Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Thrips advisor : Exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on crops
Steenbergen, Merel ; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed ; Bleeker, Petra ; Dicke, Marcel ; Escobar-Bravo, Rocio ; Cheng, Gang ; Haring, Michel A. ; Kant, Merijn R. ; Kappers, Iris ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Leiss, Kirsten A. ; Legarrea, Saioa ; Macel, Mirka ; Mouden, Sanae ; Pieterse, Corné M.J. ; Sarde, Sandeep J. ; Schuurink, Robert C. ; Vos, Martin De; Wees, Saskia C.M. Van; Broekgaarden, Colette - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Botany 69 (2018)8. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1837 - 1848.
Cell-content feeder - effectors - herbivorous insect - phytohormone signalling - plant defence - specialized metabolites - thrips - virus - volatiles

Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.

Reviewing research priorities in weed ecology, evolution and management: a horizon scan
Neve, P. ; Barney, J.N. ; Buckley, Y. ; Cousens, R.D. ; Graham, S. ; Jordan, N.R. ; Lawton-Rauh, A. ; Liebman, M. ; Mesgaran, M.B. ; Shaw, J. ; Storkey, J. ; Baraibar, B. ; Baucom, R.S. ; Chalak, M. ; Childs, D.Z. ; Christensen, S. ; Eizenberg, H. ; Fernández-Quintanilla, C. ; French, K. ; Harsch, M. ; Heijting, S. ; Harrison, L. ; Loddo, D. ; Macel, M. ; Maczey, N. ; Merotto, A. ; Mortensen, D. ; Necajeva, J. ; Peltzer, D.A. ; Recasens, J. ; Renton, M. ; Riemens, M. ; Sønderskov, M. ; Williams, M. ; Rew, Lisa - \ 2018
Weed Research 58 (2018)4. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 250 - 258.
Weedy plants pose a major threat to food security, biodiversity, ecosystem services and consequently to human health and wellbeing. However, many currently used weed management approaches are increasingly unsustainable. To address this knowledge and practice gap, in June 2014, 35 weed and invasion ecologists, weed scientists, evolutionary biologists and social scientists convened a workshop to explore current and future perspectives and approaches in weed ecology and management. A horizon scanning exercise ranked a list of 124 pre‐submitted questions to identify a priority list of 30 questions. These questions are discussed under seven themed headings that represent areas for renewed and emerging focus for the disciplines of weed research and practice. The themed areas considered the need for transdisciplinarity, increased adoption of integrated weed management and agroecological approaches, better understanding of weed evolution, climate change, weed invasiveness and finally, disciplinary challenges for weed science. Almost all the challenges identified rested on the need for continued efforts to diversify and integrate agroecological, socio‐economic and technological approaches in weed management. These challenges are not newly conceived, though their continued prominence as research priorities highlights an ongoing intransigence that must be addressed through a more system‐oriented and transdisciplinary research agenda that seeks an embedded integration of public and private research approaches. This horizon scanning exercise thus set out the building blocks needed for future weed management research and practice; however, the challenge ahead is to identify effective ways in which sufficient research and implementation efforts can be directed towards these needs.
Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment
Engelkes, T. ; Meisner, A. ; Morrien, W.E. ; Kostenko, O. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Macel, M. - \ 2016
Oecologia 180 (2016)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 507 - 517.
Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities.
Chemical variation in Jacobaea vulgaris is influenced by the interaction of season and vegetation successional stage
Almeida De Carvalho, S. ; Macel, M. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Skidmore, A. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2014
Phytochemistry 99 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 86 - 94.
senecio-jacobaea - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - plant-communities - tyria-jacobaeae - cinnabar moth - life-history - dual role - soil - chronosequence - nitrogen
Knowledge on spatio-temporal dynamics of plant primary and secondary chemistry under natural conditions is important to assess how plant defence varies in real field conditions. Plant primary and secondary chemistry is known to vary with both season and vegetation successional stage, however, in few studies these two sources of variation have been examined in combination. Here we examine variations in primary and secondary chemistry of Jacobaea vulgaris (Asteraceae) throughout the growing season in early, mid, and late stages of secondary succession following land abandonment using a well-established chronosequence in The Netherlands.
Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners
Macel, M. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Jansen, J.J. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Dam, N.M. van - \ 2014
Ecology and Evolution 4 (2014)13. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 2777 - 2786.
increased competitive ability - climate-change - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - inbreeding depression - chemical diversity - evolution - herbivore - weapons - hypothesis - defenses
It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential.
Jacobaea through the eyes of spectroscopy : identifying plant interactions with the (a)biotic environment by chemical variation effects on spectral reflectance patterns
Almeida De Carvalho, S. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten; Andrew Skidmore, co-promotor(en): M. Macel; M. Schlerf. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737502 - 180
senecio jacobaea - senecio erucifolius - pyrrolizidinealkaloïden - voedingsstoffen - spectraalanalyse - spectroscopie - bodemmicrobiologie - metabolieten - chemische analyse - plantensuccessie - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - nutrients - spectral analysis - spectroscopy - soil microbiology - metabolites - chemical analysis - plant succession

Plants interact with a wide array of aboveground and belowground herbivores, pathogens, mutualists, and their natural enemies. These interactions are important drivers of spatio-temporal changes in vegetation, however, they may be difficult to be revealed without extensive sampling.In this thesis I investigated the potential of visible and near-infrared spectral measurements to detect plant chemical changes that may reflect interactions between plants and biotic or abiotic soil factors. First, I examined the relative contribution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs; these are defence compounds of Senecio-type plants against generalist herbivores) to the spectral reflectance features in the visible and short-wave infrared region. My hypothesis was that PAs can be predicted from specific spectral features of aboveground plant tissues. Since PA profiles and their relation to spectral features could be species specific I compared three different species, Jacobaea vulgaris, J. erucifolia and S. inaequidens subjected to nutrient and water treatments to stimulate plant chemical variation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were predicted best by spectral reflectance features in the case of Jacobaea vulgaris. I related the better results obtained with J. vulgaris to the existence of the correlation between PAs and nitrogen and the presence of the epoxide chemical structure in J. vulgaris.

I also examined if different soil microbial communities influenced plant shoot spectral reflectance. I grew the same three plant species as before in sterilized soil and living soil collected from fields with J. vulgaris. I expected that soil biota would change shoot defence content and hyperspectral reflectance in plant species-specific ways. Indeed, the exposure to different soils caused plant chemical profiles to change and both chemical and spectral patterns discriminated plants according to the soil biotic conditions.

I studied how primary and secondary plant metabolites varied during the growing season and vegetation successional stages. I used a well-studied chronosequence of abandoned arable fields and analysed the chemistry of both leaves and flowers of Jacobaea vulgaris throughout the seasons in fields of different successional status. My general hypothesis was that seasonal allocation of nutrients and defence metabolites to reproductive organs fitted the optimal defence theory, but that pattern was dependent on the successional stage of the vegetation. I found an interaction between season and succession stage, as plants from longer abandoned fields generally had flowers and leaves with higher N-oxides, especially in late Summer. Independent of the succession stage there was a seasonal allocation of nutrients and defence metabolites to flowers. Analyses of spectral reflectance of the field plants showed thatdefence compounds could be estimated more reliably in flowers, while in leaves primary compounds could be predicted best. Succession classes were successfully discriminated by the spectral patterns of flowers. Both chemical and spectral findings suggested that flowers are more sensitive to field ageing processes than leaves.


The estimation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by spectral reflectance features was better in Jacobaea vulgaris than in Senecio inaequidens or Jacobaea erucifolia (chapter 2). Differences in soil communities affect plant leaves’ chemistry and spectral reflectance patterns (chapter 3). Jacobaea vulgarisplants from recent and longer-abandoned fields showed the largest differences in chemical concentration, composition of defence compounds, and spectral reflectance patterns. Flowers were more discriminatory than leaves (chapters 4 and 5). There is a potential to detect plant-biotic interactions by analyzing spectral reflectance patterns (this thesis).
Changes in plant defense chemistry (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) revealed through high-resolution spectroscopy
Almeida De Carvalho, S. ; Macel, M. ; Schlerf, M. ; Moghaddam, F.E. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2013
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 80 (2013). - ISSN 0924-2716 - p. 51 - 60.
near-infrared spectroscopy - senecio-jacobaea - red edge - nitrogen - leaf - reflectance - forest - regression - vegetation - prediction
Plant toxic biochemicals play an important role in defense against natural enemies and often are toxic to humans and livestock. Hyperspectral reflectance is an established method for primary chemical detection and could be further used to determine plant toxicity in the field. In order to make a first step for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detection (toxic defense compound against mammals and many insects) we studied how such spectral data can estimate plant defense chemistry under controlled conditions. In a greenhouse, we grew three related plant species that defend against generalist herbivores through pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Jacobaea vulgaris, Jacobaea erucifolia and Senecio inaequidens, and analyzed the relation between spectral measurements and chemical concentrations using multivariate statistics. Nutrient addition enhanced tertiary-amine pyrrolizidine alkaloids contents of J. vulgaris and J. erucifolia and decreased N-oxide contents in S. inaequidens and J. vulgaris. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids could be predicted with a moderate accuracy. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid forms tertiary-amines and epoxides were predicted with 63% and 56% of the variation explained, respectively. The most relevant spectral regions selected for prediction were associated with electron transitions and CH, OH, and NH bonds in the 1530 and 2100 nm regions. Given the relatively low concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloids concentration (in the order of mg g-1) and resultant predictions, it is promising that pyrrolizidine alkaloids interact with incident light. Further studies should be considered to determine if such a non-destructive method may predict changes in PA concentration in relation to plant natural enemies. Spectroscopy may be used to study plant defenses in intact plant tissues, and may provide managers of toxic plants, food industry and multitrophic-interaction researchers with faster and larger monitoring possibilities
Soil biotic impact on plant species shoot chemistry and hyperspectral reflectance patterns
Carvalho, S. de; Macel, M. ; Schlerf, M. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2012
New Phytologist 196 (2012)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1133 - 1144.
borne pathogens - spectroscopy - community - leaf - accumulation - herbivores - prediction - invader - quality - forest
Recent studies revealed that plant-soil biotic interactions may cause changes in above-ground plant chemistry. It would be a new step in below-ground-above-ground interaction research if such above-ground chemistry changes could be efficiently detected. Here we test how hyperspectral reflectance may be used to study such plant-soil biotic interactions in a nondestructive and rapid way. The native plant species Jacobaea vulgaris and Jacobaea erucifolius, and the exotic invader Senecio inaequidens were grown in different soil biotic conditions. Biomass, chemical content and shoot reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths were determined. The data were analysed with multivariate statistics. Exposing the plants to soil biota enhanced the content of defence compounds. The highest increase (400%) was observed for the exotic invader S. inaequidens. Chemical and spectral data enabled plant species to be classified with an accuracy > 85%. Plants grown in different soil conditions were classified with 50-60% correctness. Our data suggest that soil microorganisms can affect plant chemistry and spectral reflectance. Further studies should test the potential to study plant-soil biotic interactions in the field. Such techniques could help to monitor, among other things, where invasive exotic plant species develop biotic resistance or the development of hotspots of crop soil diseases.
Population admixture, biological invasions and the balance between local adaptation and inbreeding depression
Verhoeven, K.J.F. ; Macel, M. ; Wolfe, L.M. ; Biere, A. - \ 2011
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 278 (2011)1702. - ISSN 0962-8452 - p. 2 - 8.
silene-latifolia caryophyllaceae - genetic differentiation - intraspecific hybridization - multiple introductions - reproductive isolation - divergent selection - adaptive evolution - quantitative trait - plant - success
When previously isolated populations meet and mix, the resulting admixed population can benefit from several genetic advantages, including increased genetic variation, the creation of novel genotypes and the masking of deleterious mutations. These admixture benefits are thought to play an important role in biological invasions. In contrast, populations in their native range often remain differentiated and frequently suffer from inbreeding depression owing to isolation. While the advantages of admixture are evident for introduced populations that experienced recent bottlenecks or that face novel selection pressures, it is less obvious why native range populations do not similarly benefit from admixture. Here we argue that a temporary loss of local adaptation in recent invaders fundamentally alters the fitness consequences of admixture. In native populations, selection against dilution of the locally adapted gene pool inhibits unconstrained admixture and reinforces population isolation, with some level of inbreeding depression as an expected consequence. We show that admixture is selected against despite significant inbreeding depression because the benefits of local adaptation are greater than the cost of inbreeding. In contrast, introduced populations that have not yet established a pattern of local adaptation can freely reap the benefits of admixture. There can be strong selection for admixture because it instantly lifts the inbreeding depression that had built up in isolated parental populations. Recent work in Silene suggests that reduced inbreeding depression associated with post-introduction admixture may contribute to enhanced fitness of invasive populations. We hypothesize that in locally adapted populations, the benefits of local adaptation are balanced against an inbreeding cost that could develop in part owing to the isolating effect of local adaptation itself. The inbreeding cost can be revealed in admixing populations during recent invasions
Comparing plant defence chemistry of exotic and native plant species by remote sensing
Almeida De Carvalho, S. ; Macel, M. ; Schlerf, M. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Skidmore, A.K. - \ 2010
Ecological fits, mis-fits and lotteries involving insect herbivores on the invase plant, Bunias orientalis
Harvey, J.A. ; Biere, A. ; Fortuna, T.F.M. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Engelkes, T. ; Morriën, W.E. ; Gols, R. ; Verhoeven, K.J.F. ; Vogel, H. ; Macel, M. ; Heidel-Fischer, H.M. ; Schramm, K. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Biological Invasions 12 (2010)9. - ISSN 1387-3547 - p. 3045 - 3059.
enemy release hypothesis - pieris-rapae - specialist herbivore - host-specificity - evolution - deterrents - community - larvae - associations - coevolution
Exotic plants bring with them traits that evolved elsewhere into their new ranges. These traits may make them unattractive or even toxic to native herbivores, or vice versa. Here, interactions between two species of specialist (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) and two species of generalist (Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae) insect herbivores were examined on two native crucifer species in the Netherlands, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, and an exotic, Bunias orientalis. Bu. orientalis originates in eastern Europe and western Asia but is now an invasive pest in many countries in central Europe. P. rapae, P. brassicae and S. exigua performed very poorly on Bu. orientalis, with close to 100% of larvae failing to pupate, whereas survival was much higher on the native plants. In choice experiments, the pierid butterflies preferred to oviposit on the native plants. Alternatively, M. brassicae developed very poorly on the native plants but thrived on Bu. orientalis. Further assays with a German Bu. orientalis population also showed that several specialist and generalist herbivores performed very poorly on this plant, with the exception of Spodoptera littoralis and M. brassicae. Bu. orientalis produced higher levels of secondary plant compounds (glucosinolates) than B. nigra but not S. arvensis but these do not appear to be important factors for herbivore development. Our results suggest that Bu. orientalis is a potential demographic ‘trap’ for some herbivores, such as pierid butterflies. However, through the effects of an evolutionary ‘lottery’, M. brassicae has found its way through the plant’s chemical ‘minefield’.
Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels
Putten, W.H. van der; Macel, M. ; Visser, M. de - \ 2010
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 365 (2010)1549. - ISSN 0962-8436 - p. 2025 - 2034.
coast salt marshes - habitat fragmentation - insect herbivores - terrestrial ecosystems - spatial-distribution - mycorrhizal fungi - local adaptation - migration rates - plant diversity - arctic tundra
Current predictions on species responses to climate change strongly rely on projecting altered environmental conditions on species distributions. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that climate change also influences species interactions. We review and synthesize literature information on biotic interactions and use it to argue that the abundance of species and the direction of selection during climate change vary depending on how their trophic interactions become disrupted. Plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground multitrophic level interactions with herbivores, pathogens, symbionts and their enemies. We discuss how these interactions may alter during climate change and the resulting species range shifts. We suggest conceptual analogies between species responses to climate warming and exotic species introduced in new ranges. There are also important differences: the herbivores, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of range-expanding species and their enemies may co-migrate, and the continuous gene flow under climate warming can make adaptation in the expansion zone of range expanders different from that of cross-continental exotic species. We conclude that under climate change, results of altered species interactions may vary, ranging from species becoming rare to disproportionately abundant. Taking these possibilities into account will provide a new perspective on predicting species distribution under climate change.
Climate change and invasion by intracontinental range-expanding exotic plants: the role of biotic interactions
Morriën, W.E. ; Engelkes, T. ; Macel, M. ; Meisner, A. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Annals of Botany 105 (2010)6. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 843 - 848.
enemy release hypothesis - nonnative plants - natural enemies - herbivores - evolution - responses - litter - decomposition - communities - mutualisms
Background and Aims In this Botanical Briefing we describe how the interactions between plants and their biotic environment can change during range-expansion within a continent and how this may influence plant invasiveness. Scope We address how mechanisms explaining intercontinental plant invasions by exotics (such as release from enemies) may also apply to climate-warming-induced range-expanding exotics within the same continent. We focus on above-ground and below-ground interactions of plants, enemies and symbionts, on plant defences, and on nutrient cycling. Conclusions Range-expansion by plants may result in above-ground and below-ground enemy release. This enemy release can be due to the higher dispersal capacity of plants than of natural enemies. Moreover, lower-latitudinal plants can have higher defence levels than plants from temperate regions, making them better defended against herbivory. In a world that contains fewer enemies, exotic plants will experience less selection pressure to maintain high levels of defensive secondary metabolites. Range-expanders potentially affect ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling. These features are quite comparable with what is known of intercontinental invasive exotic plants. However, intracontinental range-expanding plants will have ongoing gene-flow between the newly established populations and the populations in the native range. This is a major difference from intercontinental invasive exotic plants, which become more severely disconnected from their source populations.
Metabolomics: the chemistry between ecology and genetics
Macel, M. ; Dam, N.M. van; Keurentjes, J.J.B. - \ 2010
Molecular Ecology Resources 10 (2010). - ISSN 1755-098X - p. 583 - 593.
plant-herbivore interactions - arabidopsis-thaliana - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - mass-spectrometry - secondary metabolites - functional genomics - evolutionary significance - cynoglossum-officinale - generalist herbivores - quantitative trait
Metabolomics is a fast developing field of comprehensive untargeted chemical analyses. It has many applications and can in principle be used on any organism without prior knowledge of the metabolome or genome. The amount of functional information that is acquired with metabolomics largely depends on whether a metabolome database has been developed for the focal species. Metabolomics is a level downstream from transcriptomics and proteomics and has been widely advertised as a functional genomics and systems biology tool. Indeed, it has been successfully applied to link phenotypes to genotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Metabolomics is also increasingly being used in ecology (ecological metabolomics) and environmental sciences (environmental metabolomics). In ecology, the technique has led to novel insights into the mechanisms of plant resistance to herbivores. Some of the most commonly used analytical metabolomic platforms are briefly discussed in this review, as well as their limitations. We will mainly focus on the application of metabolomics in plant ecology and genetics
Study of the biochemical properties of Senecio Inaequidens, Senecio Erucifolius and Jacobaea Vulgaris using visible and infra-red spectroscopy
Almeida De Carvalho, S. ; Macel, M. ; Schlerf, M. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Skidmore, A. - \ 2009
In: Proceedings of the World Conference on biological invasions and ecosystem functioning (BIOLIEF), Porto, Portugal, 27-30 October 2009. - - p. 24 - 24.
STUDY THE BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SENECIO INAEQUIDENS AND JACOBAEA VULGARIS USING VISIBLE AND INFRA-RED SPECTROSCOPY Sabrina Carvalho*12, Mirka Macel1, Martin Schlerf2, Wim van der Putten1 and Andrew Skidmore2 * 1Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Boterhoeksestraat; 2 International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation-ITC. Understanding the mechanisms behind invasive species qualitative and quantitative success over time is a worldwide challenge. Ideally it should be possible to study plant gradients more thoroughly, taking specific component properties into account. It is known that plants are chemically dynamic and shift their composition or quantity depending of the surrounding situation. Here we present how spectroscopy and further on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing may offer the possibility for estimation of foliar chemical concentrations over large geographic areas. This presentation will be about the first step of the project which involves chemical analysis and spectroscopy bond to the chemicals of interest in Senecio inaequidens, an invasive species, and Jacobaea vulgaris, a native species in the Netherlands. The aim is to be able to track essential chemical changes in the field by simply measuring the spectral reflectance signature of plants. Ideally in the end of the project we would be able to map the chemicals of interest through large distributional areas of these plants without the need of costly and time consuming laboratory chemical analysis.
A hyperspectral remote sensing approach to study the biochemical properties of Senecio Inaequidens and Jacobaea Vulgaris
Almeida De Carvalho, S. ; Macel, M. ; Schlerf, M. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Skidmore, A. - \ 2009
In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference in Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions (EMAPi 10), Stellenbosch, South Africa, 23-27 August 2009. - - p. 28 - 28.
A HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING APPROACH TO STUDY THE BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SENECIO INAEQUIDENS AND JACOBAEA VULGARIS Sabrina Carvalho12, Mirka Macel1, Martin Schlerf2, Wim van der Putten1 and Andrew Skidmore2 1Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Boterhoeksestraat 48, 6666 GA, Heteren, The Netherlands. 2 International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation-ITC, PO Box 6 7500 AA, Enschede, The Netherlands Understanding the mechanisms behind invasive species qualitative and quantitative success over time is a worldwide challenge. Ideally it should be possible to study plant gradients more thoroughly, taking specific component properties into account. Here we present how a considerably new technique - Hyperspectral Remote Sensing - offers the possibility for estimating foliar chemical concentrations over large geographic areas by using many subtle reflectance features (or absorption features) of the plant. Because soil-plant interactions cause variation in the chemistry of the plants this should be evident in the spectral signature of the plants when measured with spectroscopic tools and allow inferences over the influence of natural soil enemies in the plants. The project will implement field spectroscopy and spatial imagery to map several biochemicals of Senecio inaequidens, an invasive species, and Jacobaea vulgaris, a native species in the Netherlands. We will compare whether Senecio inaequidens is experiencing negative soil feedback of soil biota in the different successional stages or if the lack of pathogens in the new environment confers immunity. The knowledge gathered will improve our understanding of the plants-soil interactions in each of these groups and potentially allow us to successfully predict which variations may identify a species becoming invasive. (201 words)
Climate vs. soil factors in local adaptation of two common plant species
Macel, M. ; Lawson, C.S. ; Mortimer, S.R. ; Smilauerova, M. ; Bischoff, A. ; Crémieux, L. ; Dolezal, J. ; Edwards, A.R. ; Lanta, V. ; Bezemer, T.M. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Igual, J.M. ; Rodriguez-Barrueco, C. ; Müller-Schärer, H. ; Steinger, T. - \ 2007
Ecology 88 (2007)2. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 424 - 433.
reciprocally sown populations - lotus-corniculatus - chamaecrista-fasciculata - clinal patterns - gene flow - evolution - performance - plasticity - feedback - establishment
Evolutionary theory suggests that divergent natural selection in heterogeneous environments can result in locally adapted plant genotypes. To understand local adaptation it is important to study the ecological factors responsible for divergent selection. At a continental scale, variation in climate can be important while at a local scale soil properties could also play a role. We designed an experiment aimed to disentangle the role of climate and (abiotic and biotic) soil properties in local adaptation of two common plant species. A grass (Holcus lanatus) and a legume (Lotus corniculatus), as well as their local soils, were reciprocally transplanted between three sites across an Atlantic¿Continental gradient in Europe and grown in common gardens in either their home soil or foreign soils. Growth and reproductive traits were measured over two growing seasons. In both species, we found significant environmental and genetic effects on most of the growth and reproductive traits and a significant interaction between the two environmental effects of soil and climate. The grass species showed significant home site advantage in most of the fitness components, which indicated adaptation to climate. We found no indication that the grass was adapted to local soil conditions. The legume showed a significant home soil advantage for number of fruits only and thus a weak indication of adaptation to soil and no adaptation to climate. Our results show that the importance of climate and soil factors as drivers of local adaptation is species-dependent. This could be related to differences in interactions between plant species and soil biota.
Differences in effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids on five generalist insect herbivore species
Macel, M. ; Bruinsma, M. ; Dijkstra, S.M. ; Ooijendijk, T. ; Niemeyer, T. ; Klinkhamer, P.G.L. - \ 2005
Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (2005)7. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 1493 - 1508.
senecio-jacobaea - plant defense - secondary metabolites - chemical ecology - natural enemies - tyria-jacobaeae - host use - specialist - diversity - selection
The evolution of the diversity in plant secondary compounds is often thought to be driven by insect herbivores, although there is little empirical evidence for this assumption. To investigate whether generalist insect herbivores could play a role in the evolution of the diversity of related compounds, we examined if (1) related compounds differ in their effects on generalists, (2) there is a synergistic effect among compounds, and (3) effects of related compounds differed among insect species. The effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were tested on five generalist insect herbivore species of several genera using artificial diets or neutral substrates to which PAs were added. We found evidence that structurally related PAs differed in their effects to the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, the aphid Myzus persicae, and the locust Locusta migratoria. The individual PAs had no effect on Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae caterpillars. For S. exigua, we found indications for synergistic deterrent effects of PAs in PA mixtures. The relative effects of PAs differed between insect species. The PA senkirkine had the strongest effect on the thrips, but had no effect at all on the aphids. Our results show that generalist herbivores could potentially play a role in the evolution and maintenance of the diversity of PAs
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