Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties
Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Ketel, Eva C. ; Linden, Erik van der; Forde, Ciarán G. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 95.
Bite size - Consumption time - Eating rate - Food consistency - Food oral processing - Liking

Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.

Botanisch bij de les met abiotische stress
Linden, Gerard van der - \ 2018
Genetic diversity and mechanisms of salt tolerance of Miscanthus
Chen, Chang-Lin - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard van der Linden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433228 - 198
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean
Fowler, Ashley M. ; Jørgensen, A.M. ; Svendsen, Jon C. ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Jones, Daniel O.B. ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Booth, David J. ; Brabant, Robin ; Callahan, Emily ; Claisse, Jeremy T. ; Dahlgren, Thomas G. ; Degraer, Steven ; Dokken, Quenton R. ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Johns, David G. ; Leewis, Robert J. ; Lindeboom, Han J. ; Linden, Olof ; May, Roel ; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Ottersen, Geir ; Schroeder, Donna M. ; Shastri, Sunil M. ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Todd, Victoria ; Hoey, Gert Van; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Coolen, Joop W.P. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (2018). - ISSN 1540-9295 - 8 p.
The removal of thousands of structures associated with oil and gas development from the world’s oceans is well underway, yet the environmental impacts of this decommissioning practice remain unknown. Similar impacts will be associated with the eventual removal of offshore wind turbines. We conducted a global survey of environmental experts to guide best decommissioning practices in the North Sea, a region with a substantial removal burden. In contrast to current regulations, 94.7% of experts (36 out of 38) agreed that a more flexible case-by- case approach to decommissioning could benefit the North Sea environment. Partial removal options were considered to deliver better environmental outcomes than complete removal for platforms, but both approaches were equally supported for wind turbines. Key considerations identified for
decommissioning were biodiversity enhancement, provision of reef habitat, and protection from bottom trawling, all of which are negatively affected by complete removal. We provide recommendations to guide the revision of offshore decommissioning policy, including a temporary suspension of obligatory removal.
Lipase diffusion in oil-filled, alginate micro- and macrobeads
Leusden, P. van; Hartog, G.J.M. den; Bast, A. ; Postema, M. ; Linden, E. van der; Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 85 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 242 - 247.
Oil digestion - Microbeads - Encapsulation - Diffusion - Maxwell-Cattaneo equation
Triglycerides, which are broken down in the lower part of the intestinal tract, give a stronger ileal brake feedback, resulting in a feeling of satiety and causing people to eat less. The digestion of triglycerides into fatty acids by lipase in the intestine can be delayed by encapsulating oil droplets. In this study the release of fatty acids and oil droplet breakdown in a simulated intestinal system was investigated, for oil droplets encapsulated in alginate micro- (10.7 μm) and macrobeads (1.77 mm). It was found that fatty acid release rate was greatly decreased by encapsulating the oil droplets into an alginate matrix compared to loose droplets. Microscopic imaging of the breakdown of the oil droplets showed a sharp front moving from the bead interface to the centre of the bead, and the change in position of the front scaled linear with time. The motion of the front is well described by combining the mass balance for lipase with a Maxwell-Cattaneo type equation, for the mass flux vector. The front in microbeads seemed to move slightly slower (0.15 (±0.04) μm per minute) than for the macrobeads (0.20 (±0.02) μm per minute). The release of free fatty acids in microbeads was faster than in macrobeads, despite the slower front movement, because of the larger amount of surface area available.
The role of tomato WRKY genes in plant responses to combined abiotic and biotic stresses
Bai, Yuling ; Sunarti, Sri ; Kissoudis, Christos ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Abiotic stress - Biotic stress - Combined stresses - Disease resistance - Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) - PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI)

In the field, plants constantly face a plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses that can impart detrimental effects on plants. In response to multiple stresses, plants can rapidly reprogram their transcriptome through a tightly regulated and highly dynamic regulatory network where WRKY transcription factors can act as activators or repressors. WRKY transcription factors have diverse biological functions in plants, but most notably are key players in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In tomato there are 83 WRKY genes identified. Here we review recent progress on functions of these tomato WRKY genes and their homologs in other plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, with a special focus on their involvement in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In particular, we highlight WRKY genes that play a role in plant responses to a combination of abiotic and biotic stresses.

LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 2 : sensitivity analysis and evaluation of sub-models
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1 - 12.
beef cattle - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - sensitivity analysis - yield gap

The model LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle) has been developed to assess potential and feed-limited growth and production of beef cattle in different areas of the world and to identify the processes responsible for the yield gap. Sensitivity analysis and evaluation of model results with experimental data are important steps after model development. The first aim of this paper, therefore, is to identify which parameters affect the output of LiGAPS-Beef most by conducting sensitivity analyses. The second aim is to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoregulation sub-model and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using a one-at-a-time approach. The upper critical temperature (UCT) simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model was most affected by the body core temperature and parameters affecting latent heat release from the skin. The lower critical temperature (LCT) and UCT were considerably affected by weather variables, especially ambient temperature and wind speed. Sensitivity analysis for the feed intake and digestion sub-model showed that the digested protein per kg feed intake was affected to a larger extent than the metabolisable energy (ME) content. Sensitivity analysis for LiGAPS-Beef was conducted for ¾ Brahman×¼ Shorthorn cattle in Australia and Hereford cattle in Uruguay. Body core temperature, conversion of digestible energy to ME, net energy requirements for maintenance, and several parameters associated with heat release affected feed efficiency at the herd level most. Sensitivity analyses have contributed, therefore, to insight which parameters are to be investigated in more detail when applying LiGAPS-Beef. Model evaluation was conducted by comparing model simulations with independent data from experiments. Measured heat production in experiments corresponded fairly well to the heat production simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model. Measured ME contents from two data sets corresponded well to the ME contents simulated with the feed intake and digestion sub-model. The relative mean absolute errors were 9.3% and 6.4% of the measured ME contents for the two data sets. In conclusion, model evaluation indicates the thermoregulation sub-model can deal with a wide range of weather conditions, and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with a variety of feeds, which corresponds to the aim of LiGAPS-Beef to simulate cattle in different beef production systems across the world.

LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 1 : model description and illustration
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1 - 11.
beef cattle - growth - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - yield gap

The expected increase in the global demand for livestock products calls for insight in the scope to increase actual production levels across the world. This insight can be obtained by using theoretical concepts of production ecology. These concepts distinguish three production levels for livestock: potential (i.e. theoretical maximum) production, which is defined by genotype and climate only; feed-limited production, which is limited by feed quantity and quality; and actual production. The difference between the potential or limited production and the actual production is the yield gap. The objective of this paper, the first in a series of three, is to present a mechanistic, dynamic model simulating potential and feed-limited production for beef cattle, which can be used to assess yield gaps. A novelty of this model, named LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle), is the identification of the defining factors (genotype and climate) and limiting factors (feed quality and available feed quantity) for cattle growth by integrating sub-models on thermoregulation, feed intake and digestion, and energy and protein utilisation. Growth of beef cattle is simulated at the animal and herd level. The model is designed to be applicable to different beef production systems across the world. Main model inputs are breed-specific parameters, daily weather data, information about housing, and data on feed quality and quantity. Main model outputs are live weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (FE) at the animal and herd level. Here, the model is presented, and its use is illustrated for Charolais and Brahman × Shorthorn cattle in France and Australia. Potential and feed-limited production were assessed successfully, and we show that FE of herds is highest for breeds most adapted to the local climate conditions. LiGAPS-Beef also identified the factors that define and limit growth and production of cattle. Hence, we argue the model has scope to be used as a tool for the assessment and analysis of yield gaps in beef production systems.

Rheology and microstructure of dispersions of protein fibrils and cellulose microfibrils
Peng, Jinfeng ; Calabrese, Vincenzo ; Veen, Sandra J. ; Versluis, Peter ; Velikov, Krassimir P. ; Venema, Paul ; Linden, Erik van der - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 82 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 196 - 208.
Bacterial cellulose microfibrils - Microstructure - Protein fibrils - Rheology - Stability - Whey protein isolate
Mixtures of protein based fibrils and bacterial cellulose based microfibrils (BC) were investigated for macroscopic stability, rheology and microstructure, prepared under different conditions. The protein based fibrils are obtained after prolonged heating of whey protein isolate (WPI) at 80 °C at pH 2. Mixtures of WPI and BC microfibrils at pH 2 were stable at BC microfibril concentrations of 0.2 wt% and above. The mixtures were thixotropic showing hysteresis upon the reversal of the shear flow. Upon prolonged heating, the rheological properties and microstructure of the mixtures at pH 2 were modified. It is concluded that the order of mixing and heating only has an effect on G′ when the BC concentration is low. For the viscosity as a function of shear rate the effect of order of mixing and heating is much smaller.
Effects of structure on hydrogel microbead function
Leusden, Pauline van - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Erik van der Linden; Leonard Sagis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438568 - 136
Water-saving potatoes : exploring and characterizing drought tolerance mechanisms
Aliche, Ernest B. - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard van der Linden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432672 - 260
5000 liter water voor één kilo rijst
Linden, Gerard van der; Jongschaap, Raymond - \ 2018
Predicting phase separation in aqueous PEO35-Dextran100 mixtures using a virial expansion
Dewi, B.P.C. ; Venema, P. ; Linden, E. van der - \ 2018
Proteins and polysaccharides, often referred to as biopolymers, are essential building blocks of food systems. These biopolymers have a strong tendency to phase separate, which can be useful to structure foods and to impose specific food structures. The prediction of the extent of phase separation is therefore important to control properties of food systems. In this study, phase separation was specifically studied for aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO35) and dextran100 at pH 6.8 (20oC). An experimental phase diagram was determined from 234 mixtures of PEO35-dextran100, covering the 1-phase and 2-phase region. Second virial coefficients using membrane osmometry were determined for the PEO35 and dextran100. The values were then used to predict their phase behaviour. We build on previous work following the same approach (Ersch et al., 2016a, Ersch et al., 2016b). The phase diagram as predicted from our second virial approach is in a good agreement with the experimentally determined phase diagram.
Drought response in field grown potatoes and the interactions between canopy growth and yield
Aliche, Ernest B. ; Oortwijn, Marian ; Theeuwen, Tom P.J.M. ; Bachem, Christian W.B. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Linden, Gerard van der - \ 2018
Agricultural Water Management 206 (2018). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 20 - 30.
AUC - Irrigation - Maturity - Rainfall - Stress
Potato is an important food crop with high yields. However when exposed to drought it suffers major yield losses. Considering its global importance and the increasing incidence of drought due to climate change, research toward drought tolerance in potato remains imperative. We have studied a set of 103 commercial cultivars representing the genetic diversity in the European potato market. The cultivars were grown in different field locations in three subsequent years (2013–2015). Our aim was to understand how different field drought regimes affect canopy growth in potato, and how these effects translate to tuber yield. The field environmental conditions were monitored, and pictures of canopy ground cover during the growing season were taken. Canopy growth parameters were extracted by an iterative method using the beta sigmoid growth function to model canopy growth. At harvest, tuber yield was scored and tuber size was graded. The GGE (Genotype and Genotype-by-Environment) bi-plot and Finlay Wilkinson's Regression were used to investigate Genotype x Environment interactions. We observed that the timing of the drought occurrence differentially affected canopy growth and tuber yield. Under drought stress, fast attainment of exponential growth and maximum canopy cover had negative effects on tuber formation and tuber bulking. Growth rate, maximum canopy cover, and area under the canopy curve (photosynthetic capacity over the growth season) were more important for tuber bulking than they were for tuber formation under drought stress. Cultivars with high yield were identified as potential material for improvement to drought tolerance. These findings will contribute to the breeding for drought-tolerant potato amidst the threats of climate change.
Bringing genetics and biochemistry to crop modelling, and vice versa
Yin, Xinyou ; Linden, Gerard van der; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301
Complex phenotype - Crop improvement - G×E - Interdisciplinary approach - Systems modelling
Genetics, biochemistry, and crop modelling are independently evolving disciplines; however, they complement each other in addressing some of the important challenges that crop science faces. One of these challenges is to improve our understanding of crop genotype-to-phenotype relationships in order to assist the development of high-yielding and resource-use efficient genotypes that can adapt to particular (future) target environments. Crop models are successful in predicting the impact of environmental changes on crop productivity. However, when critically tested against real experimental data, crop models have been shown to be less successful in predicting the impact of genotypic variation and genotype-by-environment interactions exhibited in genetic populations. In order to better model gene-trait-crop performance relationships in support of breeding and genetic engineering programmes, crop models need to be improved in terms of both model parameters and model structure. We argue that integration of quantitative genetics and photosynthesis biochemistry with modelling is a first step towards a new generation of improved crop models. With genetic information and biochemical understanding incorporated, crop modelling also generates new insights and concepts that can in turn be used to improve genetic analysis and biochemical modelling of complex traits. This modelling-genetics-biochemistry framework (the MGB triangle framework) stresses the synergy among the three disciplines, and may best serve as a step to achieve the ultimate goal of the more broadly framed "Crop Systems Biology" approach to improve efficiency of both classical breeding and genetic engineering programmes.
Mechanical properties affect detectability of perceived texture contrast in heterogeneous food gels
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Linden, Erik van der; Stieger, Markus ; Scholten, Elke - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 80 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 254 - 263.
Agar - Carrageenan - Gelatine - Gels - Texture perception
This study investigated the influence of mechanical and physicochemical properties of semi-solid model foods on the detection and temporal perception of texture contrast. Gel-based model foods consisting of two layers were used to systematically vary mechanical contrast and physicochemical properties within bi-layer gels. Fracture stress (σF) and strain (εF) were modified by changing the concentration of various gelling agents (agar, к-carrageenan, and gelatine). The physicochemical properties of gels varied with respect to syneresis and melting behaviour depending on the type of gelling agent. The detection limit of perceived texture contrast of bi-layer gels was determined using ranking tests. Subjects ranked gels in order of increasing perceived heterogeneity as a measure of texture contrast. The detection limit of texture contrast varied between brittle and elastic gels and between soft (low σF) and hard (high σF) gels. In soft and brittle agar gels, heterogeneity was perceived already when the difference in fracture stress between layers was small (ΔσF ≥5 kPa). In soft and elastic gels (к-carrageenan, gelatine) and hard gels, heterogeneity was perceived only when the difference in fracture stress between the layers was large (ΔσF ≥12 kPa). The perceived heterogeneity intensity over time was investigated by time-intensity profiling. During mastication, gelatine gels were perceived for a longer period of time with a higher heterogeneity intensity than agar and к-carrageenan gels. We conclude that mainly mechanical properties of gels impact detectability of mechanical contrast as perceived texture contrast (heterogeneity), whereas a combination of mechanical and physicochemical properties influence the dynamic perception of heterogeneity over time.
Publisher Correction to : Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome
Barrio, Isabel C. ; Lindén, Elin ; Beest, Mariska Te; Olofsson, Johan ; Rocha, Adrian ; Soininen, Eeva M. ; Alatalo, Juha M. ; Andersson, Tommi ; Asmus, Ashley ; Boike, Julia ; Bråthen, Kari Anne ; Bryant, John P. ; Buchwal, Agata ; Bueno, C.G. ; Christie, Katherine S. ; Egelkraut, Dagmar ; Ehrich, Dorothee ; Fishback, Lee Ann ; Forbes, Bruce C. ; Gartzia, Maite ; Grogan, Paul ; Hallinger, Martin ; Heijmans, Monique M.P.D. ; Hik, David S. ; Hofgaard, Annika ; Holmgren, Milena ; Høye, Toke T. ; Huebner, Diane C. ; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala ; Kaarlejärvi, Elina ; Kumpula, Timo ; Lange, Cynthia Y.M.J.G. ; Lange, Jelena ; Lévesque, Esther ; Limpens, Juul ; Macias-Fauria, Marc ; Myers-Smith, Isla ; Nieukerken, Erik J. van; Normand, Signe ; Post, Eric S. ; Schmidt, Niels Martin ; Sitters, Judith ; Skoracka, Anna ; Sokolov, Alexander ; Sokolova, Natalya ; Speed, James D.M. ; Street, Lorna E. ; Sundqvist, Maja K. ; Suominen, Otso ; Tananaev, Nikita ; Tremblay, Jean Pierre ; Urbanowicz, Christine ; Uvarov, Sergey A. ; Watts, David ; Wilmking, Martin ; Wookey, Philip A. ; Zimmermann, Heike H. ; Zverev, Vitali ; Kozlov, Mikhail V. - \ 2018
Polar Biology 41 (2018)8. - ISSN 0722-4060 - p. 1653 - 1654.
The above mentioned article was originally scheduled for publication in the special issue on Ecology of Tundra Arthropods with guest editors Toke T. Høye . Lauren E. Culler. Erroneously, the article was published in Polar Biology, Volume 40, Issue 11, November, 2017. The publisher sincerely apologizes to the guest editors and the authors for the inconvenience caused.
LiGAPS-Beef 2018
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a feed intake and digestion sub-model, and an energy and protein utilization sub-model. Energy and protein flows are included. Livestock production can be assessed for individual animals and herds. LiGAPS-Beef simulates cattle growth based on defining growth factors (genotype or breed and climate) and limiting growth factors (feed quality and feed quantity). The model can be used to assess yield gaps in beef production systems, and to explore improvement options for yield gap mitigation.
Op naar een revolutie in het gebruik van hulpbronnen?
Boom, Remko ; Timmermans, Toine ; Haveren, Jacco van; Gerrits, Walter ; Boer, Imke de; Zanten, Hannah van; Scholten, Martin ; Schoumans, Oscar ; Ruijter, Frank de; Scholten, Olga ; Stuyt, Lodewijk ; Linden, Gerard van der; Barbosa, Maria ; Meer, Ingrid van der - \ 2018
Towards Adaptive Grids for Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Simulations
Hooft, J.A. van; Popinet, Stéphane ; Heerwaarden, Chiel C. van; Linden, Steven J.A. van der; Roode, Stephan R. de; Wiel, Bas J.H. van de - \ 2018
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 167 (2018)3. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 421 - 443.
Adaptive mesh refinement - Atmospheric boundary layer - Direct numerical simulations - Large-eddy simulations - Turbulence
We present a proof-of-concept for the adaptive mesh refinement method applied to atmospheric boundary-layer simulations. Such a method may form an attractive alternative to static grids for studies on atmospheric flows that have a high degree of scale separation in space and/or time. Examples include the diurnal cycle and a convective boundary layer capped by a strong inversion. For such cases, large-eddy simulations using regular grids often have to rely on a subgrid-scale closure for the most challenging regions in the spatial and/or temporal domain. Here we analyze a flow configuration that describes the growth and subsequent decay of a convective boundary layer using direct numerical simulation (DNS). We validate the obtained results and benchmark the performance of the adaptive solver against two runs using fixed regular grids. It appears that the adaptive-mesh algorithm is able to coarsen and refine the grid dynamically whilst maintaining an accurate solution. In particular, during the initial growth of the convective boundary layer a high resolution is required compared to the subsequent stage of decaying turbulence. More specifically, the number of grid cells varies by two orders of magnitude over the course of the simulation. For this specific DNS case, the adaptive solver was not yet more efficient than the more traditional solver that is dedicated to these types of flows. However, the overall analysis shows that the method has a clear potential for numerical investigations of the most challenging atmospheric cases.
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