Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 20 / 90

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: q=Lorenzo
Check title to add to marked list
Drought and soil fertility modify fertilization effects on aphid performance in wheat
Tamburini, Giovanni ; Gils, Stijn van; Kos, Martine ; Putten, Wim van der; Marini, Lorenzo - \ 2018
Basic and Applied Ecology (2018). - ISSN 1439-1791
Agricultural intensification - Cereals - Climate change - Grain aphid - Nitrogen - Soil organic matter - Water availability

Agricultural intensification and climate change are expected to affect pest performance through excessive inputs of chemical fertilizers and increased probability of extreme drought events. Potential interactive effects of fertilization and water availability on aboveground pest performance may depend on soil fertility because of its effect on nutrient availability. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the effects of inorganic fertilization on the performance of the grain aphid (Sitobion avenae, F.), an important pest of wheat, under different conditions of soil fertility and water availability. We found soil fertility and water availability to influence the positive effects of inorganic fertilizers on aphid growth, i.e. fertilization promoted faster aphid development time and higher fecundity and biomass under low fertility and under well-watered conditions. Moreover, although increased soil fertility favored aphid growth under well-watered conditions, it simultaneously sustained plant development. The current practices promoting soil fertility do not have direct negative consequence on crop protection under conventional cropping systems.

Efficient co-conversion process of chicken manure into protein feed and organic fertilizer by Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera : Stratiomyidae) larvae and functional bacteria
Xiao, Xiaopeng ; Mazza, Lorenzo ; Yu, Yongqiang ; Cai, Minmin ; Zheng, Longyu ; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. ; Yu, Jeffrey ; Huis, Arnold van; Yu, Ziniu ; Fasulo, Salvatore ; Zhang, Jibin - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Management 217 (2018). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 668 - 676.
Chicken manure reduction rate - Feed stuff - Functional bacteria - Hermetia illucens L. larvae - Organic fertilizer - Waste management
A chicken manure management process was carried out through co-conversion of Hermetia illucens L. larvae (BSFL) with functional bacteria for producing larvae as feed stuff and organic fertilizer. Thirteen days co-conversion of 1000 kg of chicken manure inoculated with one million 6-day-old BSFL and 109 CFU Bacillus subtilis BSF-CL produced aging larvae, followed by eleven days of aerobic fermentation inoculated with the decomposing agent to maturity. 93.2 kg of fresh larvae were harvested from the B. subtilis BSF-CL-inoculated group, while the control group only harvested 80.4 kg of fresh larvae. Chicken manure reduction rate of the B. subtilis BSF-CL-inoculated group was 40.5%, while chicken manure reduction rate of the control group was 35.8%. The weight of BSFL increased by 15.9%, BSFL conversion rate increased by 12.7%, and chicken manure reduction rate increased by 13.4% compared to the control (no B. subtilis BSF-CL). The residue inoculated with decomposing agent had higher maturity (germination index >92%), compared with the no decomposing agent group (germination index ∼86%). The activity patterns of different enzymes further indicated that its production was more mature and stable than that of the no decomposing agent group. Physical and chemical production parameters showed that the residue inoculated with the decomposing agent was more suitable for organic fertilizer than the no decomposing agent group. Both, the co-conversion of chicken manure by BSFL with its synergistic bacteria and the aerobic fermentation with the decomposing agent required only 24 days. The results demonstrate that co-conversion process could shorten the processing time of chicken manure compared to traditional compost process. Gut bacteria could enhance manure conversion and manure reduction. We established efficient manure co-conversion process by black soldier fly and bacteria and harvest high value-added larvae mass and biofertilizer.
A global network for operational flood risk reduction
Alfieri, Lorenzo ; Cohen, Sagy ; Galantowicz, John ; Schumann, Guy J.P. ; Trigg, Mark A. ; Zsoter, Ervin ; Prudhomme, Christel ; Kruczkiewicz, Andrew ; Coughlan de Perez, Erin ; Flamig, Zachary ; Rudari, Roberto ; Wu, Huan ; Adler, Robert F. ; Brakenridge, Robert G. ; Kettner, Albert ; Weerts, Albrecht ; Matgen, Patrick ; Islam, Saiful A.K.M. ; Groeve, Tom de; Salamon, Peter - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 84 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 149 - 158.
Disaster risk management - Early warning systems - Flood monitoring - Global flood partnership (GFP) - Satellite remote sensing
Every year riverine flooding affects millions of people in developing countries, due to the large population exposure in the floodplains and the lack of adequate flood protection measures. Preparedness and monitoring are effective ways to reduce flood risk. State-of-the-art technologies relying on satellite remote sensing as well as numerical hydrological and weather predictions can detect and monitor severe flood events at a global scale. This paper describes the emerging role of the Global Flood Partnership (GFP), a global network of scientists, users, private and public organizations active in global flood risk management. Currently, a number of GFP member institutes regularly share results from their experimental products, developed to predict and monitor where and when flooding is taking place in near real-time. GFP flood products have already been used on several occasions by national environmental agencies and humanitarian organizations to support emergency operations and to reduce the overall socio-economic impacts of disasters. This paper describes a range of global flood products developed by GFP partners, and how these provide complementary information to support and improve current global flood risk management for large scale catastrophes. We also discuss existing challenges and ways forward to turn current experimental products into an integrated flood risk management platform to improve rapid access to flood information and increase resilience to flood events at global scale.
Technical and environmental performance of lower carbon footprint cement mortars containing biomass fly ash as a secondary cementitious material
Tosti, Lorenzo ; Zomeren, André van; Pels, Jan R. ; Comans, Rob N.J. - \ 2018
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 134 (2018). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 25 - 33.
Biomass ash - Blended cement - Compressive strength - Leaching - Secondary cementitious material
This study evaluated the mechanical and environmental properties of cement mortars containing fly ash from biomass combustion as a secondary cementitious material. Cement mortars with 20 and 40% wt. replacement of Portland cement with fly ash from two types of installations were tested for their compressive strength and leaching behaviour. Substitution of 20% Portland cement with wood fly ash complied with the reference standard for compressive strength of 42.5öMPa at 28ödays. Replacement rates of 40% developed a lower strength (30 and 33.5öMPa), but were still suitable for applications. The pulverized fuel ash perform substantially worse. We conclude that the biomass fly ash from fluidized bed combustion performs as a functional secondary cementitious material in cement, whereas the functionality of pulverized fuel fly ash is insufficient. The release of environmentally relevant elements from all the tested specimens fulfilled the Dutch leaching criteria for reuse. During second life as a granular construction material the release of Ba, Cr, Mo and V increased to a level of concern. However, this release was found to be similar to that of existing blended cements and was controlled by cement chemistry. The technical performance of cement mortars was influenced by the type and ratio of fly ash mixed with cement. However, the environmental performance was driven by the cement matrix that controlled the release of contaminants. Using biomass fly ash as a secondary cementitious material can reduce the carbon footprint of concrete by 40% while maintaining good technical and environmental performance.
Humusica 1, article 5: Terrestrial humus systems and forms — Keys of classification of humus systems and forms
Zanella, Augusto ; Ponge, Jean François ; Jabiol, Bernard ; Sartori, Giacomo ; Kolb, Ekart ; Bayon, Renée Claire Le; Gobat, Jean Michel ; Aubert, Michaël ; Waal, Rein de; Delft, Bas van; Vacca, Andrea ; Serra, Gianluca ; Chersich, Silvia ; Andreetta, Anna ; Kõlli, Raimo ; Brun, Jean Jacques ; Cools, Nathalie ; Englisch, Michael ; Hager, Herbert ; Katzensteiner, Klaus ; Brêthes, Alain ; Nicola, Cristina De; Testi, Anna ; Bernier, Nicolas ; Graefe, Ulfert ; Wolf, Ugo ; Juilleret, Jérôme ; Garlato, Andrea ; Obber, Silvia ; Galvan, Paola ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Frizzera, Lorenzo ; Tomasi, Mauro ; Banas, Damien ; Bureau, Fabrice ; Tatti, Dylan ; Salmon, Sandrine ; Menardi, Roberto ; Fontanella, Fausto ; Carraro, Vinicio ; Pizzeghello, Diego ; Concheri, Giuseppe ; Squartini, Andrea ; Cattaneo, Dina ; Scattolin, Linda ; Nardi, Serenella ; Nicolini, Gianni ; Viola, Franco - \ 2018
Applied Soil Ecology 122 (2018). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 75 - 86.
Humus - Humus classification - Humus forms - Humus systems - Humusica - Terrestrial humus forms
This article is an as simple as possible key of classification of terrestrial (aerobic, not submersed) topsoils (organic and organic-mineral series of soil horizons). Based on the introduction exposed in Humusica 1, article 1, and using vocabulary and definitions listed in article 4, a classification is proposed for better understanding the biological functioning of the soil, partially disclosing the process of litter digestion. Five types of terrestrial topsoils, called terrestrial humus systems, are described and illustrated with the help of photographs. Within each humus system, 3–4 humus forms are also revealed, corresponding to similar series of soil horizons generated in a relatively homogeneous environment whose range of ecological factors is not so large to overstep and cause the genesis of another different humus system. The article ends with a figure that shows the relationship between Tangel and Amphi humus systems, and a dichotomous key of classification that one can easily print and bring in the field for practicing humus classification.
Maritime spatial planning supported by infrastructure for spatial information in Europe (INSPIRE)
Abramic, Andrej ; Bigagli, Emanuele ; Barale, Vittorio ; Assouline, Michael ; Lorenzo-Alonso, Alberto ; Norton, Conor - \ 2018
Ocean & Coastal Management 152 (2018). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 23 - 36.
The implementation of Directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE can improve and actually strengthen the information management and data infrastructures needed for setting up Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) processes. Evidence for this comes from three parallel analyses: links between the MSP Framework Directive and INSPIRE components and implementation; the availability of marine and maritime data through the INSPIRE Geo-Portal; and the adequacy of using an INSPIRE data model for mapping maritime spatial plans. The first item identifies INSPIRE as a relevant instrument not only for data collection, but additionally for increasing transparency of the MSP processes, using already operational national and European data infrastructure. The marine/maritime data availability analysis highlights a significant difference in data sharing within European marine regions. Finally, the INSPIRE data model is adequate for mapping maritime activities and for the integration of sea and land planning in an overview of cross-border planning for a given sea region.
The WULCA consensus characterization model for water scarcity footprints : assessing impacts of water consumption based on available water remaining (AWARE)
Boulay, Anne Marie ; Bare, Jane ; Benini, Lorenzo ; Berger, Markus ; Lathuillière, Michael J. ; Manzardo, Alessandro ; Margni, Manuele ; Motoshita, Masaharu ; Núñez, Montserrat ; Pastor, Amandine Valerie ; Ridoutt, Bradley ; Oki, Taikan ; Worbe, Sebastien ; Pfister, Stephan - \ 2018
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 0948-3349 - p. 368 - 378.
Impact assessment - LCIA - Life cycle assessment - UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative - Water consumption - Water footprint - Water stress - Water use - WULCA

Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to assess freshwater-related impacts according to a new water footprint framework formalized in the ISO 14046 standard. To date, no consensus-based approach exists for applying this standard and results are not always comparable when different scarcity or stress indicators are used for characterization of impacts. This paper presents the outcome of a 2-year consensus building process by the Water Use in Life Cycle Assessment (WULCA), a working group of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, on a water scarcity midpoint method for use in LCA and for water scarcity footprint assessments. Methods: In the previous work, the question to be answered was identified and different expert workshops around the world led to three different proposals. After eliminating one proposal showing low relevance for the question to be answered, the remaining two were evaluated against four criteria: stakeholder acceptance, robustness with closed basins, main normative choice, and physical meaning. Results and discussion: The recommended method, AWARE, is based on the quantification of the relative available water remaining per area once the demand of humans and aquatic ecosystems has been met, answering the question “What is the potential to deprive another user (human or ecosystem) when consuming water in this area?” The resulting characterization factor (CF) ranges between 0.1 and 100 and can be used to calculate water scarcity footprints as defined in the ISO standard. Conclusions: After 8 years of development on water use impact assessment methods, and 2 years of consensus building, this method represents the state of the art of the current knowledge on how to assess potential impacts from water use in LCA, assessing both human and ecosystem users’ potential deprivation, at the midpoint level, and provides a consensus-based methodology for the calculation of a water scarcity footprint as per ISO 14046.

Impacts of natural hazards in Europe
Groeve, Tom De; Kurnik, Blaz ; Mysiak, J. ; Swart, R.J. ; Semenza, Jan C. ; Kendrovski, Vladimir ; Kramer, K. ; Ivits, Eva ; Vanneuville, W. ; Carrera, Lorenzo ; Blauhut, V. ; Erhard, M. ; Christiansen, Trine - \ 2017
In: Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Europe / Castellari, Sergio, Kurnik, Blaz, EEA - European Environment Agency (EEA Report 15/2017) - ISBN 9789292138936 - p. 92 - 115.
Climate change has caused noticeable effects on human health in Europe, mainly as a result of extreme events, an increase in climate-sensitive diseases, and a deterioration in environmental and social conditions. Heat waves were the
deadliest extreme weather event in the period 1991–2015 in Europe.
Increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather- and climate-related events may lead to more disastrous impacts on ecosystems and their services. Management of ecosystems can help to avoid or significantly reduce these impacts.
The total reported economic losses caused by extreme weather- and climate-related events in the EEA member countries over the period 1980-2015 amount to around EUR 433 billion (in 2015 values). A large share of the total losses (70 %) has been caused by a small number of events (3 %).
Combined effects of agrochemicals and ecosystem services on crop yield across Europe
Gagic, Vesna ; Kleijn, David ; Báldi, András ; Boros, Gergely ; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht ; Elek, Zoltán ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Groot, Arjen de; Hedlund, Katarina ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martin, Emily A. ; Pevere, Ines ; Potts, Simon G. ; Redlich, Sarah ; Senapathi, Deepa ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf ; Świtek, Stanislaw ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Takács, Viktória ; Tryjanowski, Piotr ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Gils, Stijn van; Bommarco, Riccardo - \ 2017
Ecology Letters 20 (2017)11. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1427 - 1436.
Agricultural intensification - biological pest control - ecological intensification - fertilisers - insecticides - landscape complexity - soil organic carbon - yield loss

Simultaneously enhancing ecosystem services provided by biodiversity below and above ground is recommended to reduce dependence on chemical pesticides and mineral fertilisers in agriculture. However, consequences for crop yield have been poorly evaluated. Above ground, increased landscape complexity is assumed to enhance biological pest control, whereas below ground, soil organic carbon is a proxy for several yield-supporting services. In a field experiment replicated in 114 fields across Europe, we found that fertilisation had the strongest positive effect on yield, but hindered simultaneous harnessing of below- and above-ground ecosystem services. We furthermore show that enhancing natural enemies and pest control through increasing landscape complexity can prove disappointing in fields with low soil services or in intensively cropped regions. Thus, understanding ecological interdependences between land use, ecosystem services and yield is necessary to promote more environmentally friendly farming by identifying situations where ecosystem services are maximised and agrochemical inputs can be reduced.

Twenty years of ecosystem services : How far have we come and how far do we still need to go?
Costanza, Robert ; Groot, Dolf de; Braat, L. ; Kubiszewski, Ida ; Fioramonti, Lorenzo ; Sutton, Paul ; Farber, Steve ; Grasso, Monica - \ 2017
Ecosystem Services 28 (2017). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 1 - 16.

It has been 20 years since two seminal publications about ecosystem services came out: an edited book by Gretchen Daily and an article in Nature by a group of ecologists and economists on the value of the world's ecosystem services. Both of these have been very highly cited and kicked off an explosion of research, policy, and applications of the idea, including the establishment of this journal. This article traces the history leading up to these publications and the subsequent debates, research, institutions, policies, on-the-ground actions, and controversies they triggered. It also explores what we have learned during this period about the key issues: from definitions to classification to valuation, from integrated modelling to public participation and communication, and the evolution of institutions and governance innovation. Finally, it provides recommendations for the future. In particular, it points to the weakness of the mainstream economic approaches to valuation, growth, and development. It concludes that the substantial contributions of ecosystem services to the sustainable wellbeing of humans and the rest of nature should be at the core of the fundamental change needed in economic theory and practice if we are to achieve a societal transformation to a sustainable and desirable future.

Numerical simulation of the effect of different mulches on the heat storage capacity of a Mediterranean greenhouse soil
Baeza, E.J. ; Sapounas, A. ; Stanghellini, C. ; Bonachela CastaAo, S. ; Hernández, J. ; Montero, J.I. ; López, J.C. ; Granados, M.R. ; Muñoz, P. ; Lorenzo, P. ; Fernández-Del Olmo, P. - \ 2017
In: International Symposium on New Technologies and Management for Greenhouses - GreenSys2015 International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611665 - p. 119 - 127.
Black film - CFD - Sand - Semi-transparent film - Temperature
In the Mediterranean greenhouse areas, a large majority of growers rely on passive techniques to improve the microclimate of the greenhouse during the winter period, rather than using more expensive systems such as active heating. Some of these techniques such as different types of mulch (sand, plastic films, etc.) are used to improve the heat storage capacity of the greenhouse soil. A proper modeling of the role of the greenhouse soil a heat store would allow the verification of which techniques have a larger positive effect on the heat store capacity of the soil (i.e. type, color and thickness of the mulch, soil moisture content, etc.) and how to optimize their management by the grower. In recent years, CFD has been successfully used to model the greenhouse microclimate under very different scenarios, but little has been done to include in the simulations the role of passive techniques in the winter period microclimate, such as the role of the soil as a heat store. In the present work, a CFD model of a Mediterranean greenhouse and its soil has been developed, and the effect on the heat storage capacity of the soil as well as in the ambient of 2 different types of mulch (black plastic film, semi-transparent plastic film) was evaluated, by comparing the temperature measured at 4 different depths and ambient temperature (at two heights), during daytime period with the values provided by the model. The evolution of the temperatures at different soil depths followed the same pattern in both the experiments and the simulations. Good quantitative agreement was found between values predicted by the model and the measurements with differences being always lower than 2°C.
Predicting gene regulatory networks by combining spatial and temporal gene expression data in Arabidopsis root stem cells
Balaguer, Maria Angels De Luis ; Fisher, Adam P. ; Clark, Natalie M. ; Fernandez-Espinosa, Maria Guadalupe ; Möller, Barbara K. ; Weijers, Dolf ; Lohmann, Jan U. ; Williams, Cranos ; Lorenzo, Oscar ; Sozzani, Rosangela - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)36. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7632 - E7640.
Cell-type expression profile - Gene regulatory network - Modeling - Root development - Root stem cell
Identifying the transcription factors (TFs) and associated networks involved in stem cell regulation is essential for understanding the initiation and growth of plant tissues and organs. Although many TFs have been shown to have a role in the Arabidopsis root stem cells, a comprehensive view of the transcriptional signature of the stem cells is lacking. In this work, we used spatial and temporal transcriptomic data to predict interactions among the genes involved in stem cell regulation. To accomplish this, we transcriptionally profiled several stem cell populations and developed a gene regulatory network inference algorithm that combines clustering with dynamic Bayesian network inference. We leveraged the topology of our networks to infer potential major regulators. Specifically, through mathematical modeling and experimental validation, we identified PERIANTHIA (PAN) as an important molecular regulator of quiescent center function. The results presented in this work show that our combination of molecular biology, computational biology, and mathematical modeling is an efficient approach to identify candidate factors that function in the stem cells.
Data from: Soil pathogen-aphid interactions under differences in soil organic matter and mineral fertilizer
Gils, S.H. van; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Biere, Arjen ; Agtmaal, M. van; Tyc, Olaf ; Kos, M. ; Kleijn, D. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2017
Rhizoctonia solani - Sitobion avenae - Triticum aestivum
There is increasing evidence showing that microbes can influence plant-insect interactions. In addition, various studies have shown that aboveground pathogens can alter the interactions between plants and insects. However, little is known about the role of soil-borne pathogens in plant-insect interactions. It is also not known how environmental conditions, that steer the performance of soil-borne pathogens, might influence these microbe-plant-insect interactions. Here, we studied effects of the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on aphids (Sitobion avenae) using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a host. In a greenhouse experiment, we tested how different levels of soil organic matter (SOM) and fertilizer addition influence the interactions between plants and aphids. To examine the influence of the existing soil microbiome on the pathogen effects, we used both unsterilized field soil and sterilized field soil. In unsterilized soil with low SOM content, R. solani addition had a negative effect on aphid biomass, whereas it enhanced aphid biomass in soil with high SOM content. In sterilized soil, however, aphid biomass was enhanced by R. solani addition and by high SOM content. Plant biomass was enhanced by fertilizer addition, but only when SOM content was low, or in the absence of R. solani. We conclude that belowground pathogens influence aphid performance and that the effect of soil pathogens on aphids can be more positive in the absence of a soil microbiome. This implies that experiments studying the effect of pathogens under sterile conditions might not represent realistic interactions. Moreover, pathogen-plant-aphid interactions can be more positive for aphids under high SOM conditions. We recommend that soil conditions should be taken into account in the study of microbe-plant-insect interactions.
The contribution of microbial biotechnology to sustainable development goals
Timmis, Kenneth ; Vos, Willem M. de; Ramos, Juan Luis ; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E. ; Prieto, Auxiliadora ; Danchin, Antoine ; Verstraete, Willy ; Lorenzo, Victor de; Lee, Sang Yup ; Brüssow, Harald ; Timmis, James Kenneth ; Singh, Brajesh K. - \ 2017
Microbial Biotechnology 10 (2017)5. - ISSN 1751-7907 - p. 984 - 987.
The signature and almost unique characteristic of microbial technology is the exceptional diversity of applications it can address, and the exceptional range of human activities and needs to which it is and can be applied. Precisely because sustainability goals have very diverse and complex components and requirements, microbial technology has the ability to contribute substantively on many levels in many arenas to global efforts to achieve sustainability. Indeed, microbial technology could be viewed as a unifying element in our progress towards sustainability.
Soil pathogen-aphid interactions under differences in soil organic matter and mineral fertilizer
Gils, Stijn van; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Biere, Arjen ; Agtmaal, Maaike van; Tyc, Olaf ; Kos, Martine ; Kleijn, David ; Putten, Wim H. van der - \ 2017
PLoS One 12 (2017)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 14 p.

There is increasing evidence showing that microbes can influence plant-insect interactions. In addition, various studies have shown that aboveground pathogens can alter the interactions between plants and insects. However, little is known about the role of soil-borne pathogens in plant-insect interactions. It is also not known how environmental conditions, that steer the performance of soil-borne pathogens, might influence these microbe-plant-insect interactions. Here, we studied effects of the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on aphids (Sitobion avenae) using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a host. In a greenhouse experiment, we tested how different levels of soil organic matter (SOM) and fertilizer addition influence the interactions between plants and aphids. To examine the influence of the existing soil microbiome on the pathogen effects, we used both unsterilized field soil and sterilized field soil. In unsterilized soil with low SOM content, R. solani addition had a negative effect on aphid biomass, whereas it enhanced aphid biomass in soil with high SOM content. In sterilized soil, however, aphid biomass was enhanced by R. solani addition and by high SOM content. Plant biomass was enhanced by fertilizer addition, but only when SOM content was low, or in the absence of R. solani. We conclude that belowground pathogens influence aphid performance and that the effect of soil pathogens on aphids can be more positive in the absence of a soil microbiome. This implies that experiments studying the effect of pathogens under sterile conditions might not represent realistic interactions. Moreover, pathogen-plant-aphid interactions can be more positive for aphids under high SOM conditions. We recommend that soil conditions should be taken into account in the study of microbe-plant-insect interactions.

Humusica 1, article 4 : Terrestrial humus systems and forms-Specific terms and diagnostic horizons
Zanella, Augusto ; Ponge, Jean François ; Jabiol, Bernard ; Sartori, Giacomo ; Kolb, Eckart ; Gobat, Jean Michel ; Bayon, Renée Claire Le ; Aubert, Michael ; Waal, Rein de; Delft, Bas van; Vacca, Andrea ; Serra, Gianluca ; Chersich, Silvia ; Andreetta, Anna ; Cools, Nathalie ; Englisch, Michael ; Hager, Herbert ; Katzensteiner, Klaus ; Brethes, Alain ; Nicola, Cristina De ; Testi, Anna ; Bernier, Nicolas ; Graefe, Ulfert ; Juilleret, Jérôme ; Banas, Damien ; Garlato, Adriano ; Obber, Silvia ; Galvan, Paola ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Frizzera, Lorenzo ; Tomasi, Mauro ; Menardi, Roberto ; Fontanella, Fausto ; Filoso, Carmen ; Dibona, Raffaella ; Bolzonella, Cristian ; Pizzeghello, Diego ; Carletti, Paolo ; Langhor, Roger ; Cattaneo, Dina ; Nardi, Serenella ; Nicolini, Gianni ; Viola, Franco - \ 2017
Applied Soil Ecology 122 (2017)1. - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 56 - 74.
Humic component - Humipedon - Humus - Humus classification - Humus diagnostic horizon - Humusica - Recognizable remains - Terrestrial humus - Zoogenically transformed material
Knowledge of a little number of specific terms is necessary to investigate and describe humipedons. This "new vocabulary" allows individuating and circumscribing particular diagnostic horizons, which are the fundamental bricks of the humipedon. Few "components" defined by specific terms characterize a specific "humipedon horizon"; few "humipedon horizons" compose a given "humus form" and some similar "humus forms" are grouped in a functional "humus system". In this article, specific terms and humus horizons are listed and explained one by one. Field difficulties are illustrated and resolved. The aim of the article is to present in a manner as simple as possible how to distinguish in the field the soil structures allowing a morpho-functional classification of terrestrial (aerated, not submerged) humipedons.
Erratum to: Non-crop plants used as hosts by Drosophila suzukii in Europe
Kenis, Marc ; Tonina, Lorenzo ; Eschen, René ; Sluis, Bart van der; Sancassani, Manuel ; Mori, Nicola ; Haye, Tim ; Helsen, Herman - \ 2017
Journal of pest science 90 (2017)3. - ISSN 1612-4758 - p. 985 - 985.
Risk assessment of soil-pest damage to grain maize in Europe within the framework of Integrated Pest Management
Furlan, Lorenzo ; Vasileiadis, Vasileios P. ; Chiarini, Francesca ; Huiting, Hilfred ; Leskovšek, Robert ; Razinger, Jaka ; Holb, Imre J. ; Sartori, Erica ; Urek, Gregor ; Verschwele, Arnd - \ 2017
Crop Protection 97 (2017). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 52 - 59.
Agriotes - Damage risk factors - IPM - Maize - Soil insecticides - Soil-pests - Wireworms
The management of soil-pests relies largely on conventional insecticides. Within the framework of the EU's PURE project, data were collected to assess the risk of soil-pest damage to grain maize in Europe in order to implement Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of soil-pests in a more practical and sustainable manner, thus optimizing the use of soil insecticides (in-furrow or as seed-dressing) at sowing. Plant density and soil-pest damage to maize seeds and/or plants during the growing season were determined in fields with no or some risk factors. Risk assessment on a sample of sixteen experimental sites (a total of 109.95 ha of maize) located in five European countries (Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and the Netherlands) from 2011 to 2014 showed a low risk of soil-pest damage to maize. In all fields, wireworms (Agriotes spp. larvae) caused 99.5%-100% of the plant damage, meaning that damage by other soil-pests was negligible. The fields studied were divided into two groups: those with no risk and those with risk factors. According to previous research, the risk factors were . Agriotes brevis Candeze and . Agriotes sordidus Illiger as prevalent damaging species, soil Organic Matter content over 5%, rotation including meadows and/or double crops, as well as surrounding landscape being mainly meadows, uncultivated grass and double crops, cover crops, and poor drainage. In the fields with no risk factors, wireworm plant damage (mainly holes in the collar causing central leaf wilting) never exceeded 15%, a threshold value for potential yield reduction. Furthermore, plant damage was much lower or even negligible in the vast majority of the fields (i.e. over 90% of fields had less than 5% wireworm damage to maize plants). Risk factors, such as rotation including meadows and/or double crops, led to the percentage of cultivated land with significant wireworm plant damage being even lower than predicted (8.7% instead of 14.7%) and almost 50% of that predicted for the whole sample (2.7% instead of 4.9%). In the few cases where plant damage was higher than 15%, yield was not affected when untreated strips were compared with strips treated with soil insecticides. In all trials, the soil insecticide Tefluthrin did not significantly increase the density of healthy maize plants or grain yield. In more than 99% of cases, no economic damage to maize by soil-pests was recorded. These results demonstrate that the occurrence of risk factors may increase the risk of wireworm damage to maize crops, while the probability of damage to a field with no risk factors is always very low (less than 1%). This highlights the importance of integrating risk assessment of soil-pest damage to maize into IPM strategies, which would include: i) an "area-wide" risk assessment evaluating the possible presence of risk factors, including click beetle population monitoring with pheromone traps, and ii) "complementary field monitoring" with bait traps where risk assessment has identified the presence of risk factors. In fields with no risk factors, treating maize with soil insecticides was found to be pointless. Therefore, IPM strategies in maize that include risk assessment of soil-pest damage may lead to a significant reduction in soil insecticides use and, consequently, to a reduction in environmental impact.
Replication-Deficient Particles: New Insights into the Next Generation of Bleutongue Virus Vaccines
Celma, Cristina C. ; Stewart, Meredith ; Wernike, Kerstine ; Eschbaumer, Michael ; Gonzalez-Molleda, Lorenzo ; Breard, Emmanuel ; Schulz, Claudia ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Haegeman, Andy ; Clercq, Kris De; Rijn, P.A. van - \ 2017
Journal of Virology 91 (2017)2. - ISSN 0022-538X
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is endemic in many parts of the world, often causing severe haemorrhagic disease in livestock. To date, at least 27 different serotypes have been recognized. Vaccination against all serotypes is necessary to protect susceptible animals and to prevent onward spread of the virus by insect vectors. In our previous studies, we generated replication-deficient (DISC) virus strains for a number of serotypes and reported preliminary data on their protective efficacy in animals. In this report, to advance the DISC vaccines to the marketplace, we investigated different parameters of these DISC vaccines. First, we demonstrated the genetic stabilities of these vaccine strains and also the complementing cell line. Subsequently, the optimal storage conditions of vaccines, including additives, temperature and desiccation were determined and their protective efficacies in animals confirmed. Further, to test if mixtures of different vaccine strains could be tolerated, we tested cocktails of DISC vaccines in combinations of three or six different serotypes in sheep and cattle, the two natural hosts of BTV. Groups of sheep vaccinated with a cocktail of six different vaccines were completely protected from challenge with individual virulent serotypes, both in early challenge or after five months' challenge without any clinical disease. There was no interference in protection between the different vaccines. Protection was also achieved in cattle with a mixture of three vaccine strains, albeit at a lesser level than sheep. Our data support and validate the suitability of these virus strains as the next generation vaccines for BTV.
EURISCO: The European search catalogue for plant genetic resources
Weise, Stephan ; Oppermann, Markus ; Maggioni, Lorenzo ; Hintum, Theo van; Knüpffer, Helmut - \ 2017
Nucleic Acids Research 45 (2017). - ISSN 0305-1048 - p. D1003 - D1008.
The European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources, EURISCO, provides information about 1.8 million crop plant accessions preserved by almost 400 institutes in Europe and beyond. EURISCO is being maintained on behalf of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources. It is based on a network of National Inventories of 43 member countries and represents an important effort for the preservation of world's agrobiological diversity by providing information about the large genetic diversity kept by the collaborating collections. Moreover, EURISCO also assists its member countries in fulfilling legal obligations and commitments, e.g. with respect to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, the Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture of the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, or the Convention on Biological Diversity. EURISCO is accessible at http://eurisco.ecpgr.org.
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.