Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks : Expert opinion regarding multiple impacts
Kendall, Helen ; Kaptan, Gulbanu ; Stewart, Gavin ; Grainger, Matthew ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Naughton, Paul ; Clark, Beth ; Hubbard, Carmen ; Raley, Marian ; Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Frewer, Lynn J. - \ 2018
Food Control 90 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 440 - 458.
Delphi technique - Emerging risk - Existing risk - Expert opinion - Food safety
Considerable research effort is invested in the development of evidence to help policy makers and industry deal with the challenges associated with existing and emerging food safety threats. This research aimed to elicit expert views regarding the relationship between the drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks, in order to facilitate their control and mitigation, and to provide the basis for further international policy integration. A Delphi approach involving repeated polling of n = 106 global food safety experts was adopted. The primary drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks were identified to be demographic change, economic driving forces, resource shortages, environmental driving forces, increased complexity of the food supply chain, water security and malevolent activities. The identification of socio-economic and biophysical drivers emphasises the need for a transdisciplinary and systems approach to food safety management and mitigation. The mitigation of hazards on a case-by-case basis is unlikely to have a major impact on food safety hazards but may have unintended effects (where positive or negative) across a broad spectrum of food safety issues. Rather a holistic or systems approach is required which can address both the intended and unintended effects of different drivers and their interactions.
Hoe de implementatiekloof te dichten? Een analyse voor perspectieven in het overstromingsbeleid
Coninx, I. - \ 2017
KU Leuven. - Leuven : KU Leuven - 316 p.
Als overheidsbeleid de gestelde doelen niet haalt, dan is er sprake van een implementatiekloof (Laurian & Crawford, 2016). Ook het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid lijkt een implementatiekloof te kennen, want ondanks een palet aan preventieve, effectgerichte en curatieve overstromingsmaatregelen wordt de schade door overstromingen jaarlijks nog op zo een 50 miljoen euro geschat (Brouwers et al., 2015). Implementatie is in feite gedrag (O'Toole Jr, 2000; Robichau & Lynn Jr, 2009) en gedrag wordt ingegeven door houdingen (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Daarom wil dit onderzoek nagaan of houdingen van betrokken beleidsactoren een rol spelen bij de implementatie van overstromingsmaatregelen (hoofdstuk 2). Beleidsactoren van 26 organisaties of groepen geven het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid een echt multiactor-, multisector- en multilevelkarakter (hoofdstuk 1). Het onderzoek beantwoordt enkele vragen over houdingen, zoals of ze een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, welke verschillende houdingen er zijn, hoe die houdingen bepaald worden en wat de dominante evaluatiecriteria zijn. Op basis van die inzichten worden mechanismen ontwikkeld om de implementatiekloof te dichten. Vervolgens worden perspectieven voor het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid beschreven. De analyse vond plaats voor 15 overstromingsmaatregelen bij 347 actoren en in 3 casegebieden in Vlaanderen. Dit gebeurde via verschillende dataverzameling- en data-analysemethoden om triangulatie op vele fronten te waarborgen (hoofdstuk 3).De analyse toont dat houdingen een rol spelen, want veel beleidsactoren staan nog negatief tegenover bepaalde overstromingsmaatregelen met een ruimtelijke impact (hoofdstuk 4). Diverse ‘evaluatiecriteria’ – criteria, gebruikt om houding te bepalen tijdens de evaluatieve afweging – bepalen die houdingen. Ten eerste worden houdingen gevormd door belangen en hebben mensen een positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die hun baten opleveren (Gintis, 2000; Henrich et al., 2001; Jager, Janssen, De Vries, De Greef, & Vlek, 2000; Persky, 1995). Ten tweede worden houdingen bepaald door waarden, wat richtinggevende principes zijn van wat volgens de mens wenselijk en juist is (Kempton, Boster, & Hartley, 1995). Men heeft positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die in lijn liggen met zijn waarden. Ten derde worden houdingen gevormd door denkkaders en percepties (Bartlett, 1932; Benford & Snow, 2000; Berger & Luckmann, 1966). Dat zijn cognitieve voorstellingen die gebruikt worden om betekenis te geven aan informatie (Buijs, 2009b; Minsky, 1975). Percepties spelen altijd een rol bij houdingbepaling, zo blijkt ook uit de analyse (hoofdstuk 5).De combinatie van evaluatiecriteria vormt een verhaallijn, die toe te kennen is aan elk van de actoren. Elke overstromingsmaatregel kent verschillende verhaallijnen. Hoe meer verhaallijnen, hoe meer divers de evaluatiecriteria die elke actor gebruikt. In dit onderzoek is vooral nagegaan waar spanning optreedt tussen de verhaallijnen en welke evaluatiecriteria aan de basis liggen van de negatieve houdingen (hoofdstuk 5). In het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid verklaren vooral percepties en waarden de implementatiekloof. Zelfs over het huidige beleidsparadigma ‘ruimte voor water’ bestaan er twee verschillende percepties: ‘ruimte maken’ en ‘ruimte vinden’ voor water. Die twee percepties weerspiegelen de bereidheid van mensen om het huidige ruimtegebruik aan te passen. Die percepties en andere fundamentele verschillen houden de uitvoering van het overstromingsbeleid in de tang. Het valt op dat binnen één actorgroep veel verschillende verhaallijnen te vinden zijn. Dat leidt tot vragen of het systeem van sectorale vertegenwoordiging in de CIW en de bekkenraden wel goed genoeg kan werken.Er is ook gekeken welk type evaluatiecriteria de actoren vooral gebruiken om houding te bepalen. De meeste actoren laten zich leiden door hun waarden. Alleen de sector ‘landbouw’ en actoren van het Vlaamse/nationale niveau gebruiken vooral belangengerichte evaluatiecriteria (hoofdstuk 6).Wetende dat houdingen een rol spelen bij de implementatiekloof, rest de vraag welke mechanismen kunnen helpen om de implementatiekloof te dichten? Allereerst is het raadzaam om de actoren die een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, al te betrekken bij het interactieve beleidsontwikkelingsproces. Door interactie en cocreatie worden nieuwe inzichten ontwikkeld, kennis uitgewisseld en belangen, waarden en percepties gedeeld (Ter Haar, Aarts, & Verhoeven, 2016). Als bestaande verhaallijnen beter op elkaar afgestemd geraken of mensen verschuiven naar één dominante verhaallijn, dan helpt dat om de implementatiekloof te voorkomen (Hajer, 2005). Bij de uitvoering van de maatregelen helpen interactieve beleidsinstrumenten om gezamenlijke actie tot stand te brengen. Dat is iets dat niet snel gebeurd wanneer beleidsinstrumenten zoals gezag of geld worden ingezet. (Tabel 1: mechanismen om implementatiekloof te dichten) Er wordt vastgesteld dat nog maar weinig van die mechanismen ingebouwd werden in het overstromingsbeleid, aangezien een betekenisvolle proportie actoren zich nog bevindt in de verhaallijn die overeenkomt met het ‘oude paradigma’ van ‘strijden tegen water’. Om de verschillen tussen de evaluatiecriteria te kennen, is het aan te raden om de verhaallijnen te verkennen via interviews en analyse van documenten (= mapping van verhaallijnen) (Kolkman, Veen, & Geurts, 2007).Wetenschap kan een rol spelen bij het dichten van de implementatiekloof, vooral als die verklaard wordt door percepties (Leeuwis & Aarts, 2016; Van Bommel, Röling, Aarts, & Turnhout, 2009), op voorwaarde dat de betrokken actoren de wetenschappelijke kennis beschouwen als gelegitimeerd, geloofwaardig en begrijpelijk (Cash et al., 2003). Anders zal de kennis in twijfel getrokken of zelfs misbruikt worden om specifieke verhaallijnen te ontkrachten. Bovendien zijn er ook andere typen van kennis dan louter wetenschappelijke. ‘Boundary organisations’ kunnen wetenschappelijke kennis inbrengen en zo de implementatiekloof dichten (Guston, 2001). Men moet er wel bewust van zijn dat machtsrelaties het succes van de genoemde mechanismen kunnen beïnvloeden (Van Bommel et al., 2009).Op basis van deze mechanismen zijn vervolgens perspectieven voor de verdere ontwikkeling van het overstromingsbeleid geformuleerd. Het eerste perspectief richt zich op het versterken van bestaande overstromingsmaatregelen via beperkte interventies zoals participatieve monitoring en bespreken en communiceren van (wetenschappelijk) bevindingen. Het tweede perspectief omvat meer ingrijpende interventies, zoals de formele introductie van meerlaagse veiligheid in het beleid, de versterking van de dialoog tussen verhaallijnen in de bekkenorganen en maatregelen om te komen tot een passende verantwoordelijkheidsverdeling tussen overheid en burger, zoals een meerjarig pilotprogramma. De resultaten van dat pilotprogramma kunnen dan geformaliseerd worden in beleidsdocumenten.De algemene conclusie is dat houdingen van betrokken actoren één van de verklaringen kunnen zijn voor een implementatiekloof. Het onderzoek laat zien dat die houdingen kunnen verschillen, maar ook dat houdingen veranderlijk zijn. Daarom is actieve sturing op die houdingverandering een absolute must voor het beleid om zo de implementatiekloof te dichten en zelfs te voorkomen.
Providing Personalised Nutrition : Consumers' Trust and Preferences Regarding Sources of Information, Service Providers and Regulators, and Communication Channels
Poínhos, Rui ; Oliveira, Bruno M.P.M. ; Lans, Ivo A. Van Der; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Berezowska, Aleksandra ; Rankin, Audrey ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Almeida, Maria D.V. De - \ 2017
Public Health Genomics 20 (2017)4. - ISSN 1662-4246 - p. 218 - 228.
Communication - Consumers - Food4me - Genomics - Personalised nutrition - Preferences - Regulators - Service providers - Trust
Background/Aims: Personalised nutrition has potential to revolutionise dietary health promotion if accepted by the general public. We studied trust and preferences regarding personalised nutrition services, how they influence intention to adopt these services, and cultural and social differences therein. Methods: A total of 9,381 participants were quota-sampled to be representative of each of 9 EU countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, The UK, and Norway) and surveyed by a questionnaire assessing their intention to adopt personalised nutrition, trust in service regulators and information sources, and preferences for service providers and information channels. Results: Trust and preferences significantly predicted intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Higher trust in the local department of health care was associated with lower intention to adopt personalised nutrition. General practitioners were the most trusted of service regulators, except in Portugal, where consumer organisations and universities were most trusted. In all countries, family doctors were the most trusted information providers. Trust in the National Health Service as service regulator and information source showed high variability across countries. Despite its highest variability across countries, personal meeting was the preferred communication channel, except in Spain, where an automated internet service was preferred. General practitioners were the preferred service providers, except in Poland, where dietitians and nutritionists were preferred. The preference for dietitians and nutritionists as service providers highly varied across countries. Conclusion: These results may assist in informing local initiatives to encourage acceptance and adoption of country-specific tailored personalised nutrition services, therefore benefiting individual and public health.
Symbiogenesis : Beyond the endosymbiosis theory?
Aanen, Duur K. ; Eggleton, Paul - \ 2017
Journal of Theoretical Biology 434 (2017). - ISSN 0022-5193 - p. 99 - 103.
Cockroaches - Endosymbiosis theory - Eusociality - Flagellates - Gut symbionts - Insects - Termites

Symbiogenesis, literally ‘becoming by living together’, refers to the crucial role of symbiosis in major evolutionary innovations. The term usually is reserved for the major transition to eukaryotes and to photosynthesising eukaryotic algae and plants by endosymbiosis. However, in some eukaryote lineages endosymbionts have been lost secondarily, showing that symbiosis can trigger a major evolutionary innovation, even if symbionts were lost secondarily. This leads to the intriguing possibility that symbiosis has played a role in other major evolutionary innovations as well, even if not all extant representatives of such groups still have the symbiotic association. We evaluate this hypothesis for two innovations in termites (Termitoidae, also known informally as “Isoptera”): i) the role of flagellate gut protist symbionts in the transition to eusociality from cockroach-like ancestors, and ii) the role of non-gut associated symbionts in the transition to ‘higher’ termites, characterized by the absence of flagellate gut protists. In both cases we identify a crucial role for symbionts, even though in both cases, subsequently, symbionts were lost again in some lineages. We also briefly discuss additional possible examples of symbiogenesis. We conclude that symbiogenesis is more broadly applicable than just for the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, and may be a useful concept to acknowledge the important role of symbiosis for evolutionary innovation. However, we do not accept Lynn Margulis's view that symbiogenesis will lead to a paradigm shift from neoDarwinism, as the role of symbiosis in evolutionary change can be integrated with existing theory perfectly.

Costs of immune responses are related to host body size and lifespan
Brace, Amber J. ; Lajeunesse, Marc J. ; Ardia, Daniel R. ; Hawley, Dana M. ; Adelman, James S. ; Buchanan, Katherine L. ; Fair, Jeanne M. ; Grindstaff, Jennifer L. ; Matson, Kevin D. ; Martin, Lynn B. - \ 2017
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology 327 (2017)5. - ISSN 2471-5638 - p. 254 - 261.
A central assumption in ecological immunology is that immune responses are costly, with costs manifesting directly (e.g., increases in metabolic rate and increased amino acid usage) or as tradeoffs with other life processes (e.g., reduced growth and reproductive success). Across taxa, host longevity, timing of maturity, and reproductive effort affect the organization of immune systems. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that these and related factors should also affect immune activation costs. Specifically, species that spread their breeding efforts over a long lifetime should experience lower immune costs than those that mature and breed quickly and die comparatively early. Likewise, body mass should affect immune costs, as body size affects the extent to which hosts are exposed to parasites as well as how hosts can combat infections (via its effects on metabolic rates and other factors). Here, we used phylogenetic meta-regression to reveal that, in general, animals incur costs of immune activation, but small species that are relatively long-lived incur the largest costs. These patterns probably arise because of the relative need for defense when infection risk is comparatively high and fitness can only be realized over a comparatively long period. However, given the diversity of species considered here and the overall modest effects of body mass and life history on immune costs, much more research is necessary before generalizations are appropriate.
Acceptance of Agri-Food Nanotechnology : Insights from the Evolution of Food Technology, Novel Foods and the Psychology of Novel Food Acceptance and Evidence from Present Research
Gupta, Nidhi ; Frewer, Lynn ; Fischer, Arnout - \ 2017
In: Nanotechnologies in Food / Chaudry, Qasim, Castle, Laurence, Watkins, Richard, Royal Society of Chemistry (Nanoscience & Nanotechnology Series 42) - ISBN 9781782621713 - p. 39 - 59.

Food technology has evolved from being focused on the issues associated with food availability to include, more latterly, additional foci on food safety, sustainability and functionality. Despite the intuitive appeal of these beneficial factors in providing the basis for consumer acceptance of emerging technologies applied to food production, consumer acceptance of the benefits of agri-food nanotechnology will not be automatic. Understanding consumer psychology is essential if we are to understand and predict peoples' responses to (bio) nanotechnology in the agri-food sector. A review of the socio-psychological factors influencing the societal response to novel food technologies in the past may throw some light onto the possible trajectory of the societal response to agri-food applications of nanotechnology. This chapter draws insights from past research into the psychology of novel food acceptance, novel foods and the evolution of food technology, along with current evidence from present research on agri-food nanotechnology, to identify potential barriers and opportunities for the development and introduction of agri-food nanotechnology.

Extrapolating understanding of food risk perceptions to emerging food safety cases
Kaptan, Gülbanu ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Frewer, Lynn J. - \ 2017
Journal of Risk Research (2017). - ISSN 1366-9877 - 23 p.
benefit perception - Food risk - risk communication, food safety - risk perception

Important determinants of risk perceptions associated with foods are the extent to which the potential hazards are perceived to have technological or naturally occurring origins, together with the acute vs. chronic dimension in which the potential hazard is presented (acute or chronic). This study presents a case study analysis based on an extensive literature review examining how these hazard characteristics affect people’s risk and benefit perceptions, and associated attitudes and behaviors. The cases include E. coli incidences (outbreaks linked to fresh spinach and fenugreek sprouts), contamination of fish by environmental pollutants, (organochlorine contaminants in farmed salmon), radioactive contamination of food following a nuclear accident (the Fukushima accident in Japan), and GM salmon destined for the human food chain. The analysis of the cases over the acute vs. chronic dimension suggests that longitudinal quantification of the relationship between risk perceptions and impacts is important for both acute and chronic food safety, but this has infrequently been applied to chronic hazards. Technologies applied to food production tend to potentially be associated with higher levels of risk perception, linked to perceptions that the risk is unnatural. However, for some risks (e.g. those involving biological irreversibility), moral or ethical concerns may be more important determinants of consumer responses than risk or benefit perceptions. (Lack of) trust has been highlighted in all of the cases suggesting transparent and honest risk–benefit communications following the occurrence of a food safety incident. Implications for optimizing associated risk communication strategies, additional research linking risk perception, and other quantitative measures, including comparisons in time and space, are suggested.

The BROWSE model for predicting exposures of residents and bystanders to agricultural use of plant protection products: An overview
Butler Ellis, M.C. ; De Zande, Jan C. Van; Berg, Frederik Van Den; Kennedy, Marc C. ; O'sullivan, Christine M. ; Jacobs, Cor M. ; Fragkoulis, Georgios ; Spanoghe, Pieter ; Gerritsen-ebben, Rianda ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Charistou, Agathi - \ 2017
Biosystems Engineering 154 (2017). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 92 - 104.
New models have been developed, with the aim of improving the estimate of exposure of residents and bystanders to agricultural pesticides for regulatory purposes. These are part of a larger suite of models also covering operators and workers. The population that is modelled for residents and bystanders relates to people (both adults and children) who have no association with the application (i.e. not occupational exposure) but are adjacent to the treated area during and/or after the application process. The scenarios that the models aim to describe are based on consideration of both best practice and of real practice, as shown in surveys and from expert knowledge obtained in stakeholder consultations.

The work has focused on three causes of exposure identified as having potential for improvement: boom sprayers, orchard sprayers and vapour emissions.

An overview of the models is given, and a description of model input values and proposed defaults. The main causes of uncertainty in the models are also discussed. There are a number of benefits of the BROWSE model over current models of bystander and resident exposure, which includes the incorporation of mitigation measures for reducing exposure and the use of probabilistic modelling to avoid an over-conservative approach.

It is expected that the levels of exposure that the BROWSE model predicts will, in some cases, be higher than those predicted by the current UK regulatory model. This is largely because the modelled scenarios have been updated to account for current practice and current scientific knowledge.
'Het onderscheid tussen mens, dier en ding is volstrekt kunstmatig geworden’
Driessen, Clemens - \ 2016
Willingness to pay for personalised nutrition across Europe
Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Berezowska, Aleksandra ; Lans, Ivo A. Van Der; Ronteltap, Amber ; Rankin, Audrey ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Poínhos, Rui ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara ; Frewer, Lynn J. - \ 2016
European Journal of Public Health 26 (2016)4. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. 640 - 644.

Background: Personalised nutrition (PN) may promote public health. PN involves dietary advice based on individual characteristics of end users and can for example be based on lifestyle, blood and/or DNA profiling. Currently, PN is not refunded by most health insurance or health care plans. Improved public health is contingent on individual consumers being willing to pay for the service. Methods: A survey with a representative sample from the general population was conducted in eight European countries (N = 8233). Participants reported their willingness to pay (WTP) for PN based on lifestyle information, lifestyle and blood information, and lifestyle and DNA information. WTP was elicited by contingent valuation with the price of a standard, non-PN advice used as reference. Results: About 30% of participants reported being willing to pay more for PN than for non-PN advice. They were on average prepared to pay about 150% of the reference price of a standard, non-personalised advice, with some differences related to socio-demographic factors. Conclusion: There is a potential market for PN compared to non-PN advice, particularly among men on higher incomes. These findings raise questions to what extent personalized nutrition can be left to the market or should be incorporated into public health programs.

Consumer Perceptions of Risks From Food
Frewer, Lynn J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Kaptan, Gulbanu - \ 2016
In: Handbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry / Lelieveld, Huub, Holah, John, Gabric, Domagoj, Woodhead Publishing - ISBN 9780081001554 - p. 15 - 24.
Toward a new european threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock
Wauters, Jella ; Vanden Bussche, Julie ; Bizec, Bruno Le ; Kiebooms, J.A.L. ; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud ; Prevost, Stéphanie ; Wozniak, Barbara ; Sterk, S.S. ; Grønningen, Dag ; Kennedy, D.G. ; Russell, Sandra ; Delahaut, Philippe ; Vanhaecke, Lynn - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)5. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1339 - 1346.
endogenous - European - LC-MS/MS - thiouracil - threshold - urine

Thiouracil is a thyrostat inhibiting the thyroid function, resulting in fraudulent weight gain if applied in the fattening of livestock. The latter abuse is strictly forbidden and monitored in the European Union. Recently, endogenous sources of thiouracil were identified after frequently monitoring low-level thiouracil positive urine samples and a "recommend concentration" (RC) of 10 ∼g/L was suggested by the EURL to facilitate decision-making. However, the systematic occurrence of urine samples exceeding the RC led to demands for international surveys defining an epidemiologic threshold. Therefore, six European member states (France, Poland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Norway, and Belgium) have shared their official thiouracil data (2010-2012) collected from bovines, porcines, and small livestock with 95 and 99% percentiles of 8.1 and 18.2 ∼g/L for bovines (n = 3894); 7.4 and 13.5 ∼g/L for porcines (n = 654); and 7.4 ∼g/L (95% only) for small livestock (n = 85), respectively. Bovine percentiles decreased with the animal age (nonadults had significantly higher levels for bovines), and higher levels were observed in male bovines compared to female bovines.

Island life shapes the physiology and life history of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis)
Matson, K.D. ; Mauck, R.A. ; Lynn, S.E. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2014
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 87 (2014)1. - ISSN 1522-2152 - p. 172 - 182.
body-size - immune-response - birds - populations - conservation - biodiversity - haptoglobin - extinction - trends - growth
Abstract Island organisms face a range of extrinsic threats to their characteristically small populations. Certain biological differences between island and continental organisms have the potential to exacerbate these threats. Understanding how island birds differ from their continental relatives may provide insight into population viability and serve as a predictive tool for conservation efforts. We compared an eastern bluebird population in Ohio with a threatened population in Bermuda in terms of the birds' development, morphology, immunology, and reproduction. These comparisons revealed that island nestlings had shorter wings and island adults had longer wings than their continental analogs. Island nestlings also had shorter tarsi than continental nestlings at day 8 posthatch, but this difference was absent at day 15 and in adults. Adults weighed less in Bermuda than in Ohio, and both nestlings and adults in Bermuda exhibited higher levels of two immunological indexes (concentrations of an acute-phase protein and titers of nonspecific antibodies). Clutch sizes and hatch rates did not differ between the island and continental populations; however, as the breeding season progressed, brood sizes declined in Bermuda, whereas no such decline occurred in Ohio. Despite these differences and differences in nestling development, island and continental parents fed their nestlings at equal rates. Overall, our results suggest that the Bermuda phenotype may be adjusted to certain aspects of the island environment but not to others. Efforts to conserve the bluebirds of Bermuda may be improved by focusing on the intraseasonal patterns in nestling mortality and, more generally, the survival probabilities of different age classes.
The Myanmar dairy sector : a quickscan of opportunities
Lee, J. van der; Jong, M.J. ; Thant, A.M. ; Oo, T. ; Lynn, P.K. ; Ren, X. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research report 824) - 55
myanmar - zuivelindustrie - productiemogelijkheden - landbouwontwikkeling - capaciteit - strategisch management - toekomst - melkveehouderij - dairy industry - production possibilities - agricultural development - capacity - strategic management - future - dairy farming
This report describes the Myanmar dairy sector and opportunities for development, for private as well as public actors. It describes the dairy market, dairy farming systems, and the enabling environment for dairy. A number of business opportunities are listed. It concludes with recommendations on dairy clusters, dairy strategy development , and capacity development activities.
Effective stakeholder involvement in agri-food governance and policy development
Wentholt, M.T.A. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Lynn Frewer, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer; G. Rowe. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461731234 - 196 p.
beleid inzake voedsel - landbouwbeleid - voedsel - governance - beleid - risico - stakeholders - deskundigen - landbouw - delphimethode - food policy - agricultural policy - food - policy - risk - experts - agriculture - delphi method
The aim of this thesis is to develop insight into optimal expert involvement practice within the agri-food governance and policy making domain. Following a systematic review of the published literature, it was determined that Delphi methodology appeared to be appropriate to elicit expert opinion and gather evidence in the complex policy domain associated with risk, food and agriculture. To this end, three Delphi studies in agri-food policy development were conducted.
Heritage Landscapes in Singapore
Muzaini, H.B. - \ 2013
In: Changing Landscapes of Singapore: Old Tensions, New Discoveries / Lynn-Ee, E., Chih, Y.W., Ramdas, Kamalini, Singapore : NUS Press - ISBN 9789971697723 - p. 25 - 42.
The views of experts and the public regarding societal preferences for innovation in nanotechnology
Gupta, N. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Lynn Frewer, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer; Frans Kampers. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737625 - 175 p.
nanotechnologie - aanvaardbaarheid - innovatie adoptie - innovaties - deskundigen - consumenten - attitudes - opinies - voedselproductie - consumentengedrag - voedselacceptatie - nanotechnology - acceptability - innovation adoption - innovations - experts - consumers - opinions - food production - consumer behaviour - food acceptability
Nanotechnology represents an emerging technology with varied application areas. It has been identified as the next scientific breakthrough with potential for positive impacts for society. The development and application of emerging technologies has been shown to be contingent upon societal responses to those technologies and their applications. Socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to nanotechnology, and play an important role in its development and commercialisation. The views of both experts and the general public regarding societal preferences for innovations in nanotechnology will be important in identifying which applications will be commercialised. If expert views regarding the determinants of societal acceptability do not align with those held by the general public, applications that consumers will reject may be introduced early in the commercialisation trajectory and focus public opinion on the negative aspects of nanotechnology. Conversely, applications which are acceptable to consumers may never be commercialised if experts perceive that consumers are likely to reject them. This thesis identifies and describes factors influencing societal response to nanotechnology by incorporating views from experts and the general public. Three research approaches were utilised. The first focussed on reviewing previous scientific research into the socio-psychological factors that influence public acceptance of new technologies. The second focussed on identifying and quantifying expert views on the factors that will influence societal acceptance or rejection of nanotechnology. The third tested whether the different factors do, in fact, drive public opinion.
Public perceptions towards genetic modification in plant and animal
Frewer, Lynn - \ 2011
Understanding effective risk-benefit communication relevant to food choice and food production
Frewer, Lynn - \ 2010
Insect Cell Culture
Oers, M.M. van; Lynn, D.E. - \ 2010
In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9780470066515
Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidopteran insects around 1960. Since then, more than 600 insect cell lines have been described from over 100 insect species, the majority from lepidopteran (moths) and dipteran (flies and mosquitoes) insects. Among these, the Drosophila S2, the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 and Trichoplusia ni High Five cell lines are used most widely. The latter two are susceptible to the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus and are used for the expression of foreign genes, for example, for the production of subunit vaccines, to make proteins for functional analyses or crystallography and to produce gene delivery vectors for mammalian cells.
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