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B Vitamins Can Reduce Body Weight Gain by Increasing Metabolism-related Enzyme Activities in Rats Fed on a High-Fat Diet
Zheng, Ying ; Ma, A. ; Zheng, Ming C. ; Wang, Qiuzhen ; Liang, Hui ; Han, Xiuxia ; Schouten, Evert G. - \ 2018
- p. 174 - 183.
B vitamins - body weight gain - enzyme activities - obesity - rats

B vitamins are enzyme cofactors that play an important role in energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether B vitamin administration can reduce body weight (BW) gain by improving energy metabolism-related enzyme activities in rats fed on a highfat diet. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to one of the following five groups: control group (C), including rats fed on standard rat chow; four treatment groups (HO, HI, H2, and H3), in which rats were fed on a high-fat diet. Rats in the HI group were treated daily with 100 mg/kg BW thiamine (VB1), 100 mg/kg BW riboflavin (VB2), and 250 mg/kg BW niacin (VPP); rats in the H2 group were treated daily with 100 mg/kg BW pyridoxine (VB6), 100 mg/kg BW cobalamin (VB12), and 5 mg/kg BW folate (FA); and rats in the H3 group were treated daily with all of the B vitamins administered to the HI and H2 groups. After 12 weeks, the BW gains from the initial value were 154.5±58.4 g and 159.1±53.0 g in the HI and C groups, respectively, which were significantly less than the changes in the HO group (285.2±14.8 g, P<0.05). In the HO group, the plasma total cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG) levels were 1.59±0.30 mmol/L and 1,55±0.40 mmol/L, respectively, which were significantly greater than those in the HI group (1.19±0.18 mmol/L and 0.76±0.34 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05). The activities of transketolase (TK), glutathione reductase, and Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase were significantly increased in the B vitamin-treated groups and were significantly greater than those in the HO group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic acid kinase, and succinate dehydrogenase activities also were increased after treatment with B vitamins. Supplementation with B vitamins could effectively reduce BW gain and plasma levels of lipids by improving energy metabolism-related enzyme activities in rats, thus possibly providing potential benefits to humans.

Preface
Liu, Shijun ; Aoyama, Mikio ; Tekinerdogan, Bedir ; Zhang, Liang Jie - \ 2018
In: Edge Computing – EDGE 2018 Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 10973) - ISBN 9783319943398 - p. V - V.
Phylogenomics reveals multiple losses of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis
Griesmann, Maximilian ; Chang, Yue ; Liu, Xin ; Song, Yue ; Haberer, Georg ; Crook, Matthew B. ; Billault-Penneteau, Benjamin ; Lauressergues, Dominique ; Keller, Jean ; Imanishi, Leandro ; Roswanjaya, Yuda Purwana ; Kohlen, Wouter ; Pujic, Petar ; Battenberg, Kai ; Alloisio, Nicole ; Liang, Yuhu ; Hilhorst, Henk ; Salgado, Marco G. ; Hocher, Valerie ; Gherbi, Hassen ; Svistoonoff, Sergio ; Doyle, Jeff J. ; He, Shixu ; Xu, Yan ; Xu, Shanyun ; Qu, Jing ; Gao, Qiang ; Fang, Xiaodong ; Fu, Yuan ; Normand, Philippe ; Berry, Alison M. ; Wall, Luis G. ; Ané, Jean Michel ; Pawlowski, Katharina ; Xu, Xun ; Yang, Huanming ; Spannagl, Manuel ; Mayer, Klaus F.X. ; Wong, Gane Ka Shu ; Parniske, Martin ; Delaux, Pierre Marc ; Cheng, Shifeng - \ 2018
Science (2018). - ISSN 0036-8075 - 18 p.

The root nodule symbiosis of plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria impacts global nitrogen cycles and food production but is restricted to a subset of genera within a single clade of flowering plants. To explore the genetic basis for this scattered occurrence, we sequenced the genomes of ten plant species covering the diversity of nodule morphotypes, bacterial symbionts and infection strategies. In a genome-wide comparative analysis of a total of 37 plant species, we discovered signatures of multiple independent loss-of-function events in the indispensable symbiotic regulator NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) in ten out of 13 genomes of non-nodulating species within this clade. The discovery that multiple independent losses shaped the present day distribution of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in plants reveals a phylogenetically wider distribution in evolutionary history and a so far underestimated selection pressure against this symbiosis.

Auxin transport, metabolism, and signalling during nodule initiation: indeterminate and determinate nodules
Kohlen, W. ; Ng, Jason Liang Pin ; Deinum, E.E. ; Mathesius, Ulrike - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Botany 69 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 229 - 244.
Most legumes can form a unique type of lateral organ on their roots: root nodules. These structures host symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. Several different types of nodules can be found in nature, but the two best-studied types are called indeterminate and determinate nodules. These two types differ with respect to the presence or absence of a persistent nodule meristem, which consistently correlates with the cortical cell layers giving rise to the nodule primordia. Similar to other plant developmental processes, auxin signalling overlaps with the site of organ initiation and meristem activity. Here, we review how auxin contributes to early nodule development. We focus on changes in auxin transport, signalling, and metabolism during nodule initiation, describing both experimental evidence and computer modelling. We discuss how indeterminate and determinate nodules may differ in their mechanisms for generating localized auxin response maxima and highlight outstanding questions for future research.
Developing a water and nitrogen management model for greenhouse vegetable production in China : Sensitivity analysis and evaluation
Liang, Hao ; Hu, Kelin ; Batchelor, William D. ; Qin, Wei ; Li, Baoguo - \ 2018
Ecological Modelling 367 (2018). - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 24 - 33.
Auto-calibration - Greenhouse vegetable - Sensitivity analysis - Water and nitrogen management - WHCNS-Veg model
Excessive water and fertilizer inputs have led to a series of environmental problems in vegetable production areas in China. Identifying the fates of water and nutrients is crucial to develop best management strategies in intensive vegetable production systems. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a scientific water and nitrogen (N) management tool for intensive greenhouse vegetable production in China, and (ii) evaluate the model performance in the simulating the fate of water and N, and vegetable growth under different water and N management practices in China. A vegetable growth component was added to the field soil-crop system model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator), named WHCNS_Veg. Parameters for the model were estimated and a sensitivity analysis was conducted by coupling the model with the model-independent parameter estimation program (PEST). Data used to test the model came from two years of cucumber and tomato experiments with various water and N combinations in Shandong province, China. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the soil hydraulic parameters and vegetable genetic parameters had a relatively higher sensitivity compared with those of N transformation parameters. The saturated soil water content had the highest sensitivity among soil hydraulic parameters, and the total available accumulated temperature, crop coefficient and maximum root depth had higher sensitivity for both vegetable crops. Among the N transformation parameters, the parameters related to nitrification had the highest sensitivity. The automatic optimization algorithm performed well in adjusting soil hydraulic parameters, vegetable genetic parameters and N transformation parameters. The normalized root mean square error for soil water content, soil nitrate concentration, marketable fresh yield and vegetable N uptake were 5.7%, 28.0%, 2.7% and 8.3%, respectively, and indices of agreement were 0.727, 0.730, 0.997 and 0.832, respectively. The results indicated that the WHCNS_Veg model has great potential to simulate and analyze water and N fates, and vegetable growth for the intensive greenhouse vegetable production in China.
A microbiomic analysis in African Americans with colonic lesions reveals streptococcus sp.VT162 as a marker of neoplastic transformation
Brim, Hassan ; Yooseph, Shibu ; Lee, Edward ; Sherif, Zaki ; Abbas, Muneer ; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O. ; Varma, Sudhir ; Torralba, Manolito ; Dowd, Scot E. ; Nelson, Karen E. ; Pathmasiri, Wimal ; Sumner, Susan ; Vos, Willem De; Liang, Qiaoyi ; Yu, Jun ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Ashktorab, Hassan - \ 2017
Genes 8 (2017)11. - ISSN 2073-4425
AfricanAmericans - Colorectal cancer - Metabolomics - Metagenomic linkage groups - Microbiota
Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from colon cancer and matched normal tissues was analyzed to determine the microbiota composition (using 16S rDNA) and genomic content (metagenomics). Metagenomic functions with discriminative power between healthy and neoplastic specimens were established. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q-PCR) using primers and probes specific to Streptococcus sp. VT_162 were used to validate this bacterium association with neoplastic transformation in stool samples from two independent cohorts of African Americans and Chinese patients with colorectal lesions. The metabolomic analysis of adenomas revealed low amino acids content. The microbiota in both cancer vs. normal tissues and adenoma vs. normal stool samples were different at the 16S rRNA gene level. Cross-mapping of metagenomic data led to 9 markers with significant discriminative power between normal and diseased specimens. These markers identified with Streptococcus sp. VT_162. Q-PCR data showed a statistically significant presence of this bacterium in advanced adenoma and cancer samples in an independent cohort of CRC patients. We defined metagenomic functions from Streptococcus sp. VT_162 with discriminative power among cancers vs. matched normal and adenomas vs. healthy subjects’ stools. Streptococcus sp. VT_162 specific 16S rDNA was validated in an independent cohort. These findings might facilitate non-invasive screening for colorectal cancer.
Causes of variation among rice models in yield response to CO2 examined with Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and growth chamber experiments
Hasegawa, Toshihiro ; Li, Tao ; Yin, Xinyou ; Zhu, Yan ; Boote, Kenneth ; Baker, Jeffrey ; Bregaglio, Simone ; Buis, Samuel ; Confalonieri, Roberto ; Fugice, Job ; Fumoto, Tamon ; Gaydon, Donald ; Kumar, Soora Naresh ; Lafarge, Tanguy ; Marcaida, Manuel ; Masutomi, Yuji ; Nakagawa, Hiroshi ; Oriol, Philippe ; Ruget, Françoise ; Singh, Upendra ; Tang, Liang ; Tao, Fulu ; Wakatsuki, Hitomi ; Wallach, Daniel ; Wang, Yulong ; Wilson, Lloyd Ted ; Yang, Lianxin ; Yang, Yubin ; Yoshida, Hiroe ; Zhang, Zhao ; Zhu, Jianguo - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 13 p.

The CO2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO2] (E-[CO2]) by comparison to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO2] varied significantly among the rice models. The variation was not random: models that overestimated at one experiment simulated greater yield enhancements at the others. The variation was not associated with model structure or magnitude of photosynthetic response to E-[CO2] but was significantly associated with the predictions of leaf area. This suggests that modelled secondary effects of E-[CO2] on morphological development, primarily leaf area, are the sources of model uncertainty. Rice morphological development is conservative to carbon acquisition. Uncertainty will be reduced by incorporating this conservative nature of the morphological response to E-[CO2] into the models. Nitrogen levels, particularly under limited situations, make the prediction more uncertain. Improving models to account for [CO2] × N interactions is necessary to better evaluate management practices under climate change.

Estimation of high-resolution terrestrial evapotranspiration from Landsat data using a simple Taylor skill fusion method
Yao, Yunjun ; Liang, Shunlin ; Li, Xianglan ; Zhang, Yuhu ; Chen, Jiquan ; Jia, Kun ; Zhang, Xiaotong ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Wang, Xuanyu ; Zhang, Lilin ; Xu, Jia ; Shao, Changliang ; Posse, Gabriela ; Li, Yingnian ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Varlagin, Andrej ; Moors, Eddy J. ; Boike, Julia ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Buchmann, Nina ; Billesbach, D.P. ; Beringer, Jason ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Ardö, Jonas ; Paul-Limoges, Eugénie ; Emmel, Carmen ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Sachs, Torsten ; Gruening, Carsten ; Gioli, Beniamino ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Gielen, Bert - \ 2017
Journal of Hydrology 553 (2017). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 508 - 526.
Eddy covariance - Fusion method - High-resolution products - Landsat data - Terrestrial evapotranspiration

Estimation of high-resolution terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) from Landsat data is important in many climatic, hydrologic, and agricultural applications, as it can help bridging the gap between existing coarse-resolution ET products and point-based field measurements. However, there is large uncertainty among existing ET products from Landsat that limit their application. This study presents a simple Taylor skill fusion (STS) method that merges five Landsat-based ET products and directly measured ET from eddy covariance (EC) to improve the global estimation of terrestrial ET. The STS method uses a weighted average of the individual ET products and weights are determined by their Taylor skill scores (S). The validation with site-scale measurements at 206 EC flux towers showed large differences and uncertainties among the five ET products. The merged ET product exhibited the best performance with a decrease in the averaged root-mean-square error (RMSE) by 2–5 W/m2 when compared to the individual products. To evaluate the reliability of the STS method at the regional scale, the weights of the STS method for these five ET products were determined using EC ground-measurements. An example of regional ET mapping demonstrates that the STS-merged ET can effectively integrate the individual Landsat ET products. Our proposed method provides an improved high-resolution ET product for identifying agricultural crop water consumption and providing a diagnostic assessment for global land surface models.

Response of soil dissolved organic matter to microplastic addition in Chinese loess soil
Liu, Hongfei ; Yang, Xiaomei ; Liu, Guobin ; Liang, Chutao ; Xue, Sha ; Chen, Hao ; Ritsema, Coen J. ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2017
Chemosphere 185 (2017). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 907 - 917.
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) - Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) - Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) - Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) - Microplastic
Plastic debris is accumulating in agricultural land due to the increased use of plastic mulches, which is causing serious environmental problems, especially for biochemical and physical properties of the soil. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in driving soil biogeochemistry, but little information is available on the effects of plastic residues, especially microplastic, on soil DOM. We conducted a soil-incubation experiment in a climate-controlled chamber with three levels of microplastic added to loess soil collected from the Loess Plateau in China: 0% (control, CK), 7% (M1) and 28% (M2) (w/w). We analysed the soil contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4 +, NO3 −, dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), and PO4 3− and the activities of fluorescein diacetate hydrolase (FDAse) and phenol oxidase. The higher level of microplastic addition significantly increased the nutrient contents of the DOM solution. The lower level of addition had no significant effect on the DOM solution during the first seven days, but the rate of DOM decomposition decreased in M1 between days 7 and 30, which increased the nutrient contents. The microplastic facilitated the accumulation of high-molecular-weight humic-like material between days 7 and 30. The DOM solutions were mainly comprised of high-molecular-weight humic-like material in CK and M1 and of high-molecular-weight humic-like material and tyrosine-like material in M2. The Microplastic stimulated the activities of both enzymes. Microplastic addition thus stimulated enzymatic activity, activated pools of organic C, N, and P, and was beneficial for the accumulation of dissolved organic C, N and P.
High-fat feeding rather than obesity drives taxonomical and functional changes in the gut microbiota in mice
Xiao, Liang ; Sonne, Si Brask ; Feng, Qiang ; Chen, Ning ; Xia, Zhongkui ; Li, Xiaoping ; Fang, Zhiwei ; Zhang, Dongya ; Fjære, Even ; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden ; Derrien, Muriel ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Tang, Longqing ; Li, Junhua ; Zhang, Jianfeng ; Liu, Chuan ; Hao, Qin ; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte ; Mortensen, Alicja ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Licht, Tine Rask ; Yang, Huanming ; Wang, Jian ; Li, Yingrui ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Wang, Jun ; Madsen, Lise ; Kristiansen, Karsten - \ 2017
Microbiome 5 (2017)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - p. 43 - 43.
129S6/Sv mice - C57BL/6J mice - High-fat feeding - Indomethacin - Microbiome - Microbiota - Obesity

BACKGROUND: It is well known that the microbiota of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice differs from that of lean mice, but to what extent, this difference reflects the obese state or the diet is unclear. To dissociate changes in the gut microbiota associated with high HF feeding from those associated with obesity, we took advantage of the different susceptibility of C57BL/6JBomTac (BL6) and 129S6/SvEvTac (Sv129) mice to diet-induced obesity and of their different responses to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, where inhibition of COX activity in BL6 mice prevents HF diet-induced obesity, but in Sv129 mice accentuates obesity.

RESULTS: Using HiSeq-based whole genome sequencing, we identified taxonomic and functional differences in the gut microbiota of the two mouse strains fed regular low-fat or HF diets with or without supplementation with the COX-inhibitor, indomethacin. HF feeding rather than obesity development led to distinct changes in the gut microbiota. We observed a robust increase in alpha diversity, gene count, abundance of genera known to be butyrate producers, and abundance of genes involved in butyrate production in Sv129 mice compared to BL6 mice fed either a LF or a HF diet. Conversely, the abundance of genes involved in propionate metabolism, associated with increased energy harvest, was higher in BL6 mice than Sv129 mice.

CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were predominantly driven by high-fat feeding rather than reflecting the obese state of the mice. Differences in the abundance of butyrate and propionate producing bacteria in the gut may at least in part contribute to the observed differences in obesity propensity in Sv129 and BL6 mice.

Genome-wide identification, cloning and functional analysis of the Zinc/Iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) gene family in trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)
Fu, Xing Zheng ; Zhou, Xue ; Xing, Fei ; Ling, Li Li ; Chun, Chang Pin ; Cao, Li ; Aarts, Mark G.M. ; Peng, Liang Zhi - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X
Citrus - Iron deficiency - Yeast complementation - Zinc deficiency - ZIP gene

Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency are widespread among citrus plants, but the molecular mechanisms regarding uptake and transport of these two essential metal ions in citrus are still unclear. In the present study, 12 members of the Zn/Fe-regulated transporter (ZRT/IRT)-related protein (ZIP) gene family were identified and isolated from a widely used citrus rootstock, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), and the genes were correspondingly named as PtZIPs according to the sequence and functional similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana ZIPs. The 12 PtZIP genes were predicted to encode proteins of 334-419 amino acids, harboring 6-9 putative transmembrane (TM) domains. All of the PtZIP proteins contained the highly conserved ZIP signature sequences in TM-IV, and nine of them showed a variable region rich in histidine residues between TM-III and TM-IV. Phylogenetic analysis subdivided the PtZIPs into four groups, similar as found for the ZIP family of A. thaliana, with clustered PtZIPs sharing a similar gene structure. Expression analysis showed that the PtZIP genes were very differently induced in roots and leaves under conditions of Zn, Fe and Mn deficiency. Yeast complementation tests indicated that PtIRT1, PtZIP1, PtZIP2, PtZIP3, and PtZIP12 were able to complement the zrt1zrt2 mutant, which was deficient in Zn uptake; PtIRT1 and PtZIP7 were able to complement the fet3fet4 mutant, which was deficient in Fe uptake, and PtIRT1 was able to complement the smf1 mutant, which was deficient in Mn uptake, suggesting their respective functions in Zn, Fe, and Mn transport. The present study broadens our understanding of metal ion uptake and transport and functional divergence of the various PtZIP genes in citrus plants.

Data on the effect of boiling on the organosulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic
Tocmo, Restituto ; Wu, Yuchen ; Liang, Dong ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Huang, Dejian - \ 2017
Data in Brief 10 (2017). - ISSN 2352-3409 - p. 221 - 226.

This article contains experimental data on the identification and quantification of the organosulfides on boiled garlic extracts. Data included are related to the research article “Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic” (R. Tocmo, Y. Wu, D. Liang, V. Fogliano, D. Huang, 2016) [1]. Characterization was carried out by GC–MS and HPLC. Dose-response curves obtained from the cell-based H2S-releasing capacity assay of allicin transformation products, namely vinyl dithiins and ajoene are also included. DATS-E values were calculated from these dose-response curves to quantify the contribution of the individual polysulfides to the H2S-releasing capacity of boiled extracts.

Is low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D a possible link between pulmonary tuberculosis and type 2 diabetes?
Wang, Qiuzhen ; Ma, Aiguo ; Han, Xiuxia ; Zhang, Huizhen ; Zhao, Shanliang ; Liang, Hui ; Cai, Jing ; Kok, Frans J. ; Schouten, Evert G. - \ 2017
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26 (2017)2. - ISSN 0964-7058 - p. 241 - 246.
25-hydroxyvitamin D - Body mass index - Link - Pulmonary tuberculosis - Type 2 diabetes
Background and Objectives: Although vitamin D is implicated in the generation of anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin, which plays a key role against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes (DM), its role in the co-existence of these two diseases (PTB-DM) is still uncertain. This study explored the association of vitamin D status with prevalent PTB, PTB-DM and DM. Methods and Study Design: We randomly selected 130 PTB patients, 90 PTB-DM, 91 DM and 134 controls. Serum 25(OH)D was determined. A structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were administered. Results: Serum 25(OH)D in PTB and PTB-DM were 12.2±2.2 ng/mL and 12.9±2.5 ng/mL, respectively, which were lower than those in DM and control groups. Odds ratios of PTB and PTB-DM comparing extreme quartiles of 25(OH)D (lower than 8.6 ng/mL versus ≥26.6 ng/mL) were 3.26 and 2.27, respectively. These associations remained after adjustment for possible risk factors [OR (95% CI)=4.73 (2.04-10.9) and 2.50 (1.04-6.02), respectively]. A synergistic interaction was observed between low 25(OH)D and underweight in respect to prevalent PTB-DM [OR=24.6 vs 2.50 for lowest quartile of 25(OH) D and 4.59 for underweight]. Conclusions: Odds ratios of low serum 25(OH)D for PTB and PTB-DM were greater than 1.0, and were even much greater when combined with underweight. However, since the association of serum 25(OH)D with PTB was stronger than with PTB-DM, we could not draw the conclusion that vitamin D is a link between PTB and DM.
Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum
Tocmo, Restituto ; Lai, Abigail Nianci ; Wu, Yuchen ; Liang, Dong ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Huang, Dejian - \ 2017
Journal of Functional Foods 30 (2017). - ISSN 1756-4646 - p. 254 - 259.
Diallyl trisulphide - Fermented garlic - Hydrogen sulphide-releasing capacity - Lactobacillus plantarum
Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of pH below 4.0 and an increase in titratable acidity from an initial value of less 0.05% to 0.3 and 0.5%, respectively. Fermentation, alone, decreased allicin and vinyl dithiins, but increased the concentration of DATS. The H2S-releasing activity, expressed as DATS-E (mmol DATS/g oil), of raw-fermented (2.91) garlic was not significantly different to that of raw (4.74) garlic, but values in blanched (0.41) and blanched-fermented (0.71) samples significantly decreased. Reductions in DATS-E values in blanched and blanched-fermented garlic corresponded well with the negative effect of blanching on the organosulphide concentrations of the products. Fermentation with L. plantarum retains H2S-releasing activity by increasing DATS, despite notable losses in allicin and allicin transformation products.
Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic
Tocmo, Restituto ; Wu, Yuchen ; Liang, Dong ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Huang, Dejian - \ 2017
Food Chemistry 221 (2017). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1867 - 1873.
Boiling - Diallyl trisulfide - Garlic - Hydrogen sulfide-releasing capacity
Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H2S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H2S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30 min and the solvent extracts were analyzed by GC–MS/FID and HPLC. A cell-based assay was used to measure the H2S-releasing activity of the extracts. Results showed that the amounts of allyl polysulfides increased in crushed garlic boiled for 6–10 min; however, prolonging the thermal treatment to 20 or 30 min decreased their concentrations. Data of the H2S-releasing activity, expressed as diallyl trisulfide equivalents (DATS-E), parallel this trend, being significantly higher at 6 and 10 min boiling. Our results showed enhancement of H2S-releasing activity upon moderate boiling, suggesting that shorter cooking time may maximize its health benefits as a dietary source of natural H2S donors.
Influences of Frozen Ground and Climate Change on Hydrological Processes in an Alpine Watershed : A Case Study in the Upstream Area of the Hei'he River, Northwest China
Zhang, Yanlin ; Cheng, Guodong ; Li, Xin ; Jin, Huijun ; Yang, Dawen ; Flerchinger, Gerald N. ; Chang, Xiaoli ; Bense, Victor F. ; Han, Xujun ; Liang, Ji - \ 2017
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 28 (2017)2. - ISSN 1045-6740 - p. 420 - 432.
Climate change - Cold regions - Distributed hydrological model - Frozen ground - Hei'he River basin

In cold regions, the occurrence of frozen ground has a fundamental control over the character of the water cycle. To investigate the impact of changing ground temperature conditions on hydrological processes in the context of climate change, a distributed hydrological model with an explicit frozen ground module was applied to an alpine watershed in the upstream area of the Hei'he River in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China. After evaluating the base model, we considered scenarios of frost-free ground and climate change. Results showed that the base model with a frozen ground module successfully captured the water balance and thermal regimes in the basin. When the frozen ground module was turned off, the simulated groundwater recharge and base flow increased by a factor of two to three because surface runoff caused by exceeding infiltration capacities at high elevations, which occurred in the base model, was eliminated. Consequently, the river hydrograph became smoother and flatter, with summer flood peaks delayed and reduced in volume. The annual mean depth where subsurface runoff was generated, was about 2.4m compared to 1.1m in the base model. For a warming climate, a combination of increasing evapotranspiration and reducing permafrost area results in smoother and flatter hydrographs, and a reduction in total river discharge. Although our analysis using numerical models has its limitations, it still provides new quantitative understanding of the influences of frozen ground and climate change on hydrological processes in an alpine watershed.

Co-loading and intestine-specific delivery of multiple antioxidants in pH-responsive microspheres based on TEMPO-oxidized polysaccharides
Shi, Mengxuan ; Bai, Jie ; Zhao, Liyun ; Yu, Xinrui ; Liang, Jingjing ; Liu, Ying ; Norde, Willem ; Li, Yuan - \ 2017
Carbohydrate Polymers 157 (2017). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 858 - 865.
In this study, pH-responsive microspheres loaded with multiple antioxidants were developed for intestine-specific delivery and exhibited synergistic activity. They consist of chitosan (CS)-coated microspheres made of TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) polymers, of which the carboxyl (COO−) groups are cross-linked via ferric ions (Fe3+), allowing the hydrophobic (β-carotene) and hydrophilic (anthocyanins) antioxidants to be simultaneously incorporated. CLSM images showed successful co-encapsulation of β-carotene and anthocyanins. The in vitro release kinetics of co-loaded CS-OKGM microspheres in simulated GI fluids indicated that the microspheres retain the dual antioxidants in an acidic gastric environment and release them at intestinal pH. Free radical scavenging experiments demonstrated that multiple antioxidants loaded into OKGM system had synergistic activity with enhanced stability against heat. The multi-functional CS-OKGM microspheres showed great potential for multiple antioxidants and intestine-specific delivery with enhanced stability.
Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
Kassebaum, N.J. ; Barber, R.M. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Dandona, L. ; Gething, Peter W. ; Hay, S.I. ; Kinfu, Yohannes ; Larson, H.J. ; Xiao, Liang ; Lim, S.S. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2016
The Lancet 388 (2016)10053. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1775 - 1812.
Background

In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015.

Methods

We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10–54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level. We quantified eight underlying causes of maternal death and four timing categories, improving estimation methods since GBD 2013 for adult all-cause mortality, HIV-related maternal mortality, and late maternal death. Secondary analyses then allowed systematic examination of drivers of trends, including the relation between maternal mortality and coverage of specific reproductive health-care services as well as assessment of observed versus expected maternal mortality as a function of Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility.

Findings

Only ten countries achieved MDG 5, but 122 of 195 countries have already met SDG 3.1. Geographical disparities widened between 1990 and 2015 and, in 2015, 24 countries still had a maternal mortality ratio greater than 400. The proportion of all maternal deaths occurring in the bottom two SDI quintiles, where haemorrhage is the dominant cause of maternal death, increased from roughly 68% in 1990 to more than 80% in 2015. The middle SDI quintile improved the most from 1990 to 2015, but also has the most complicated causal profile. Maternal mortality in the highest SDI quintile is mostly due to other direct maternal disorders, indirect maternal disorders, and abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and/or miscarriage. Historical patterns suggest achievement of SDG 3.1 will require 91% coverage of one antenatal care visit, 78% of four antenatal care visits, 81% of in-facility delivery, and 87% of skilled birth attendance.

Interpretation

Several challenges to improving reproductive health lie ahead in the SDG era. Countries should establish or renew systems for collection and timely dissemination of health data; expand coverage and improve quality of family planning services, including access to contraception and safe abortion to address high adolescent fertility; invest in improving health system capacity, including coverage of routine reproductive health care and of more advanced obstetric care—including EmOC; adapt health systems and data collection systems to monitor and reverse the increase in indirect, other direct, and late maternal deaths, especially in high SDI locations; and examine their own performance with respect to their SDI level, using that information to formulate strategies to improve performance and ensure optimum reproductive health of their population.
Global Forest Biodiversity Initiative (GFBI)- Dataset Global#1
Liang, J. ; Crowther, T.W. ; Picard, N. ; Barrett, Curtis ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Lu, Huicui ; Zhu, J. - \ 2016
Data underpinning the Research Article entitled Positive Biodiversity–Productivity Relationship Predominant in Global Forests
Genome resequencing and comparative variome analysis in a Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea collection
Cheng, Feng ; Wu, Jian ; Cai, Chengcheng ; Fu, Lixia ; Liang, Jianli ; Borm, Theo ; Zhuang, Mu ; Zhang, Yangyong ; Zhang, Fenglan ; Bonnema, Guusje ; Wang, Xiaowu - \ 2016
Scientific Data 3 (2016). - ISSN 2052-4463

The closely related species Brassica rapa and B. oleracea encompass a wide range of vegetable, fodder and oil crops. The release of their reference genomes has facilitated resequencing collections of B. rapa and B. oleracea aiming to build their variome datasets. These data can be used to investigate the evolutionary relationships between and within the different species and the domestication of the crops, hereafter named morphotypes. These data can also be used in genetic studies aiming at the identification of genes that influence agronomic traits. We selected and resequenced 199 B. rapa and 119 B. oleracea accessions representing 12 and nine morphotypes, respectively. Based on these resequencing data, we obtained 2,249,473 and 3,852,169 high quality SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms), as well as 303,617 and 417,004 InDels for the B. rapa and B. oleracea populations, respectively. The variome datasets of B. rapa and B. oleracea represent valuable resources to researchers working on evolution, domestication or breeding of Brassica vegetable crops.

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