Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Ju/'hoansi Lodging in a Namibian Conservancy : CBNRM, Tourism and Increasing Domination
Koot, Stasja ; Beek, Walter Van - \ 2017
Conservation and Society 15 (2017)2. - ISSN 0972-4923 - p. 136 - 146.
Bushmen - CBNRM - conservation - dwelling - Ju/'hoansi - lodging - Namibia - Nyae Nyae - tourism

Following Ingold's dwelling perspective, the world comes into being because an organism/person is continuously interacting with his/her environment through bodily activity. Ingold contrasts dwelling with building; in the latter, people construct the world cognitively before they can live in it. In this paper, we add the concept of 'lodging' to refer to a situation in which people live in an environment that contains increasing dominating powers. Under the influence of conservation and the implementation of a Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, with a strong focus on tourism, the environment of the Ju/'hoansi Bushmen of the Nyae Nyae Conservancy in Namibia has changed dramatically. In this paper, we use various examples to show how the environment has become more dominant, often in very subtle ways. We argue that the Ju/'hoansi do not dwell as they used to, but lodge instead in an environment that is increasingly influenced by CBNRM and tourism activities. Some of the Ju/'hoansi's agency has become limited to acquiescing; they passively adapt to and cope with the changes in their environment, while others have shown a more active adaptation strategy.

Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi
Schoch, C.L. ; Robbertse, B. ; Robert, V. ; Vu, D. ; Cardinali, G. ; Irinyi, L. ; Meyer, W. ; Nilsson, R.H. ; Hughes, K. ; Miller, A.N. ; Kirk, P.M. ; Abarenkov, K. ; Aime, M.C. ; Ariyawansa, H.A. ; Bidartondo, M. ; Boekhout, T. ; Buyck, B. ; Cai, Q. ; Chen, J. ; Crespo, A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Dentinger, B.T.M. ; Divakar, P.K. ; Duenas, M. ; Feau, N. ; Fliegerova, K. ; Garcia, M.A. ; Ge, Z.W. ; Griffith, G.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Groenewald, M. ; Grube, M. ; Gryzenhout, M. ; Gueidan, C. ; Guo, L. ; Hambleton, S. ; Hamelin, R. ; Hansen, K. ; Hofstetter, V. ; Hong, S.B. ; Houbraken, J. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Inderbitzin, P. ; Johnston, P.A. ; Karunarathna, S.C. ; Koljalg, U. ; Kovacs, G.M. ; Kraichak, E. ; Krizsan, K. ; Kurtzman, C.P. ; Larsson, K.H. ; Leavitt, S. ; Letcher, P.M. ; Liimatainen, K. ; Liu, J.K. ; Lodge, D.J. ; Luangsa-ard, J.J. ; Lumbsch, H.T. ; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Manamgoda, D. ; Martin, M.P. ; Minnis, A.M. ; Moncalvo, J.M. ; Mule, G. ; Nakasone, K.K. ; Niskanen, T. ; Olariaga, I. ; Papp, T. ; Petkovits, T. ; Pino-Bodas, R. ; Powell, M.J. ; Raja, H.A. ; Redecker, D. ; Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M. ; Seifert, K.A. ; Shrestha, B. ; Stenroos, S. ; Stielow, B. ; Suh, S.O. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tedersoo, L. ; Telleria, M.T. ; Udayanga, D. ; Untereiner, W.A. ; Dieguez Uribeondo, J. ; Subbarao, K.V. ; Vagvolgyi, C. ; Visagie, C. ; Voigt, K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Weir, B.S. ; Weiss, M. ; Wijayawardene, N.N. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Xu, J.P. ; Yang, Z.L. ; Zhang, N. ; Zhuang, W.Y. ; Federhen, S. - \ 2014
Database : the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 2014 (2014). - ISSN 1758-0463 - 21 p.
internal transcribed spacer - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - ribosomal dna - interspecific hybridization - sequence analyses - species complex - identification - evolution - barcode - life
DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using high-throughput sequencing require fast and effective methods for en masse species assignments. In this article, we focus on selecting and re-annotating a set of marker reference sequences that represent each currently accepted order of Fungi. The particular focus is on sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron, derived from type specimens and/or ex-type cultures. Re-annotated and verified sequences were deposited in a curated public database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), namely the RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database, and will be visible during routine sequence similarity searches with NR_prefixed accession numbers. A set of standards and protocols is proposed to improve the data quality of new sequences, and we suggest how type and other reference sequences can be used to improve identification of Fungi.
Private-community partnerships: Investigating a new approach to conservation and development in Uganda
Ahebwa, W.M. ; Duim, V.R. van der; Sandbrook, C.G. - \ 2012
Conservation and Society 10 (2012)4. - ISSN 0972-4923 - p. 305 - 317.
Nature-based tourism is well recognised as a tool that can be used for neoliberal conservation. Proponents argue that such tourism can provide revenue for conservation activities, and income generating opportunities and other benefits for local people living at the destination. Private-Community Partnerships (PCPs) are a particularform of hybrid intervention in which local benefits are claimed to be guaranteed through shared ownership ofthe tourism venture. In this paper, we evaluate one such partnership involving a high-end tourist eco-lodge at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. We examine the introduction, development, and implementation of this partnership using the policy arrangement approach. This is done through analysing the actors involved and excluded in the process, the emergence of coalitions and forces, power relations, the governing rules, and the role of framing discourses. The analysis reveals that the technical conceptualisation of the partnership arrangement failedto take proper account of political and contextual factors, resulting in escalating conflict up to the national level. The paper concludes that while more time is needed to evaluate the full impact of hybrid neoliberal approaches such as PCP, the unbalanced power relations they imply can create fertile conditions for political conflict thatultimately undermines their ‘win-win’ goals.
Nieuwe aanpak voor natuurbescherming en armoedebestrijding : de Koija case in Kenia
Lamers, M.A.J. ; Duim, V.R. van der; Wijk, J. van; Nthiga, R. - \ 2012
Vrijetijdstudies 30 (2012)3. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 27 - 39.
natuurbescherming - toerisme - toerismebeleid - marktanalyse - kenya - nature conservation - tourism - tourism policy - market analysis
In de afgelopen twintig jaar zijn in Oostelijk en Zuidelijk Afrika, vaak financieel ondersteund door (internationale) donoren, steeds meer samenwerkingsverbanden ontstaan tussen lokale bevolking, natuurbeschermingsorganisaties en particuliere toeristische ondernemingen. Deze partnerschappen streven naar natuurbescherming en armoedebestrijding buiten nationale parken en reservaten en zien toerisme als een effectief mechanisme om dit te realiseren. Dit artikel analyseert één van deze samenwerkingsverbanden. Het voorbeeld van de tien jaar oude Koija Starbeds lodge, gelegen in Laikipia, Kenia, laat zien dat er zowel baten als bedreigingen verbonden zijn aan de marktgerichte benadering van natuurbescherming.
Tourism, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation : an assessment of tourism related policy interventions at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda
Ahebwa, W.M. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Jaap Lengkeek; Rene van der Duim. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732729 - 161
toerisme - middelen van bestaan - biodiversiteit - natuurbescherming - nationale parken - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerismebeleid - natuurtoerisme - impact van toerisme - uganda - tourism - livelihoods - biodiversity - nature conservation - national parks - rural development - tourism policy - nature tourism - tourism impact

Over the last two decades, the developing world has focused on attempting to reconcile conservation and development with nature-based tourism as one of the main mechanisms. To address the twin challenge of achieving conservation and development at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, in 1993 tourism was introduced. According to the logic of Integrated Conservation and Development (ICD) approaches for tourism to earn the support of communities for conservation, there must be meaningful benefits which accrue to a large number of people. However, from the onset, tourism around Bwindi was largely dominated by private sector businesses. In an attempt to ensure greater community access to tourism benefits, the Uganda Wildlife Authority and support institutions have applied three main tourism related policy interventions in villages around the park to enable communities earning direct benefits from tourism. These policy interventions are the subject of this thesis and they include: the Buhoma-Mukono community tourism enterprise, the Tourism - Revenue Sharing Program and the Clouds Mountain Lodge - a Private-Community Partnership. This thesis critically looks at the functioning of each of the three policy interventions. It explicates the introduction and implementation processes and evaluates the extent to which the three policy interventions address livelihood and conservation concerns at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. By expounding the processes and context within which the policy interventions are implemented, this thesis makes a contribution to the on-going debates on policy strategies that can be employed to redeem the threatened biodiversity in the developing world. More so, on the extent to which market-based mechanisms that seek to use tourism in biodiversity conservation efforts in Africa can work. It adds a voice on the ongoing discussions regarding the relevance of Community-Based Tourism Enterprises, Tourism-Revenue-Sharing and Private-Community Partnership arrangements that have been advocated by international and national conservation organizations over the last few years as possible conservation and development links.

A four dimensional analysis using the elements of the policy arrangement approach was used as a lens to explain the introduction and the functioning of each of the three policy interventions at Bwindi as well as to elaborate their respective governance capacities. The elements of the policy arrangements approach on which the analysis was based include; a) actors/coalitions, b) rules, c) resources/power as well as, d) discourses. As chapter 2 elaborates, the four elements of the policy arrangements approach were used as sensitizing concepts implying that, they were used as interpretive devices and guidelines for analysis rather than imperatives. On the other hand, to evaluate the outcomes of the policy interventions, livelihoods and conservation were also taken as sensitizing concepts (evaluative devices). This entailed making use of the elements of the sustainable livelihood framework (capital assets, livelihood outcomes, livelihood strategies and the context) to understand the livelihood implications and the conservation threat reduction indicators to explain the conservation outcomes. Within the context of Bwindi, an assessment of the status of the conservation threats entailed a look at the nature of community attitudes, park-community relationships, the trend of illegal activities and their distribution as well as the population of the key animals- the mountain gorillas for case of Bwindi.

Generally, the thesis demonstrates that the Buhoma-Mukono arrangement has a high governance capacity compared to the Tourism Revenue Sharing and Private-Community Partnership arrangements. This implies that the policy processes and the alignment of the substantial and organisational aspects of the Buhoma-Mukono arrangement effectively contribute to the realisation of the desired policy outcomes. The arrangement (Buhoma-Mukono) is widely accepted as a solution to the conservation and development concerns in the area as it commands a lot of support from the majority of actors and dissenting voices are extremely minimal. This explains its strategic congruence.

The thesis shows that the Buhoma-Mukono arrangement is internally structurally congruent. This is illustrated by the fact that the regulative instruments are well known, understood and accepted by actors and the relationships between actors are built on mutual participation and trust. The arrangement is also externally congruent as it links and integrates well with the 1990s’ international discourses and policies on CBTEs, but also with other community based tourism enterprises through an umbrella entity called the Uganda Community Tourism Association. Therefore, a combination of its high governance capacity and other practical reasons like its location (near the park headquarter) and local sourcing and capacity building, make the Buhoma-Mukono CBTE model an exception compared to many other CBTE arrangements that have generally failed elsewhere.

As for the Tourism Revenue Sharing Program, it is argued in this thesis that the dimensions of the policy arrangement are structurally incongruent, the regulative instruments that have been established to guide its implementation are poorly known, understood and accepted and the relationships between actors are disturbed and not built on mutual trust. Two discourse coalitions exist that are dissimilar in perspective; an ‘official’ one voiced by Uganda Wildlife Authority and International Gorilla Conservation Programme, reflecting storylines of international and national conservation focussing on linking conservation and development, and a competing discourse advocated by local communities which challenges the way TRS is implemented. The distributional effects of TRS were and still are subject to discussions at Bwindi, as well as the new rules for disbursing funds and project selection, which are still debated and considered as too ‘technical’ for many. Although the critique to the low funding from TRS has been addressed by the introduction of the gorilla levy, this has been criticised for only being . In addition, TRS is still a state-oriented arrangement where UWA controls crucial resources. Whereas CPI and local governments are involved at all levels of TRS implementation, their powers are limited to resource distribution within the framework of UWA’s conditional guidelines. The communities on the other hand are the most disadvantaged with neither financial nor knowledge resources. Despite being the central victims of conservation costs, their powers are minimal.

The findings in this thesis also illustrate a low governance capacity associated with the Private-Community Partnership (Clouds Lodge) arrangement. There is no broad acceptance of rules that guide its operationalisation and there are competing discourses which differ inperspectives narrating the Clouds Lodge arrangement in either largely positive or negative terms. In addition, the relationships between actors are troubled and not built on mutual trust. The incongruence in the dimensions of the policy arrangements largely explains the underlying conflicts associated with this arrangement. Results also illustrate that there are circumstances under which relatively less powerful local actors are able to resist neoliberal interventions such as the Private Community Partnership arrangement by invoking the ‘weapons of the weak’. The local villagers succeeded in severely hampering, if not entirely derailing, the Cloud Lodge agreement. This was possible through the alignment of their local opposition with the perspective of the tourism industry and district politicians, all of whom joined a single coalition.

Despite some critical issues related to governance, regulatory frameworks and power imbalances, the thesis shows that the contribution of the tourism related policy interventions on livelihood aspects is undisputed by all the actors including those at a community level. There is a clear indication that the alignment of both thesubstantial and organizational characteristics of the three policy interventions and their respective governance capacities has had an influence on livelihood outcomes. Subsequently, the Buhoma-Mukono arrangement which exhibited a high governance capacity, performed relatively better than the TRS and Clouds Lodge arrangements in terms of livelihood outcomes. This illustrates that the state of policy processes can determine the nature of the policy outcomes and should be given due attention in conservation and development policy impact evaluations. Although the implication of the three policy interventions on capital assets and the vulnerability context was substantial, outcomes on livelihood strategies were relatively minimal. This can be explained by the big population in the three parishes (over 20,000 people) against the opportunities that tourism can potentially offer. Hence, there is need for integration of tourism related projects with the wider development programmes implemented by other actors such as government and development organizations to maximally expand the livelihood options in developing countries like Uganda.

Looking closely at the turn of conservation events at Bwindi since tourism and the related policy interventions were introduced, it is clear that tourism has made a significant contribution in addressing conservation threats. However, this thesis also argues that the tourism related policy interventions have worked with other interventions such as law enforcement, collaborative resource management, problem animal control, and other funding schemes for livelihood projects around the park as well as conservation awareness campaigns. The livelihood and conservation outcomes discussed in this thesis suggest that while communities at Bwindi have benefitted, Uganda Wildlife Authority emerged as the biggest winner as it managed to generate huge revenues from gorilla tourism with less problems locally and enabling the funding of other conservation activities. It is clearly evident that the Uganda Wildlife Authority has also managed to sustain biodiversity conservation at Bwindi especially, since the population of mountain gorillas has been on the increase and illegal activities continually show a downward trend.

In sum, this thesis illustrates that tourism is a promising market –oriented mechanism in the conservation and development nexus. Evidence is provided of a significant number of tourism related projects that have been initiated and have taken community livelihoods to a better level, more so when tourism as an instrument is integrated with other conservation and development interventions. Integrating tourism with other interventions partly addresses the problems offinancial resource deficiencies and huge numbers of targeted populations. Although still faced with a number of some challenges, the Bwindi case emphatically demonstrated that this linkage strengthens and maximises conservation and development outcomes. The Bwindi case further illustrates that policy making is an on-going process of construction and reconstruction. It highlights ceaseless developments within the three policy arrangements which are most likely to continue even in future.

Methodology for developing the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios
Alcamo, J. ; Vuuren, D. van; Rosegrant, M. ; Alder, J. ; Bennett, E. ; Lodge, D. ; Masui, T. ; Morita, T. ; Ringler, C. ; Sala, O. ; Schulze, K. ; Zurek, M. ; Eickhout, B. ; Maerker, M. ; Kok, K. - \ 2006
In: Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Scenarios / Carpenter, S.R., Pingali, P.L., Bennett, E.M., Zurek, M.B., Washington : Island Press (Findings of the Scenarios Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment vol. 2) - ISBN 1559633867 - p. 145 - 172.
Impact of herbivory on plant standing crop: comparisons among biomes, between vascular and nonvascular plants, and among freshwater herbivore taxa.
Lodge, D.M. ; Cronin, G. ; Donk, E. van; Froelich, A.J. - \ 1998
In: Structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes. Jeppesen, E., Soendergaard, M., Soendergaard, M. (eds.) Springer, New York, USA, Ecological Studies 131 - p. 149 - 174.
Importance of herbivory in freshwaters: inter-habitat comparisons, inter-taxa comparisons, and a conceptual model of plant selection by freshwater herbivores.
Lodge, D.M. ; Cronin, G. ; Donk, E. van - \ 1996
In: Conf. on The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes, Silkeborg, Denmark - p. 25 - 25.
Ash dieback in Groot-Brittannie; verslag van een werkbezoek aan het Forest Research Station 'Alice Holt Lodge' in Farnham.
Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 1988
Unknown Publisher - 10 p.
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