properly understood, it will aid us in making physical distribution in the food industry more sustainable. We want to answer the following questions: 1. What innovative actions have Dutch logistics service providers, shippers and private carriers in the agro-food industry undertaken to make physical distribution more sustainable? 2. What can be learned from the experience of best cases on making physical distribution in the Dutch agro-food industry more sustainable? The conceptual framework for our research is based on the same heuristic model used in the 1994 NEA/Cranfield study. Weijers, Kuipers and Becker (2002) adapted this framework for research in industry driven innovations for logistics service providers. We have adapted their model to trace the elements in sustainable physical distribution trends. Figure 1 Conceptual Framework For this we have interviewed seven logistics service providers, two private carriers and four producers of agro-food items. We have asked them how they approach and improve sustainability within physical distribution. Which strategies they have developed for sustainability. What kind of actions do they undertake on the field of sustainability and if so, what kind of innovative ways they have introduced to make physical distribution of food items more sustainable. We found that most of these innovations were related to bilateral relationships between one shipper with one logistics service provider. Learning from experiences obtained by colleagues and competitors was not an issue. A pity, as we believe that sharing of experience will help the sector to improve sustainability within the physical distribution of food items. We will give examples where an innovation in shipping agro-food products created not only a positive effect on the sustainability in the physical distribution, but also created an unforeseen positive impact on other aspects in the value chain. Finally we will show the results of an in-depth research (Yin, 2009) into an interesting project in the Netherlands where various shippers of food items share transportation capacity with each other even if they are competitors for the same agro-food market. This sharing has increased the loading capacity and reduced cost drastically. References De Ron, A. 2001 Duurzaam ondernemen: een inleiding. Deventer, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Godfray, H. C. J., Beddington, J. R., Crute, I. R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J. F., ... & Toulmin, C. (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327(5967), 812-818. Henson, S., & Caswell, J. (1999). Food safety regulation: an overview of contemporary issues. Food policy, 24(6), 589-603. Leach, M., J. Rockström, P. Raskin, I. Scoones, A. C. Stirling, A. Smith, J. Thompson, E. Millstone, A. Ely, E. Arond, C. Folke, & P. Olsson. (2012) Transforming innovation for sustainability. Ecology and Society 17(2): 11. Leaver, J. D. (2011). Global food supply: a challenge for sustainable agriculture. Nutrition Bulletin, 36(4), 416-421. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01925.x Maloni, M. J., & M. E Brown. 2006. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Supply Chain: An Application in the Food Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (1): 35-52. McDonough, W., & M. Braungart. 2002. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way we Make Things. New York, N.Y.: North Point Press. NEA/Cranfield. 1994. Future Logistics Structures, the development of integrated supply chain management across 6 industry sectors. Tilburg, The Netherlands: NEA/Cranfield. Szekely, F., & M. Knirsch. 2005. Responsible Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility: Metrics for Sustainable Performance. European Management Journal 23 (6): 628-647. Tobler, C. , V.H. Visschers, M. Siegrist, (2011), Eating green. Consumers’ willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors. Appetite, 57 pp. 674–682 Vollenbroek, F. A. 2002. Sustainable development and the challenge of innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production 10 (3): 215–223. Weijers, S., B. Kuipers, & J. Beckers. 2002. Industry driven innovation for logistics service providers. Actes des Quatrièmes Rencontres Internacionales de la Recherche en Logistique (accessed February 20 ,2012). World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our common future : the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. New York, N.Y. : Oxford University Press. Yin R. K. 2009. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 4th Edition. Thousands Oals, CA: SAGE
Transport and degradation of propylene glycol in the vadose zone: model development and sensitivity analysis
Schotanus, D. ; Meeussen, J.C.L. ; Lissner, H. ; Ploeg, M.J. van der; Wehrer, M. ; Totsche, K.U. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014)15. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 9054 - 9066.
in-situ bioremediation - soil respiration - biodegradation - groundwater - diffusion - water - denitrification - contaminants - simulation - aggregate
Transport and degradation of de-icing chemical (containing propylene glycol, PG) in the vadose zone were studied with a lysimeter experiment and a model, in which transient water flow, kinetic degradation of PG and soil chemistry were combined. The lysimeter experiment indicated that aerobic as well as anaerobic degradation occurs in the vadose zone. Therefore, the model included both types of degradation, which was made possible by assuming advection-controlled (mobile) and diffusion-controlled (immobile) zones. In the mobile zone, oxygen can be transported by diffusion in the gas phase. The immobile zone is always water-saturated, and oxygen only diffuses slowly in the water phase. Therefore, the model is designed in a way that the redox potential can decrease when PG is degraded, and thus, anaerobic degradation can occur. In our model, manganese oxide (MnO2, which is present in the soil) and NO 3 - - 3 (applied to enhance biodegradation) can be used as electron acceptors for anaerobic degradation. The application of NO 3 - - 3 does not result in a lower leaching of PG nor in a slower depletion of MnO2. The thickness of the snowcover influences the leached fraction of PG, as with a high infiltration rate, transport is fast, there is less time for degradation and thus more PG will leach. The model showed that, in this soil, the effect of the water flow dominates over the effect of the degradation parameters on the leaching at a 1-m depth.
Modelling obesity outcomes: reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have grater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood
Lhachimi, S.K. ; Nusselder, W.J. ; Lobstein, T.J. ; Smit, H.A. ; Baili, P. ; Bennett, K. ; Kulik, M.C. ; Jackson-Leach, R. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Mackenbach, J.P. - \ 2013
Obesity Reviews 14 (2013)7. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 523 - 531.
european-union - health - overweight - disease - trends - burden - policy
A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the prevalence of obesity when entering adulthood; (ii) reducing the risk of becoming obese throughout adult life; and (iii) combinations of both approaches. We found that, while all approaches reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases and improve life expectancy, a given percentage reduction in obesity prevalence achieved during childhood had a smaller effect than the same percentage reduction in the risk of becoming obese applied throughout adulthood. A small increase in the probability of becoming obese during adulthood offsets a substantial reduction in prevalence of overweight/obesity achieved during childhood, with the gains from a 50% reduction in child obesity prevalence offset by a 10% increase in the probability of becoming obese in adulthood. We conclude that both policy approaches can improve the health profile throughout the life course of a cohort, but they are not equivalent, and a large reduction in child obesity prevalence may be reversed by a small increase in the risk of becoming overweight or obese in adulthood.
Nitrogen Footprint in China: Food, Energy, and Nonfood Goods
Gu, B.J. ; Leach, A.M. ; Ma, L. ; Galloway, J.N. ; Chang, S.X. ; Ge, Y. ; Chang, J. - \ 2013
Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)16. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 9217 - 9224.
ecological footprint - livestock production - reactive nitrogen - recent trends - systems - tracking - cycle
The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N-2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr included in calculating the N footprint are often incomplete. In this study, we comprehensively quantified the N footprint in China with an N mass balance approach. Results show that the per capita N footprint in China increased 68% between 1980 and 2008, from 19 to 32 kg N yr(-1). The Nr loss from the production and consumption of food was the largest component of the N footprint (70%) while energy and nonfood products made up the remainder in approximately equal portion in 2008. In contrast, in 1980, the food-related N footprint accounted for 86% of the overall N footprint, followed by nonfood products (8%) and energy (6%). The findings and methods of this study are generally comparable to that of the consumer-based analysis of the N-Calculator. This work provides policy makers quantitative information about the sources of China's N footprint and demonstrates the significant challenges in reducing Nr loss to the environment.
Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle
Erisman, J.W. ; Galloway, J. ; Seitzinger, S. ; Bleeker, A. ; Dise, N.B. ; Roxana Petrescu, A.M. ; Leach, A.M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2013
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 368 (2013)1621. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 9 p.
aquatic ecosystems - reactive nitrogen - climate-change - ozone - pollution - impact - policy - growth - oxide
The demand for more food is increasing fertilizer and land use, and the demand for more energy is increasing fossil fuel combustion, leading to enhanced losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Many thresholds for human and ecosystem health have been exceeded owing to Nr pollution, including those for drinking water (nitrates), air quality (smog, particulate matter, ground-level ozone), freshwater eutrophication, biodiversity loss, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and coastal ecosystems (dead zones). Each of these environmental effects can be magnified by the ‘nitrogen cascade’: a single atom of Nr can trigger a cascade of negative environmental impacts in sequence. Here, we provide an overview of the impact of Nr on the environment and human health, including an assessment of the magnitude of different environmental problems, and the relative importance of Nr as a contributor to each problem. In some cases, Nr loss to the environment is the key driver of effects (e.g. terrestrial and coastal eutrophication, nitrous oxide emissions), whereas in some other situations nitrogen represents a key contributor exacerbating a wider problem (e.g. freshwater pollution, biodiversity loss). In this way, the central role of nitrogen can remain hidden, even though it actually underpins many trans-boundary pollution problems.
Water quality monitoring Bonaire: Results monitoring November 2011 and recommendations for future research
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Leon, R. ; Vries, P. de; Koelemij, E.I. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C028/12) - 77
waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - monitoring - mariene gebieden - bonaire - caribisch gebied - water quality - eutrophication - marine areas - caribbean
On the island Bonaire, eutrophication is a point of serious concern, affecting the coral reefs in the marine park. Eutrophication can cause altered balance of the reef ecosystem because algae can outcompete corals, leading to a disturbed composition and deterioration of the biodiversity of the reef . The reef of Bonaire faces nutrient input by various sources, of which enriched groundwater outflow from land to the reef is considered to be a substantial one. Groundwater is enriched with nutrients e.g. due to leaking septic tanks. In order to reduce the input of nutrients on the reef via sewage water, a water treatment plant is being built on Bonaire. The treatment of sewage water will be extended in 2012 with a sewage system covering the so called sensitive zone, the urbanised area from Hato to Punt Vierkant. Based on the dimensions of the treatment plant and estimated connections to the plant, it can be assumed that a total of 17520-35040 kg of Nitrogen a year is removed from the sensitive zone, and will not leach out to the sea at the western coast of Bonaire. No estimates are known of the contribution of other sources to the total nitrogen load.
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