Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Research challenges for cultural ecosystem services and public health in (peri-)urban environments
Chen, Xianwen ; Vries, Sjerp de; Assmuth, Timo ; Dick, Jan ; Hermans, Tia ; Hertel, Ole ; Jensen, Anne ; Jones, Laurence ; Kabisch, Sigrun ; Lanki, Timo ; Lehmann, Irina ; Maskell, Lindsay ; Norton, Lisa ; Reis, Stefan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 2118 - 2129.
Cultural ecosystem services - Nature-based solutions - Public health - Urban green/blue infrastructure

Urbanization is a global trend, and consequently the quality of urban environments is increasingly important for human health and wellbeing. Urban life-style is typically associated with low physical activity and sometimes with high mental stress, both contributing to an increasing burden of diseases. Nature-based solutions that make effective use of ecosystem services, particularly of cultural ecosystem services (CES), can provide vital building blocks to address these challenges. This paper argues that, the salutogenic, i.e. health-promoting effects of CES have so far not been adequately recognised and deserve more explicit attention in order to enhance decision making around health and wellbeing in urban areas. However, a number of research challenges will need to be addressed to reveal the mechanisms, which underpin delivery of urban CES. These include: causal chains of supply and demand, equity, and equality of public health benefits promoted. Methodological challenges in quantifying these are discussed. The paper is highly relevant for policy makers within and beyond Europe, and also serves as a review for current researchers and as a roadmap to future short- and long-term research opportunities.

Long-term effects of wild ungulates on the structure, composition and succession of temperate forests
Ramirez Chiriboga, J.I. ; Jansen, P.A. ; Ouden, J. den; Goudzwaard, L. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2019
Forest Ecology and Management 432 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 478 - 488.
Ungulates in temperate regions are increasing in range and abundance, leading to concerns that browsing and trampling reach levels that hamper tree recruitment and forest regeneration. However, studies that actually quantify the long-term effects of ungulates on forest succession are scarce. Here, we use a chronosequence of ungulate exclosures (fenced) and control (unfenced) plots to assess the long-term effects of ungulates on forest structure, diversity and litter depth in forests on poor sandy soils at the Veluwe, the Netherlands, which have moderate ungulate densities ( = 13.6 ungulates km−2). We surveyed the vegetation in 27 paired fenced and unfenced plots that ranged from 1 to 33 years old, and measured seven variables to characterize forest structure (stem density, canopy cover and understory vegetation cover), composition (Shannon diversity, species richness and conifer proportion) and leaf litter depth. We found on average that fencing compared to unfencing reduced understory vegetation cover (fenced = 64.3 ± 20.2%, unfenced = 80.3 ± 19.4%), increased canopy cover (fenced = 47.4 ± 30.1%, unfenced = 29.3 ± 21.1%), tree species richness (fenced = 4.5 ± 1.3 spp., unfenced = 2.7 ± 1.2 spp.), tree Shannon diversity (fenced = 1.1 ± 0.3 index, unfenced = 0.7 ± 0.3 index) and litter layer depth (fenced = 4.4 ± 1.4 cm, unfenced = 2.4 ± 1.1 cm). While fenced plots developed woody vegetation with palatable broadleaved species such as Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Prunus serotina, and Quercus robur, unfenced plots were not associated with any particular tree species. Our results show that current ungulate densities in this system have pronounced long-term effects on forest structure, composition and litter depth, implying that ungulates can slow down natural succession of temperate forest, from light demanding to shade tolerant species, by keeping the system in an arrested state consisting of light demanding species.
Exploring optimal catch crops for reducing nitrate leaching in vegetable greenhouse in North China
Zhang, Hongyuan ; Hu, Kelin ; Zhang, Lijuan ; Ji, Yanzhi ; Qin, Wei - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 273 - 282.
Catch crop - Greenhouse vegetable field - N uptake - Nitrate leaching - Soil-crop system model

Chinese intensive greenhouse vegetable systems are characterized by high input of water and nutrients, which are not sustainable. There is an urgent need to explore smart and practical strategies to convert the “high input-low output” systems to “optimal input-output” ones. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different catch crops on reducing nitrate leaching in the vegetable greenhouse during the summer fallow season. A two-year field experiment with three catch crops, i.e., sweet corn (SC), amaranth (A) and sweet sorghum (SG), and no catch crop (CK) were conducted in vegetable greenhouse in Dingzhou city, Hebei province, China. The measured soil water content and inorganic nitrogen (N) content in soil profile, biomass and crop N uptake were used to validate the WHCNS (Soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model, soil water movement and nitrate leaching were simulated. The results showed that the catch crops decreased the water drainage by 18.2–29.0% and nitrate leaching by 23.3–42.3% respectively, compared with CK. The water drainage reduction ranked as SC > SG > A, while the nitrate leaching reduction was A > SC > SG. The biomass was SC > SG > A, while the crop N uptake was SC > A > SG. Sweet corn could absorb the residual nitrate in the deep soil layers due to the long root system, while amaranth could absorb most residual nitrate in the surface soil. Amaranth showed greater N-uptake capacity than sweet corn, and the nitrate was mainly accumulated in the surface soil. Planting amaranth as summer catch crop reduced nitrate leaching in the vegetable greenhouses. Our study provides a guideline for selecting effective catch crops in intensive vegetable greenhouses in North China.

The effects of carbon dioxide on growth performance, welfare, and health of Atlantic salmon post-smolt (Salmo salar) in recirculating aquaculture systems
Mota, Vasco C. ; Nilsen, Tom Ole ; Gerwins, Jascha ; Gallo, Michele ; Ytteborg, Elisabeth ; Baeverfjord, Grete ; Kolarevic, Jelena ; Summerfelt, Steven T. ; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn - \ 2019
Aquaculture 498 (2019). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 578 - 586.
Closed systems - CO - Hypercapnia - RAS - Salmonids

High carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations negatively impact fish, which makes data on its tolerance especially relevant for production systems that can accumulate CO2 such as recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The current study evaluates the effect of CO2 on the growth performance, welfare, and health of Atlantic salmon post-smolts in RAS. This study consisted of two phases. The first was a CO2 exposure phase, where eighteen tanks were used with six treatments in triplicate: 5, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40 mg/L of CO2 during 12 weeks in a 12 ppt salinity RAS (hereafter RAS phase). In the second phase, PIT-tagged fish were transferred to a 34 ppt salinity single flow-through tank at CO2 < 5 mg/L (hereafter seawater phase) for an additional 6-week experimental period mimicking a seawater phase. Overall, mortality of fish exposed to CO2 was low and not related to treatments. The mean final body weight was significantly higher in the 5 mg/L treatment compared to CO2 treatments ≥12 mg/L at the end of RAS phase and to CO2 treatments ≥33 mg/L at the end of seawater phase. Moreover, regressions showed that growth significantly decreased linearly with increasing CO2 in the water. Eye cataracts and visible external damage on skin, operculum, and fins were inexistent and similar among CO2 treatments. Kidneys showed no signs of mineral deposits in any of the structures of the tissue. However, skin analysis showed that fish exposed to high CO2 concentrations had a significantly thinner dermis layer (both at the end of RAS and seawater phase) and a significantly thinner epidermis layer and lower mucus cells count (at the end of seawater phase). In conclusion, Atlantic salmon post-smolts cultured in brackish water RAS showed a maximum growth performance at CO2 concentrations below 12 mg/L. Except skin, no major effects of health and welfare were observed, including cataracts and nephrocalcinosis. Further studies should evaluate the molecular and physiological responses to both short-term and long-term carbon dioxide exposure.

Effect of different sources of starch on composition and activity of a pig microbiota in a validated, dynamic in vitro model of the colon
Long, Cheng ; Vries, S. de; Schols, H.A. ; Venema, K. - \ 2018
Variation in pig performance and nutrient digestion among farms seems unrelated to long-term farm health status
Vries, S. de; Sakkas, P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Kampman-van der Hoek, E. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2018
Energy and nitrogen partitioning in dairy cows at low or high metabolizable protein levels is affected differently by postrumen glucogenic and lipogenic substrates
Nichols, K.E. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Laar, H. van; Pacheco Pappenheim, Sara ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Bannink, A. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science (2018). - ISSN 0022-0302 - 18 p.
Energy balance - Nitrogen balance - glucogenic - lipogenic - milk nitrogen efficiency
This study tested the effects of energy from glucogenic (glucose; GG) or lipogenic (palm olein; LG) substrates at low (LMP) and high (HMP) metabolizable protein levels on whole-body energy and N partitioning of dairy cattle. Six rumen-fistulated, second-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (97 ± 13 d in milk) were randomly assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design in which each experimental period consisted of 5 d of continuous abomasal infusion followed by 2 d of rest. A total mixed ration consisting of 42% corn silage, 31% grass silage, and 27% concentrate (dry matter basis) was formulated to meet 100 and 83% of net energy and metabolizable protein requirements, respectively, and was fed at 90% of ad libitum intake by individual cow. Abomasal infusion treatments were saline (LMP-C), isoenergetic infusions (digestible energy basis) of 1,319 g/d of glucose (LMP-GG), 676 g/d of palm olein (LMP-LG; major fatty acid constituents are palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acid), or 844 g/d of essential AA (HMP-C), or isoenergetic infusions of 1,319 g/d of glucose + 844 g/d of essential AA (HMP-GG) or 676 g/d of palm olein + 844 g/d of essential AA (HMP-LG). The experiment was conducted in climate respiration chambers to determine energy and N balance in conjunction with milk production and composition, nutrient digestibility, and plasma constituents. Infusion of GG and LG decreased dry matter intake, but total gross energy intake from the diet plus infusions was not affected by GG or LG. Furthermore, GG or LG did not affect total milk, protein, or lactose yields. Infusing GG or LG at the HMP level did not affect milk production differently than at the LMP level. Infusion of GG stimulated energy retention in body tissue, increased plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, decreased lipogenic metabolites in plasma, and decreased milk fat yield and milk energy output. Nitrogen intake decreased and milk N efficiency increased in response to GG, and N retention was not affected. Infusion of LG tended to increase metabolizable energy intake, increased milk fat yield and milk energy output, increased plasma triacylglycerides and long-chain fatty acid concentrations, and had no effect on energy retention. Infusion of LG decreased N intake but did not affect milk N efficiency or N retention. Compared with the LMP level, the HMP level increased dry matter intake, gross and metabolizable energy intake, and total milk, fat, protein, and lactose yields. Milk energy output increased at the HMP level, and protein level did not affect total energy retention. Heat production increased at the HMP level, but only when GG and LG were infused. The HMP level increased N intake, milk N output, and plasma urea concentration, tended to increase N retention, and decreased milk N efficiency. Regardless of protein level, GG promoted energy retention and improved milk N efficiency, but not through increased milk protein yield. Infusion of LG partitioned extra energy intake into milk and had no effect on milk N efficiency.
Prolonged intake of hyperproteic casein-based diet promotes a molecular environment leading to liver triacylglycerol deposition and increases markers of hepatic damage in rats
Schothorst, E.M. van; Keijer, J. ; Diaz, R. ; Palou, A. ; Oliver, P. - \ 2018
Introduction: High protein (HP) diets have been associated to body weight loss and positive metabolic effects on obese subjects. However, controversy exists on the effects of long-term intake of these diets, as more recent reports point to health risk and higher mortality. Liver is a key organ involved in macronutrient handling, thus, we aimed to analyse the effects of HP diets on liver metabolism and health.
Methods: We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of healthy adult male Wistar rats fed for 4 months with a casein-rich HP diet and analysed adiposity and molecular parameters related to metabolic syndrome and liver injury.
Results: Compared to rats on a control diet, HP-fed animals, that ingested 2.3 times higher amount of protein than controls, showed a lower cumulative food intake and lower body weight; although this lower body weight was not related to decreased adiposity. HP-fed animals presented lower serum cholesterol levels and were apparently healthy according to parameters related to metabolic syndrome: no differences were found in circulating non-esterified fatty acids or triaclyglicerols (TG) in comparison to controls. In liver, long-term intake of the casein-rich diet had an impact on metabolic pathways related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, indicative of higher TG deposition. Liver transcriptomic analysis also revealed up-regulation of immune-related genes and changes in expression of genes involved in acid-base maintenance and oxidative stress, pointing to alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. In line with these transcriptomic changes, clear functional signs of unhealthy effects, such increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha) were observed. Moreover, chronic intake of the HP diet produced a dramatic increase of hepatic HSP90, a marker of liver injury.
Conclusion: A drastic and prolonged increase in diet protein intake, resulting in a high acid load, induces a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased levels of markers of liver/health injury.
The effects of polyphenol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and gene expression in overweight and obese humans
Most, Jasper ; Warnke, Ines ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Jocken, Johan W.E. ; Groot, Philip de; Friedel, Angelika ; Bendik, Igor ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2018
- p. 190 - 196.
Adipose tissue - EGCG - Morphology - Obesity - Resveratrol - Transcriptomics

Dietary polyphenols have beneficial effects on adipose tissue mass and function in rodents, but human studies are scarce. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, 25 (10 women) overweight and obese humans received a combination of the polyphenols epigallocatechin-gallate and resveratrol (282 mg/d, 80 mg/d, respectively, EGCG+RES, n = 11) or placebo (PLA, n = 14) supplementation for 12 weeks. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were collected for assessment of adipocyte morphology and micro-array analysis. EGCG+RES had no effects on adipocyte size and distribution compared with PLA. However, we identified pathways contributing to adipogenesis, cell cycle and apoptosis were significantly downregulated by EGCG+RES versus PLA. Furthermore, EGCG+RES significantly decreased expression of pathways related to energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune defense as compared with PLA. In conclusion, the SAT gene expression profile indicates a reduced cell turnover after 12-week EGCG+RES in overweight-obese subjects. It remains to be elucidated whether these alterations translate into long-term metabolic effects.

Power interplay between actors : using material and ideational resources to shape local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) in Nepal
Vij, Sumit ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Groot, Annemarie ; Termeer, Katrien ; Parajuli, Binod Prasad - \ 2018
Climate Policy (2018). - ISSN 1469-3062 - 15 p.
Climate change adaptation - local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) - material and ideational resources - Nepal - power interplay

Deliberation over how to adapt to short or long-term impacts of climate change takes place in a complex political setting, where actors’ interests and priorities shape the temporal dimension of adaptation plans, policies and actions. As actors interact to pursue their individual or collective interests, these struggles turn into dynamic power interplay. In this article, we aim to show how power interplay shapes local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) in Nepal to be short-term and reactive. We use an interactional framing approach through interaction analyses and observations to analyse how actors use material and ideational resources to pursue their interests. Material and ideational resources that an actor deploys include political authority, knowledge of adaptation science and national/local policy-making processes, financial resources and strong relations with international non-governmental organizations and donor agencies. We find that facilitators and local politicians have a very prominent role in meetings relating to LAPAs, resulting in short-termism of LAPAs. Findings suggest that there is also a lack of female participation contributing to short-term orientated plans. We conclude that such power interplay analysis can help to investigate how decision making on the temporal aspects of climate adaptation policy takes place at the local level. Key Policy insights Short-termism of LAPAs is attributed to the power interplay between actors during the policy design process. Improved participation of the most vulnerable, especially women, can lead to the preparation of adaptation plans and strategies focusing on both the short and long-term. It is pertinent to consider power interplay in the design and planning of adaptation policy in order to create a level-playing field between actors for inclusive decision-making. Analysis of dynamic power interplay can help in investigating climate change adaptation controversies that are marked by uncertainties and ambiguities.

Trust at a distance-trust in online communication in environmental and global health research projects
Vries, Jasper R. de; Bommel, Séverine van; Peters, Karin - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ability - Collaboration - Integrity - Online - Trust - Virtual teams

Online collaboration to deal with (global) environmental and public health problems continues to grow as the quality of technology for communication improves. In these collaborations, trust is seen as important for sustainable collaborations and organizations. However, face-to-face communication, which is often lacking in these contexts, is seen as a pre-requisite for trust development. Therefore, this paper aims to explore empirically which factors influence the emergence of trust in the early stages of online collaboration. Using the relevant literature, we conducted a series of interviews around projects in the field of public health and the environment on the interface between science and practice. The results show that trust does develop between participants. This trust is strongly influenced by perceived ability and integrity, fostered by reputation, third-party perceptions, and project structure. In these contexts, these types of trust facilitate collaboration but are also influenced by a wider set of aspects such as power, expectations, and uncertainty. However, from the results we also conclude that online collaboration does not create benevolence and a shared identity, thereby limiting further trust development and leading to less strong relations. Strong relations, however, are deemed important to reach creative and innovative solutions and long-term sustainable collaboration and organizations.

How fertile are earthworm casts? A meta-analysis
Groenigen, J.W. van; Groenigen, Kees Jan Van; Koopmans, G.F. ; Stokkermans, Lotte ; Vos, M.J. ; Lubbers, I.M. - \ 2018
Geoderma (2018). - ISSN 0016-7061 - 11 p.
It has long been established that earthworms beneficially affect plant growth. This is to a large extent due to the high fertility of their casts. However, it is not clear how fertile casts are compared to bulk soil, and how their fertility varies between earthworm feeding guilds and with physico-chemical soil properties. Using meta-analysis, we quantified the fertility of earthworm casts and identi
fied its controlling factors. Our analysis included 405 observations from 81 articles, originating from all continents except Antarctica. We quantified cast fertility by determining the enrichment of earthworm casts relative to the bulk soil (“relative cast fertility”; RCF) for total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentrations, as well as for plant available pools of N (total mineral N) and P (available P: P-Olsen, P-Bray or comparable metrics), C-to-N ratio and microbial biomass C. In addition to these response variables, we studied four additional ones closely related to soil fertility: pH-H2O, clay content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and base saturation. With the exception of C-to-N ratio, microbial C and clay content, all studied response variables were significantly increased in casts compared to the bulk soil. Increases in total elemental concentrations (TOC, total P and total N), which are the result of preferential feeding or concentration processes, were comparable and ranged between 40 and 48%. Nutrient availability, which is to a large extent the result of (bio)chemical transformation processes in the earthworm gut, was increased more strongly than total elemental concentrations (241% and 84% for mineral N and available P, respectively). Increases in pH (0.5 pH units), cation exchange capacity (40%), and base saturation (27%) were also large and significant. None of the soil-related possible controlling factors could satisfactorily explain the
variation in RCF; plant presence (or other sources of organic C input such as residue application) was the only controlling factor that consistently increased RCF across soil properties. With the exception of available P, none of the studied response variables could be linked to earthworm feeding guild. Our results show that earthworm casts are much more fertile than bulk soil for almost all analysed cast fertility properties. However, these positive RCFs are to a large extent dependent upon the presence of plants. In general, earthworm feeding guild or specific physico-chemical soil properties could not explain the large variability in RCF for the various response variables. Therefore, we hypothesize that RCF e
ffects depend on intricate interactions between earthworm species traits and specific soil properties. Understanding these interactions requires trait-based approaches combined with mechanistic modelling of biochemical processes in the earthworm gut and casts.
Anatomy of simultaneous flood peaks at a lowland confluence
Geertsema, Tjitske J. ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Torfs, Paul J.J.F. ; Hoitink, Antonius J.F. - \ 2018
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22 (2018)10. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 5599 - 5613.

Lowlands are vulnerable to flooding due to their mild topography in often densely populated areas with high social and economic value. Moreover, multiple physical processes coincide in lowland areas, such as those involved in river-sea interactions and in merging rivers at confluences. Simultaneous occurrence of such processes can result in amplifying or attenuating effects on water levels. Our aim is to understand the mechanisms behind simultaneous occurrence of discharge waves in a river and its lowland tributaries. Here, we introduce a new way of analyzing lowland discharge and water level dynamics, by tracing individual flood waves based on dynamic time warping. We take the confluence of the Meuse River (∼ 33000km2) with the joining tributaries of the Dommel and Aa rivers as an example, especially because the January 1995 flood at this confluence was the result of the simultaneous occurrence of discharge peaks in the main stream and the tributaries and because independent observations of water levels and discharge are available for a longer period. The analysis shows that the exact timing of the arrival of discharge peaks is of little relevance because of the long duration of the average discharge wave compared to typical time lags between peaks. The discharge waves last on average 9 days, whereas the lag time between discharge peaks in the main river and the tributaries is typically 3 days. This results in backwaters that can rise up to 1.5&thinsp;m over a distance of 4&thinsp;km from the confluence. Thus, local measures to reduce the impact of flooding around the confluence should account for the long duration of flood peaks in the main system.

Quantifying resilience of humans and other animals
Scheffer, Marten ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Borsboom, Denny ; Buchman, Timothy G. ; Gijzel, Sanne M.W. ; Goulson, Dave ; Kammenga, Jan E. ; Kemp, Bas ; Leemput, Ingrid A. van de; Levin, Simon ; Martin, Carmel Mary ; Melis, René J.F. ; Nes, Egbert H. van; Romero, L.M. ; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M. - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2018). - ISSN 0027-8424
All life requires the capacity to recover from challenges that are as inevitable as they are unpredictable. Understanding this resilience is essential for managing the health of humans and their livestock. It has long been difficult to quantify resilience directly, forcing practitioners to rely on indirect static indicators of health. However, measurements from wearable electronics and other sources now allow us to analyze the dynamics of physiology and behavior with unsurpassed resolution. The resulting flood of data coincides with the emergence of novel analytical tools for estimating resilience from the pattern of microrecoveries observed in natural time series. Such dynamic indicators of resilience may be used to monitor the risk of systemic failure across systems ranging from organs to entire organisms. These tools invite a fundamental rethinking of our approach to the adaptive management of health and resilience.
Counter-Mapping against oil palm plantations : reclaiming village territory in Indonesia with the 2014 Village Law
Vos, Rosanne de - \ 2018
Critical Asian Studies (2018). - ISSN 1467-2715
2014 Indonesia Village Law - counter-mapping - land conflict - oil palm - spatial planning

This paper explores how villagers in Sambas District of West Kalimantan, Indonesia, attempt to protect their land rights against oil palm companies by engaging in mapping and spatial planning, in the context of the implementation of Indonesia's 2014 Village Law. Drawing on theoretical debates about counter-territorialization and counter-mapping, this paper considers how villagers use the Village Law to legitimate control over their territory. Although village-level spatial planning and mapping initiatives do not guarantee that land rights will be protected in the long term, spatial plans and maps can serve as leverage in negotiations with oil palm companies and government officials. Moreover, mapping and spatial planning help to organize people and boost discussions about land rights and different aspirations for land use. Proactive village-level spatial planning is necessary to find ways to maintain pre-existing ways of using land, and to counter notions of empty land, available for companies to claim.

Advances in the Development of Procedures to Establish the Toxicity of Non-Extractable Residues (NER) in Soil. LRI-ECO25
Harmsen, Joop ; Hennecke, Dieter ; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin ; Lahr, Joost ; Deneer, John - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2909) - 109
There is already a long discussion around the bioavailability and ecotoxicological relevance of Non Extractable Residues (NER) in soil. Is NER formation a detoxification process or should it be considered a hidden hazard? NER can only be established using labelled chemicals (e.g. 14C) and cannot be measured with conventional chemical analytics. Regulations ask for understandable and measurable parameters. Considered in the developed tool are three measurable parameters: 1) Chemical present in the water phase, 2) A potentially available fraction in equilibrium with the water phase. 3) The total extractable amount. NER is considered, but mentioned as non-measurable and non-bioavailable. The fates of three NER-forming chemicals were followed in a period of 6 months after addition also using 14C chemicals. For the chemical Tri-NitroToluene (TNT), NER-formation was reproducible and NER formation during aging removed toxicity. By removing the bioavailable fractions directly after spiking and after aging it was also possible to remove toxicity. The experiments showed that toxicity was caused by the bioavailable chemical and not by NER. With Cypermethrin and Carbendazim, results were less clear, because there was a large uncertainty in NER-formation. The degree of biodegradation was not reproducible for Cypermethrin and unexpected losses occurred with Carbendazim and it is not possible to draw conclusions from only a non-labelled experiments.
Body image dissatisfaction and health-enhancing food choices : A pilot study from a sample of Italian yogurt consumers
Bimbo, Francesco ; Bonanno, Alessandro ; Trijp, Hans van; Viscecchia, Rosaria - \ 2018
British Food Journal 120 (2018)12. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 2778 - 2792.
Body image dissatisfaction - Food choices - Functional foods

Purpose: Psychological factors, such as body image dissatisfaction and the negative feelings associated with it may be related to the adoption of unhealthy eating behaviours. Also, body image dissatisfaction may lower the likelihood of engaging in long-term healthy eating habits and in the level of attention paid to the quality of the food consumed. As a result, body image may be related to consumers’ choice to purchase and consume health-enhancing food products. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A pilot study of a small sample of Italian yogurt consumers was employed to explore if there is a relationship between respondents’ level of body image dissatisfaction and the number of health-enhancing yogurt choices. The data were collected by means of a virtual-shelf technique and were analysed using a negative binomial regression. Findings: Results indicate that body image dissatisfaction is inversely related to the number of yogurt packages with health-enhancing features chosen from the virtual shelf. Also, respondents who read the nutrition label and those with more knowledge regarding leading functional yogurt brands, selected a higher number of functional yogurts from the virtual shelf compared, especially among women. Research limitations/implications: The results indicate that body image dissatisfaction is inversely related to the number of yogurt packages with health-enhancing features chosen from the virtual shelf. Also, respondents who read the nutrition label and those with more knowledge regarding leading health-enhancing yogurt brands selected a higher number of health-enhancing yogurts options from the virtual shelf compared to others, especially among women. Originality/value: The relationship between body image dissatisfaction and health-enhancing food choices has not been investigated in the consumer science and marketing literature. Additionally, this is one of the few papers that use a virtual shelf as a data-collection method.

Testing new concepts for crop cultivation in space : Effects of rooting volume and nitrogen availability
Wolff, Silje A. ; Palma, Carolina F. ; Marcelis, Leo ; Jost, Ann Iren Kittang ; Delden, Sander H. van - \ 2018
Life 8 (2018)4. - ISSN 2075-1729
Conductivity - Gas exchange - Greenhouse - Human space flight - Hydroponics - Lettuce - Life support - Transpiration

Long term human missions to the Moon and Mars, rely on life support systems for food production and regeneration of resources. In the EU H2020 TIME SCALE-project, an advanced life support system concept was developed to facilitate plant research and technology demonstration under different gravity conditions. Ground experiments assessed irrigation systems and effects of rooting- and nutrient solution volume. The maximal allowed volume for existing International Space Station research facilities (3.4 L) was able to support cultivation of two lettuce heads for at least 24 days. A smaller rooting volume (0.6 L) increased root biomass after 24 days, but induced a 5% reduction in total biomass at day 35. Regulating effects of nitrate supply on plant water fluxes in light and dark were also investigated. At low concentrations of nitrate in the nutrient solution, both transpiration and stomatal conductance increased rapidly with increasing nitrate concentration. During day-time this increase levelled off at high concentrations, while during nigh-time there was a distinct decline at supra optimal concentrations. Plants supplied with nitrate concentrations as low as 1.25 mM did not show visible signs of nutrient stress or growth reduction. These findings hold promise for both reducing the environmental impact of terrestrial horticulture and avoiding nutrient stress in small scale closed cultivation systems for space.

Where have we come with breeding for methane emissions : update from international collaborations
Haas, Y. de; Wall, E. ; Garnsworthy, Phil C. ; Kuhla, Björn ; Negussie, E. ; Lassen, Jan - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. - - 8 p.
Where have we come with breeding for methane emissions – update from international collaborations Climate change is a growing international concern and it is well established that release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. So far, within animal production, there is little or no concerted effort on long-term breeding strategies to mitigate GHG from ruminants. In recent years, several consortia have been formed to collect and combine data for genetic evaluation. Discussion areas of these consortia focus on (1) What are genetic parameters for methane (CH4) emissions, (2) What proxies can be used to assess CH4 emission, and (3) What are the prospects of breeding for lower emitting animals? The estimated genetic parameters show that enteric CH4 is a heritable trait, and that it is highly genetically correlated with DMI. So far, the most useful proxies relate to feed intake, milk mid-infrared spectral data, and fatty acid concentrations in milk. To be able to move forward with a genetic evaluation and ranking of animals for CH4 emission, international collaboration is essential to make progress in this area. Collaboration is not only in terms of sharing ideas, experiences and phenotypes, but also in terms of coming to a consensus regarding what phenotype to collect and to select for. Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, enteric methane, genetic control
Effect van kleine landschapselementen en buitenlandse natuur op het duurzaam voorkomen van soorten in de provincie Limburg : Doorrekening met het MNP
Wamelink, Wieger ; Adrichem, Marjolijn van; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Frissel, Joep ; Woltjer, Inez ; Knegt, Bart de; Pouwels, Rogier - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2912) - 59
In the Dutch province of Limburg not all natural areas are accounted for by the Model for Nature Policy (MNP) when assessing the realized nature targets in the Dutch Nature Network, for example in the studies for the evaluation of the ‘nature pact’ or Dutch governmental nature policy. Also the province has a long border with Germany and Belgium and the effect of their natural areas is not included in the evaluations. The MNP was therefore applied to calculate the effect of nature outside the official Nature Network and foreign nature on the viability of populations and species. When Limburg alone is assessed the viability of species and populations increases, especially if the extra natural areas are included. However, on a Dutch nation-wide scale the effects of both extra nature and foreign nature on species viability is negligible. This is due to the fact that the species that benefit in Limburg are already viable on a Dutch scale. The number of viable populations does increase, also in a national scale.
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