Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Genetic dissection of flowering time in Brassica rapa responses to temperature and photoperiod
Xiao, Dong ; Shen, Hao Ran ; Zhao, Jian Jun ; Wei, Yan Ping ; Liu, Dong Rang ; Hou, Xi Lin ; Bonnema, Guusje - \ 2019
Plant Science 280 (2019). - ISSN 0168-9452 - p. 110 - 119.
Brassica rapa - FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) - Flowering time - Photoperiod - QTL mapping - Temperature

The Brassica rapa (B. rapa) species displays enormous phenotypic diversity, with leafy vegetables, storage root vegetables and oil crops. These different crops all have different flowering time, which determine their growing season and cultivation area. Little is known about the effects of diverse temperature and day-lengths on flowering time QTL associated with FLC paralogues. We phenotyped the flowering time of a doubled haploid population, established from a cross between Yellow sarson and Pak choi under diverse environmental conditions. We identified flowering-time QTL (fQTL) in different photoperiod and temperature regimes in the greenhouse, and studied their colocation with known flowering time genes. As several fQTL colocalized with FLC paralogues, we studied the expression patterns of four FLC paralogues during the course of vernalization in parental lines. Under all environmental conditions tested the major fQTL that mapped to the BrFLC2_A02 locus was detected, however its effect decreased when plants were grown at low temperatures. Another fQTL that mapped to the FLC paralogue, BrFLC5_A03 was also identified under all tested environments, while no fQTL colocated with BrFLC1_A10 or BrFLC3_A03. Furthermore, the vernalization treatment decreased expression of all BrFLC paralogues in the parental lines, and showed the lowest transcript level after 28 days of vernalization. Transcript abundance stayed low after returning the plants for seven days to normal growth temperature. Interestingly, transcript abundance of BrFLC3_A03 and BrFLC5_A03 was repressed much stronger and already reached lowest levels after 14d in the early-flowering type YS-143. This study improves understanding of the effects of daylength and vernalization on flowering time in B. rapa and the role of the different BrFLC paralogues therein.

Improved aerosol correction for OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval over East Asia : Constraint from CALIOP aerosol vertical profile
Liu, Mengyao ; Lin, Jintai ; Folkert Boersma, K. ; Pinardi, Gaia ; Wang, Yang ; Chimot, Julien ; Wagner, Thomas ; Xie, Pinhua ; Eskes, Henk ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Hendrick, François ; Wang, Pucai ; Wang, Ting ; Yan, Yingying ; Chen, Lulu ; Ni, Ruijing - \ 2019
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 1 - 21.

Satellite retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is critical for NOx pollution and impact evaluation. For regions with high aerosol loadings, the retrieval accuracy is greatly affected by whether aerosol optical effects are treated implicitly (as additional effective clouds) or explicitly, among other factors. Our previous POMINO algorithm explicitly accounts for aerosol effects to improve the retrieval, especially in polluted situations over China, by using aerosol information from GEOS-Chem simulations with further monthly constraints by MODIS/Aqua aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. Here we present a major algorithm update, POMINO v1.1, by constructing a monthly climatological dataset of aerosol extinction profiles, based on level 2 CALIOP/CALIPSO data over 2007-2015, to better constrain the modeled aerosol vertical profiles. We find that GEOS-Chem captures the month-to-month variation in CALIOP aerosol layer height (ALH) but with a systematic underestimate by about 300-600 m (season and location dependent), due to a too strong negative vertical gradient of extinction above 1 km. Correcting the model aerosol extinction profiles results in small changes in retrieved cloud fraction, increases in cloud-top pressure (within 2 %-6 % in most cases), and increases in tropospheric NO2 VCD by 4 %-16 % over China on a monthly basis in 2012. The improved NO2 VCDs (in POMINO v1.1) are more consistent with independent ground-based MAX-DOAS observations (R2=0.80, NMB =-3.4 %, for 162 pixels in 49 days) than POMINO (R2=0.80, NMB =-9.6 %), DOMINO v2 (R2=0.68, NMB =-2.1 %), and QA4ECV (R2=0.75, NMB =-22.0 %) are. Especially on haze days, R2 reaches 0.76 for POMINO v1.1, much higher than that for POMINO (0.68), DOMINO v2 (0.38), and QA4ECV (0.34). Furthermore, the increase in cloud pressure likely reveals a more realistic vertical relationship between cloud and aerosol layers, with aerosols situated above the clouds in certain months span id=page2 instead of always below the clouds. The POMINO v1.1 algorithm is a core step towards our next public release of the data product (POMINO v2), and it will also be applied to the recently launched S5P-TROPOMI sensor.

Water footprint of the energy sector in China's two megalopolises
Liao, Xiawei ; Zhao, Xu ; Jiang, Yu ; Liu, Yu ; Yi, Yujun ; Tillotson, Martin R. - \ 2019
Ecological Modelling 391 (2019). - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 9 - 15.
Jing-Jin-Ji - Urban - Water footprint - Water-for-energy nexus - Yangtze Delta

Using a consumption-based Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) model, we investigate the distinctive characteristics, self-efficiency or external dependency, of energy demand's water footprint in China's two biggest and fastest developing megalopolises. We find that energy demand water footprint in the Jing-Jin-Ji and the Yangtze Delta amounted to 2.41 and 9.59 billion m³of water withdrawal respectively in 2010, of which 848.06 and 973.91 million m³was consumed. Among all energy products, electricity contributed the largest share to the energy sector's water footprint in both regions. The sectoral distribution of water footprint in the upstream supply chain differed by region. Most significantly, the agricultural sector accounted for more than 30% of water consumption footprint. In addition to water used locally, final energy demands in these two regions induced external water footprint beyond their administrative boundaries. The Jing-Jin-Ji region's energy sector had a smaller water footprint compared to the water-abundant Yangtze Delta region. However, external water footprint occupied a larger proportion in the former. Such divergence can be attributed to the distinctive water endowments and water-using technologies utilized in their respective energy sectors. Bespoke urban governance and policies tailored to local resource and technology portfolios are recommended for different urban agglomeration energy and water flows.

Changes of structural and physical properties of semi-gel from Alaska pollock surimi during 4 °C storage
Liu, Xiangyu ; Zhang, Tao ; Xue, Yong ; Xue, Changhu - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 87 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 772 - 782.
Cold semi-gelation - Gelation differences - Heat-induced gelation - Surimi gels

This study compared the semi-gel system of Alaska pollock surimi formed at a low temperature with a heat-induced gel system. The cold semi-gel and heat-induced gel were found to have obvious differences in their degrees of protein unfolding, aggregation, and gel network structures. Microscopic observations and an analysis of their fractal dimensions revealed different degrees of compactness and uniformity in the two network structures. Rheological parameters, including the least permanent deformation, equilibrium stress, and frequency exponent, confirmed the non-total aggregation and lower degree of cross-linking in the cold semi-gel. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the myosin heavy chain (MHC) value gradually decreased, but the light meromyosin (LMM) value remained stable during cold storage. Furthermore, a decrease in the α-helix and an increase in the β-sheet and random coil values, as revealed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, indicated that the proteins unfolded differently in the two gel systems. By comparing the times required for the cold semi-gel and heat-induced gel to form, we concluded that the formation process of heat-induced gel is intertwined while it is temporally separated in cold storage. Overall, myosin was selected as the starting point for establishing a schema chart to characterize the gelation processes of the cold semi-gel and heat-induced gel. These findings are helpful for understanding the gelation process of surimi in refrigerated storage.

An economic assessment of pseudorabies (Aujeszky’ disease) elimination on hog farms in China
Liu, Yumei ; Chen, Qihui ; Rao, Xudong ; Diao, Xinyu ; Yang, Lin ; Fang, Xiangming ; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2019
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 163 (2019). - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 24 - 30.
Aujeszky's disease - China - Economic assessment - Hog farms

Hog pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) can incur serious losses for farm owners and even the entire hog industry by causing infertility, abortion, and stillbirth among sows, as well as diarrhoea, respiratory failure, and death among piglets. Pseudorabies virus could be prevented, controlled, and eliminated by clean-up at both farm and regional levels through a strict procedure of vaccination, quarantine, diagnosis, elimination of positive animals, and healthy animals nurturing. Using data from 63 large-scale hog farms from nine provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) of China, we evaluated the economic consequences of hog pseudorabies clean-up in China's hog farms based on a partial budgeting method. By comparing large-scale hog farms that have performed pseudorabies clean-up with similar farms that have not, we analysed how clean-up affected farm profit and whether there existed sufficient economic incentives for farm owners to adopt pseudorabies control measures. Further, we examined how the economic consequences varied with factors such as clean-up history and farm size. The findings showed that, on average, clean-up adopters outperformed non-adopters by 8.02 million yuan per farm per year within the four years post clean-up adoption. Also, we found that the net profit changes attributable to pseudorabies clean-up increased over time and with farm size. Although we cannot extrapolate to all Chinese hog farms, these findings suggest that the earlier a hog farm adopted pseudorabies clean-up, the larger the economic benefits would be, especially for large-scale farms.

Effects of pre-emulsification by three food-grade emulsifiers on the properties of emulsified surimi sausage
Liu, Xiangyu ; Ji, Lei ; Zhang, Tao ; Xue, Yong ; Xue, Changhu - \ 2019
Journal of Food Engineering 247 (2019). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 30 - 37.
Emulsification process - Emulsified surimi sausage - Peanut oil - Textural properties

In this study, we investigated the effects of peanut oil pre-emulsification by three food-grade emulsifiers (soy protein isolate (SPI), konjac glucomannan (KGM), and acetylated distarch phosphate (ADSP)) on the properties of emulsified surimi sausage. TPA tests showed that KGM comprehensively improved sausage texture. SPI reduced the emulsified sausage hardness from 131.37 ± 3.12 N to 111.13 ± 1.23 N and ADSP reduced the adhesiveness of the product from −0.57 ± 0.05 to −0.37 ± 0.04. The water holding capacity, emulsification stability, and whiteness properties improved significantly after adding the pre-emulsified peanut oil (p < 0.05). Rheology experiments and particle size measurements revealed competitive emulsification between myosin and each emulsifier. Finally, more uniform distributions of oil droplets in the SPI, KGM, and ADSP groups were observed by optical microscopy. Overall, KGM is suggested as the ideal candidate for the pre-emulsification of peanut oil for emulsified surimi sausage products.

No more nutmegging with nutmeg : Analytical fingerprints for distinction of quality from low-grade nutmeg products
Ruth, Saskia M. van; Silvis, Isabelle C.J. ; Alewijn, Martin ; Liu, Ningjing ; Jansen, Marc ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2019
Food Control 98 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 439 - 448.
Adulteration - Aroma - FI-ESI-MS - Fraud - PTR-MS - Spices

Quality nutmeg is characterized by a delicate aroma. Next to quality nutmeg, other – lower - grades exist on the market, such as extracted material (spent) or ground shell or dried fruit pulp. Strong fluctuations in the price of nutmeg lead to rapid changes in market dynamics and marketing opportunities, and unfortunately results in illegal commingle of ground quality nutmeg with low-grade material. In this study, we examined fingerprints of volatile and non-volatile compounds of high quality and low-grade nutmeg material by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Flow Infusion ElectroSpray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, respectively. They were compared with data from classical measurements such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, moisture and volatile oil contents. Differences in composition were examined by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Furthermore, one-class classification models for quality nutmeg were estimated using different algorithms and their performances were examined with quality nutmeg and low-grade material, as well as mixtures thereof. Distinct differences between quality nutmeg and low-grade nutmeg samples were observed for both their volatile and non-volatile fingerprints. Intensities of volatiles and non-volatiles are highly correlated, but this phenomenon diminishes gradually and even reverses with rising molecular mass of the non-volatiles. Results showed that both techniques allowed a nearly 100% correct prediction of quality nutmeg and low-grade nutmeg samples. Therefore, both approaches are promising and with further database extension, they may become a valuable addition to the analytical authentication toolbox in addition to the classical methods and help to detect future ‘nutmeggers’.

Effect of dissolved natural organic matter on the photocatalytic micropollutant removal performance of TiO2 nanotube array
Ye, Yin ; Bruning, Harry ; Liu, Wanrong ; Rijnaarts, Huub ; Yntema, Doekle - \ 2019
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. A, Chemistry 371 (2019). - ISSN 1010-6030 - p. 216 - 222.
MCPA - Micropollutant - Natural organic matter - Photocatalysis - TiO nanotube array

The TiO2 nanotube array (TNA) is a promising photocatalyst for removal of micropollutants from water, but better understanding on its applicability in complex water matrices is still desired. Therefore this study investigates the effect of dissolved natural organic matter (NOMs) on 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, a typical micropollutant found in many water bodies) removal performance of TNA. The present study shows that although in bulk liquid phase NOMs would undergo photosensitization that can contribute to MCPA removal, the overall effect of NOMs on MCPA removal is detrimental due to the interaction between NOMs and the TNA surface: the total removal of MCPA decreased from 94.3% to 62.0% and 61.8%, in the presence of only 5 mg/L SWR-NOM and UMR-NOM respectively. Acidic pH was found to be able to mitigate the detrimental effect of NOMs (the total removal of MCPA was only decreased from 94.5% to 83.3% and 88.8% under acidic pH, in the presence of 15 mg/L SWR-NOM and UMR-NOM respectively), and the photosensitization effect of NOMs was strengthened; while under alkaline pH conditions the detrimental effect of NOMs completely vanished (the total removal of MCPA increased from 45.7% to 55.7% and 60.5% in the presence of 15 mg/L SWR-NOM and UMR-NOM respectively). Two commonly present co-existing anions, i.e. phosphate and bicarbonate, also mitigate the detrimental effect of NOMs. With 15 mg/L SWR-NOM: the presence of 100 mg/L bicarbonate increased the total removal of MCPA from 49.1% to 65.1%; the presence of 100 mg/L phosphate increased the total removal of MCPA from 49.1% to 62.5%. With 15 mg/L SWR-NOM, the presence of 100 mg/L bicarbonate increased the total removal of MCPA from 45.2% to 56.1%; the presence of 100 mg/L phosphate increased the total removal of MCPA from 45.2% to 62.9%. The photocurrent measurement support that the presence of such anions greatly suppresses the h + scavenging effect of NOMs; while other anions, i.e. chloride, nitrate, sulfate, showed no notable effect.

Sporocadaceae, a family of coelomycetous fungi with appendage-bearing conidia
Liu, F. ; Bonthond, G. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Cai, L. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 287 - 415.
Multi-locus phylogeny - New taxa - Seimatosporium - Sporocadus - Taxonomy

Species of Sporocadaceae are endophytic, plant pathogenic or saprobic, and associated with a wide range of host plants. Recent molecular studies that have attempted to address familial and generic boundaries of fungi belonging to Sporocadaceae were based on a limited number of samples and DNA loci. The taxonomy of this group of fungi is therefore still not fully resolved. The aim of the present study is to provide a natural classification for the Sporocadaceae based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, using LSU, ITS, tef-1α tub2 and rpb2 loci, in combination with morphological data. A total of 30 well-supported monophyletic clades in Sporocadaceae are recognised, representing 23 known and seven new genera. Typifications are proposed for the type species of five genera (Diploceras, Discosia, Monochaetia, Sporocadus and Truncatella) to stabilise the application of these names. Furthermore, Neotruncatella and Dyrithiopsis are synonymised under Hymenopleella, and the generic circumscriptions of Diploceras, Disaeta, Hymenopleella, Monochaetia, Morinia, Pseudopestalotiopsis, Sarcostroma, Seimatosporium, Synnemapestaloides and Truncatella are emended. A total of 51 new species, one nomina nova and 15 combinations are introduced.

Drivers of tree carbon storage in subtropical forests
Li, Yin ; Bao, Weikai ; Bongers, Frans ; Chen, Bin ; Chen, Guoke ; Guo, Ke ; Jiang, Mingxi ; Lai, Jiangshan ; Lin, Dunmei ; Liu, Chunjiang ; Liu, Xiaojuan ; Liu, Yi ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Tian, Xingjun ; Wang, Xihua ; Xu, Wubing ; Yan, Junhua ; Yang, Bo ; Zheng, Yuanrun ; Ma, Keping - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 654 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 684 - 693.
Biodiversity-ecosystem function - Environmental conditions - Mass-ratio effect - Niche complementarity - Stand age - Stand structure

Tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon regulation. Despite increasing evidence for effects of biodiversity (species diversity, functional diversity and functional dominance), stand structural attributes, stand age and environmental conditions (climate and topography) on tree carbon storage, the relative importance of these drivers at large scale is poorly understood. It is also still unclear whether biodiversity effects on tree carbon storage work through niche complementarity (i.e. increased tree carbon storage due to interspecific resource partitioning) or through the mass-ratio effect (tree carbon storage regulated by dominant traits within communities). Here we analyze tree carbon storage and its drivers using data of 480 plots sampled across subtropical forests in China. We use multiple regression models to test the relative effects of biodiversity, stand structural attributes, stand age and environmental conditions on tree carbon storage, and use a partial least squares path model to test how these variables directly and/or indirectly affect tree carbon storage. Our results show that tree carbon storage is most strongly affected by stand age, followed by climate, biodiversity and stand structural attributes. Stand age and climate had both direct and indirect (through species diversity, functional dominance and stand structural attributes) effects. We find that tree carbon storage correlates with both species diversity and functional dominance after stand age and environmental drivers are accounted for. Our results suggest that niche complementarity and the mass-ratio effect, not necessarily mutually exclusive, both play a role in maintaining ecosystem functioning. Our results further indicate that biodiversity conservation might be an effective way for enhancing tree carbon storage in natural, species-rich forest ecosystems.

Which cocoa bean traits persist when eating chocolate? Real-time nosespace analysis by PTR-QiToF-MS
Acierno, Valentina ; Liu, Ningjing ; Alewijn, Martin ; Stieger, Markus ; Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2019
Talanta 195 (2019). - ISSN 0039-9140 - p. 676 - 682.
Chocolate - Cocoa beans origin - Nosespace - PTR-QiToF-MS

More consumers have become aware of the existence of different cocoa genotypes and their origins, which resulted in a growing market of premium chocolates with single-origin beans. The question is whether traits of cocoa botanical and geographical origins still persist in the end product, especially when it is consumed. By analysing the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the nose of subjects over time while they are eating, new insights about aroma release can be gained. In the current study, in vivo release of VOCs during consumption of dark chocolates with different botanical and geographical origins was examined. Proton Transfer Reaction-Quadrupole interface Time of Flight- Mass Spectrometry (PTR-Qi ToF- MS) was applied to analyse nosespace VOC profiles of 10 subjects while they were eating 10 different chocolates manufactured with beans of different botanical origins (Criollo-Forastero-Trinitario) and geographical origins (Africa-South America-Asia). The headspace of the chocolates were also analysed for comparison. Cocoa botanical information appeared to affect the nosespace profiles more than geographical information. The subjects varied considerable in their VOC release, and inter-individual differences were larger than cocoa beans differences. Nevertheless, the botanical origin was consistently reflected in the nosespace profile during eating. It was clearly possible to distinguish Criollo chocolates from the nosespace profiles despite inter-individual differences.

Plastic film cover during the fallow season preceding sowing increases yield and water use efficiency of rain-fed spring maize in a semi-arid climate
Zhang, Zhe ; Zhang, Yanqing ; Sun, Zhanxiang ; Zheng, Jiaming ; Liu, Enke ; Feng, Liangshan ; Feng, Chen ; Si, Pengfei ; Bai, Wei ; Cai, Qian ; Yang, Ning ; Werf, Wopke van der; Zhang, Lizhen - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 203 - 210.
Film cover - Soil temperature - Water availability - Yield components

Plastic film mulch increases crop yields in rain-fed agriculture in cool semi-arid climates by warming the soil and reducing evaporative water losses. The semi-arid Khorchin area in Northeast China is an important production area for rain-fed maize. Drought stress occurs frequently, even if plastic film mulch is applied at sowing. We hypothesized that the yield and water capture of maize could be increased by reducing evaporative loss of water by use of plastic film cover during the autumn and winter preceding sowing. In this study, we compared maize growth, water uptake and yield in three film cover treatments: (1) film cover from the autumn before maize sowing until maize harvest (autumn mulching: AM), (2) film cover from maize sowing till harvest (conventional practice) (spring mulching: SM), (3) no film cover (no mulch: NM). Field experiments were conducted in Fuxin city, Khorchin region, Liaoning province, China in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Autumn mulching increased grain yield on average by 18% when compared to spring mulching and by 36% when compared to no mulching. The 1000-kernel weight in AM was 7% higher than in SM, and 12% higher than in NM. Soil water content in the root zone before sowing was 35 mm greater in AM than in SM and NM. Water uptake during the growing season was 34 mm greater in AM than in SM and NM. Water use efficiency for grain yield (yield per unit water uptake) in AM was on average 2.5% higher than in conventional mulching (SM) and 27% higher than in NM. Autumn mulching advanced development, with an advance of 5 days in tasseling time as compared to SM and 10 days when compared to NM. These results show that film cover during the fallow period before maize sowing can increase crop yield and water use efficiency, and reduce climate risks in rain-fed agriculture under semi-arid conditions.

Fraud vulnerability in the Dutch milk supply chain : Assessments of farmers, processors and retailers
Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. ; Hettinga, K.A. ; Liu, N. ; Heck, J. ; Schrijver, G.H. ; Gaiardoni, L. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2019
Food Control 95 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 308 - 317.
Dairy supply chain - Fraud factor - Fraud mitigation - Milk adulteration - Organic farm - Vulnerability assessment

Food fraud surfaces regularly, anywhere in the world. Not only the companies involved in food fraud suffer from losses when food fraud occurs, other actors in the supply chain and branch of industry are often painted with the same brush. Milk has been a common fraud target in the past and, therefore, fraud is a concern for companies involved in milk production. In order to manage and prevent fraud in the milk supply chain, a good insight into the vulnerabilities of companies and their supply chain networks is pivotal. The aim of the current study is to understand (a) the fraud vulnerability of the general milk supply chain in the Netherlands and its tiers (farmers, processors, retailers) and (b) the differences in fraud vulnerability of farmers producing organic milk, green intermediate ‘pasture milk’ and conventional milk. The SSAFE food fraud assessment tool was slightly adapted to the milk supply chain and used to examine the fraud vulnerability of the 38 businesses of the three tiers in the study: 30 farmers, 4 milk processors and 4 retailers. Forty-eight fraud factors related to opportunities, motivations and control measures were examined. Subsequently, key fraud factors were identified. The three tier groups showed major similarities in motivation related fraud factors, and large differences in fraud opportunities and controls. There were also differences observed between the organic and non-organic farmers, with organic farmers being slightly more vulnerable than their non-organic counterparts. From this study it appears that the milk supply chain in the Netherlands is low to medium vulnerable to fraud but the key factors contributing to the vulnerability differ between the tiers (farmers, processors, retailers). Management of the fraud risks requires consideration of these differences.

Causal relationship in the interaction between land cover change and underlying surface climate in the grassland ecosystems in China
Li, Zhouyuan ; Wang, Zezhong ; Liu, Xuehua ; Fath, Brian D. ; Liu, Xiaofei ; Xu, Yanjie ; Hutjes, Ronald ; Kroeze, Carolien - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 647 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1080 - 1087.
Cause-effect - Correlation analysis - Eco-climatology - Grassland - Land-climate - Remote sensing

Land-climate interactions are driven by causal relations that are difficult to ascertain given the complexity and high dimensionality of the systems. Many methods of statistical and mechanistic models exist to identify and quantify the causality in such highly-interacting systems. Recent advances in remote sensing development allowed people to investigate the land-climate interaction with spatially and temporally continuous data. In this study, we present a new approach to measure how climatic factors interact with each other under land cover change. The quantification method is based on the correlation analysis of the different order derivatives, with the canonical mathematical definitions developed from the theories of system dynamics and practices of the macroscopic observations. We examined the causal relationship between the interacting variables on both spatial and temporal dimensions based on macroscopic observations of land cover change and surface climatic factors through a comparative study in the different grassland ecosystems of China. The results suggested that the interaction of land-climate could be used to explain the temporal lag effect in the comparison of the three grassland ecosystems. Significant spatial correlations between the vegetation and the climatic factors confirmed feedback mechanisms described in the theories of eco-climatology, while the uncertain temporal synchronicity reflects the causality among the key indicators. This has been rarely addressed before. Our research show that spatial correlations and the temporal synchronicity among key indicators of the land surface and climatic factors can be explained by a novel method of causality quantification using derivative analysis.

Global Carbon Budget 2018
Quéré, Corinne ; Andrew, Robbie ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Sitch, Stephen ; Hauck, Judith ; Pongratz, Julia ; Pickers, Penelope ; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan ; Peters, Glen ; Canadell, Josep ; Arneth, Almut ; Arora, Vivek ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bastos, Ana ; Bopp, Laurent ; Ciais, Philippe ; Chini, Louise ; Ciais, Philippe ; Doney, Scott ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Goll, Daniel ; Harris, Ian ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hoffman, Forrest ; Hoppema, Mario ; Houghton, Richard ; Hurtt, George ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul ; Johannessen, Truls ; Jones, Chris ; Kato, Etsushi ; Keeling, Ralph ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Liu, Zhu ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Munro, David ; Nabel, Julia ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Neill, Craig ; Olsen, Are ; Ono, Tsueno ; Patra, Prabir ; Peregon, Anna ; Peters, Wouter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid Van Der - \ 2018
Earth System Science Data 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 2141 - 2194.

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span>) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> emissions (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span>) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land use and land-use change (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ELUC</span>), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">GATM</span>) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> sink (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SOCEAN</span>) and terrestrial <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> sink (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SLAND</span>) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">BIM</span>), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">±1σ</span>. For the last decade available (2008-2017), <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">9.4±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ELUC</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">1.5±0.7</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">GATM</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">4.7±0.02</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SOCEAN</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">2.4±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, and <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SLAND</span> <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">3.2±0.8</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, with a budget imbalance <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">BIM</span> of 0.5&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span> indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For the year 2017 alone, the growth in <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span> was about 1.6&thinsp;% and emissions increased to <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">9.9±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>. Also for 2017, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ELUC</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">1.4±0.7</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">GATM</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">4.6±0.2</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SOCEAN</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">2.5±0.5</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, and <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">SLAND</span> was <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">3.8±0.8</span>&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span>, with a <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">BIM</span> of 0.3&thinsp;GtC. The global atmospheric <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> concentration reached <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">405.0±0.1</span>&thinsp;ppm averaged over 2017. For 2018, preliminary data for the first 6-9 months indicate a renewed growth in <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">EFF</span> of <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">+</span>2.7&thinsp;% (range of 1.8&thinsp;% to 3.7&thinsp;%) based on national emission projections for China, the US, the EU, and India and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. The analysis presented here shows that the mean and trend in the five components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period of 1959-2017, but discrepancies of up to 1&thinsp;GtC&thinsp;yr<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ'1</span> persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> fluxes. A detailed comparison among individual estimates and the introduction of a broad range of observations show (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions, (2) a persistent low agreement among the different methods on the magnitude of the land <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent underestimation of the <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">CO2</span> variability by ocean models, originating outside the tropics. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2018, 2016, 2015a, b, 2014, 2013).

Chinese steamed bread and novel wheat products
Zhang, Zhengmao ; Xing, Qinhui ; Liu, Yuxiu - \ 2018
In: Flour Nova Science Publishers - ISBN 9781536137613 - p. 175 - 184.
Aroma - Chinese steamed bread - Gluten content - Products - Wheat

Wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops globally, and the third-largest food crop after rice and maize in China; in particular, wheat is one of the primary provisions in human diets in Northern China. Research on the quality of wheat flour is important for wheat food production. Steam bread was one of staple foods in the northern part of China due to the combination of unique cultures and dietary habits. The Chinese steamed bread-making process is a complex system. There is significant value in research on the aroma characteristics of wheat flour, fermented dough, and steamed bread. The solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS was used to investigate the compounds of volatile aroma in gelatinized-flour. Volatile compounds of steamed bread vary depending on the content of gluten in wheat flour. In the three physical stages of making Chinese steamed bread, the quantity of hydrocarbons and aldehydes first decreased and then increased. Chinese steamed bread made from wheat flour with added 3% of stachyose, has the greatest elasticity and extensibility, and has the highest scores when conducted for sensory evaluation, thus making nutrient fortified steamed bread. Along with the developing and applying of the modern food process technology, wheat also can be made for novel wheat products with different flavors, such as wheat bran, wheat germ flour, wheat germ oil and “popwheat”, and further caramel treats. In addition, volatile compounds of wheat bran and germ differ between high gluten, middle gluten and low gluten flour. Therefore, the research on the processing quality of wheat dough has been a hot topic.

Eighty Years of Mycopathologia: A Retrospective Analysis of Progress Made in Understanding Human and Animal Fungal Pathogens
Chaturvedi, Vishnu ; Bouchara, Jean Philippe ; Hagen, Ferry ; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana ; Badali, Hamid ; Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti ; Cano-Lira, Jose F. ; Cao, Cunwei ; Chaturvedi, Sudha ; Chotirmall, Sanjay H. ; Diepeningen, Anne D. Van; Gangneux, Jean Pierre ; Guinea, Jesus ; Hoog, Sybren De; Ilkit, Macit ; Kano, Rui ; Liu, Weida ; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M. ; Souza Carvalho Melhem, Marcia De; Ono, Mario Augusto ; Ran, Yuping ; Ranque, Stephane ; Almeida Soares, Celia Maria De; Sugita, Takashi ; Thomas, Philip A. ; Vecchiarelli, Anna ; Wengenack, Nancy L. ; Woo, Patrick C.Y. ; Xu, Jianping ; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M. - \ 2018
Mycopathologia (2018). - ISSN 0301-486X
Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to ‘diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.’ This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5–5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect humans and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that dwells into the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles. Among the oldest continuing scientific publications on the subject, Mycopathologia had its share of ‘classic papers’ since the first issue was published in 1938. An analysis of the eight decades of notable contributions reveals many facets of host–pathogen interactions among 183 volumes comprising about 6885 articles. We have analyzed the impact and relevance of this body of work using a combination of citation tools (Google Scholar and Scopus) since no single citation metric gives an inclusive perspective. Among the highly cited Mycopathologia publications, those on experimental mycology accounted for the major part of the articles (36%), followed by diagnostic mycology (16%), ecology and epidemiology (15%), clinical mycology (14%), taxonomy and classification (10%), and veterinary mycology (9%). The first classic publication, collecting nearly 200 citations, appeared in 1957, while two articles published in 2010 received nearly 150 citations each, which is notable for a journal covering a highly specialized field of study. An empirical analysis of the publication trends suggests continuing interests in novel diagnostics, fungal pathogenesis, review of clinical diseases especially with relevance to the laboratory scientists, taxonomy and classification of fungal pathogens, fungal infections and carriage in pets and wildlife, and changing ecology and epidemiology of fungal diseases around the globe. We anticipate that emerging and re-emerging fungal pathogens will continue to cause significant health burden in the coming decades. It remains vital that scientists and physicians continue to collaborate by learning each other’s language for the study of fungal diseases, and Mycopathologia will strive to be their partner in this increasingly important endeavor to its 100th anniversary in 2038 and beyond.
Hepatic Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-Associated Degradation (ERAD) manages FGF21 levels and systemic metabolism via CREBH
Bhattacharya, Asmita ; Sun, Shengyi ; Wang, Heting ; Liu, Ming ; Long, Qiaoming ; Yin, Lei ; Kersten, A.H. ; Zhang, Kezhong ; Qi, Ling - \ 2018
GSE118658 - PRJNA486359 - Mus musculus
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived, fasting-induced hormone with broad effects on growth, nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Here, we report the discovery of a novel mechanism regulating Fgf21 expression under growth and fasting-feeding. The Sel1LHrd1 complex is the most conserved branch of mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- associated degradation (ERAD) machinery. Mice with liver-specific deletion of Sel1L exhibit growth retardation with markedly elevated circulating Fgf21, reaching levels close to those in Fgf21 transgenic mice or pharmacological models. Mechanistically, we show that the Sel1LHrd1 ERAD complex controls Fgf21 transcription by regulating the ubiquitination and turnover (and thus nuclear abundance) of ER-resident transcription factor Crebh, while having no effect on the other well-known Fgf21 transcription factor Pparα. Our data reveal a physiologically regulated, inverse correlation between Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD and Crebh-Fgf21 levels under fasting-feeding and growth. This study not only establishes the importance of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD in the liver in the regulation of systemic energy metabolism, but also reveals a novel hepatic “ERADCrebh- Fgf21” axis directly linking ER protein turnover to gene transcription and systemic metabolic regulation.
Hepatic Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-associated degradation (ERAD) manages FGF21 levels and systemic metabolism via CREBH
Bhattacharya, Asmita ; Sun, Shengyi ; Wang, Heting ; Liu, Ming ; Long, Qiaoming ; Yin, Lei ; Kersten, Sander ; Zhang, Kezhong ; Qi, Ling - \ 2018
The EMBO Journal 37 (2018)22. - ISSN 0261-4189
ER quality control - FGF21 - gene transcription - metabolism - Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived, fasting-induced hormone with broad effects on growth, nutrient metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Here, we report the discovery of a novel mechanism regulating Fgf21 expression under growth and fasting-feeding. The Sel1L-Hrd1 complex is the most conserved branch of mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery. Mice with liver-specific deletion of Sel1L exhibit growth retardation with markedly elevated circulating Fgf21, reaching levels close to those in Fgf21 transgenic mice or pharmacological models. Mechanistically, we show that the Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD complex controls Fgf21 transcription by regulating the ubiquitination and turnover (and thus nuclear abundance) of ER-resident transcription factor Crebh, while having no effect on the other well-known Fgf21 transcription factor Pparα. Our data reveal a physiologically regulated, inverse correlation between Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD and Crebh-Fgf21 levels under fasting-feeding and growth. This study not only establishes the importance of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD in the liver in the regulation of systemic energy metabolism, but also reveals a novel hepatic “ERAD-Crebh-Fgf21” axis directly linking ER protein turnover to gene transcription and systemic metabolic regulation.

Pulsed Electric Field as an Alternative Pre-treatment for Drying to Enhance Polyphenol Extraction from Fresh Tea Leaves
Liu, Zhibin ; Esveld, Erik ; Vincken, Jean-Paul ; Bruins, Marieke E. - \ 2018
Food Bioprocess Technology (2018). - ISSN 1935-5130 - 10 p.
Fresh tea leaves - Phenolic profile - Polyphenol extraction - Pulsed electric field - Scanning electron microscope

Drying is an essential pre-treatment prior to extraction of tea polyphenols from tea leaves, which is a time and energy-intensive process. In this study, pulsed electric field (PEF) was utilized to replace the conventional thermal dehydration procedure before the phenolic extraction. The influence of different PEF conditions on total polyphenol yield from fresh tea leaves combined with a solid-liquid extraction were compared. PEF treatment at 1.00 kV/cm electric field strength, 100 pulses of 100 μs pulse duration, and 5 s pulse repetition, which delivered 22 kJ/kg and induced 1.5 °C of temperature increase, was used for further study on the extraction kinetics of green tea catechins. The results indicated that compared to oven drying, PEF pre-treatment increased the extraction rate by approximately two times, without significantly altering the phenolic profiles, as revealed by using liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that PEF pre-treatment induced the formation of inhomogeneously distributed pores and protuberances on the surface of leaf tissues, which might facilitate the penetration of extraction solvent and the migration of phenolics. This study demonstrates that PEF as a time and energy efficient processing method is a promising alternative for the conventional drying process before further tea polyphenol extraction.

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