Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Towards the development of a biobased economy in Europe and India
Pant, Deepak ; Misra, Shilpi ; Nizami, Abdul Sattar ; Rehan, Mohammad ; Leeuwen, Rebecca van; Tabacchioni, Silvia ; Goel, Reeta ; Sarma, Priyangshu ; Bakker, Rob ; Sharma, Neeta ; Kwant, Kees ; Diels, Ludo ; Elst, Kathy - \ 2019
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 39 (2019)6. - ISSN 0738-8551 - p. 779 - 799.
Biobased economy - biomass - biorefineries - European Union (EU) - India - value-added products

India has emerged as a key player with a high potential to develop a biomass and biobased economy due to its large geographic size and the massive amounts of agricultural and non agricultural biomass produced. India has joined hands with Europe to synchronize its efforts to create and facilitate the development of a biobased economy in this country. This paper aims to examine common research and development actions between the European Union (EU) and India to facilitate the development of these biobased economies. As a base, a thorough study has been performed considering the biomass potential and current status of the bioeconomy in both the EU and India based on the distillation of a series of 80 potential recommendations. The recommendations were grouped into four major categories: (1) biomass production, (2) by-products/waste, (3) biorefineries and (4) policy, market, and value-added products. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to key stakeholders belonging to: academia, industry, and policymakers in both India and the EU. A total of 231 responses were received and analyzed, based on the key recommendations made for the essential research and development topics that are of prime importance to develop biobased economies in both the EU and India. The findings of this study suggest recognizing the value-added contributions made by biobased products such as: food, feed, valuable materials and chemicals in both regions. It is important to reduce the overall process costs and minimize the environmental impacts of such a biobased economy.

Consultants as intermediaries: Their perceptions on citizen involvement in urban development
Stapper, E.W. ; Veen, M. Van der; Janssen-Jansen, L.B. - \ 2019
Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space (2019). - ISSN 2399-6544
citizen participation - Consultancy - development agreement - urban development

Planning consultants are increasingly hired to organize citizen participation processes for urban development projects. However, the ways in which planning consultants engage in and perceive the involvement of citizens in urban development projects remain relatively understudied. This article opens the black box of consultancy employees’ perceptions toward citizens in urban development processes. Employees from two consultancy firms in the Netherlands were interviewed, and several focus groups were organized. This research shows that consultants have wide-ranging views concerning the ways of incorporating citizens’ interests in urban development projects. With the use of Q-methodology, a typology of how consultants engage with citizens is proposed. Furthermore, we show that the different perceptions of consultants lead to a different approach in identifying the needs and problems of citizens. This finding gives insight into the context in which decisions about urban development are made.

Global satellite-based ET products for the local level irrigation management: An application of irrigation performance assessment in the Sugarbelt of Swaziland
Karimi, Poolad ; Bongani, Bhembe ; Blatchford, Megan ; Fraiture, Charlotte de - \ 2019
Remote Sensing 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2072-4292
CMRSET - Ensemble - Remote sensing - Southern Africa - SSEBop - Sugarcane - Water productivity

Remote sensing techniques have been shown, in several studies, to be an extremely effective tool for assessing the performance of irrigated areas at various scales and diverse climatic regions across the world. Open access, ready-made, global ET products were utilized in this first-ever-countrywide irrigation performance assessment study. The study aimed at identifying 'bright spots', the highest performing sugarcane growers, and 'hot spots', or low performing sugarcane growers. Four remote sensing-derived irrigation performance indicators were applied to over 302 sugarcane growers; equity, adequacy, reliability and crop water productivity. The growers were segmented according to: (i) land holding size or grower scale (ii) management regime, (iii) location of the irrigation schemes and (iv) irrigation method. Five growing seasons, from June 2005 to October 2009, were investigated. The results show while the equity of water distribution is high across all management regimes and locations, adequacy and reliability of water needs improvement in several locations. Given the fact that, in general, water supply was not constrained during the study period, the observed issues with adequacy and reliability of irrigation in some of the schemes were mostly due to poor scheme and farm level water management practices. Sugarcane crop water productivity showed the highest variation among all the indicators, with Estate managed schemes having the highest CWP at 1.57 kg/m3 and the individual growers recording the lowest CWP at 1.14 kg/m3, nearly 30% less. Similarly center pivot systems showed to have the highest CWP at 1.63 kg/m3, which was 30% higher than the CWP in furrow systems. This study showcases the applicability of publicly available global remote sensing products for assessing performance of the irrigated crops at the local level in several aspects.

Gender in climate change, agriculture, and natural resource policies: insights from East Africa
Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Acosta, Mariola ; Huyer, Sofia ; Kigonya, Ritah ; Muchunguzi, Perez ; Muna, Rebecca ; Jassogne, Laurence - \ 2019
Climatic Change (2019). - ISSN 0165-0009

Gender mainstreaming was acknowledged as an indispensable strategy for achieving gender equality at the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action. Since then, governments have made substantial efforts in developing gender-responsive policies and implementation strategies. The advent of climate change and its effects, which have continued to impact rural livelihoods and especially food security, demands that gender mainstreaming efforts are accelerated. Effective gender mainstreaming requires that gender is sufficiently integrated in policies, development plans, and implementation strategies, supported by budgetary allocations. This study analyzes the extent of gender integration in agricultural and natural resource policies in Uganda and Tanzania, and how gender is budgeted for in implementation plans at district and lower governance levels. A total of 155 policy documents, development plans, and annual action plans from national, district, and sub-county/ward levels were reviewed. In addition, district and sub-county budgets for four consecutive financial years from 2012/2013 to 2015/2016 were analyzed for gender allocations. Results show that whereas there is increasing gender responsiveness in both countries, (i) gender issues are still interpreted as “women issues,” (ii) there is disharmony in gender mainstreaming across governance levels, (iii) budgeting for gender is not yet fully embraced by governments, (iii) allocations to gender at sub-national level remain inconsistently low with sharp differences between estimated and actual budgets, and (iv) gender activities do not address any structural inequalities. We propose approaches that increase capacity to develop and execute gender-responsive policies, implementation plans, and budgets.

Co-designing a data platform to impact nature policy and management: experiences from the Dutch Caribbean
Verweij, P. ; Cormont, A. ; Hoetjes, P. ; Meyer, K. de; Bussel, T. van; Roosenschoon, O. ; Henkens, R. ; Schmidt, A. ; Janssen, S. - \ 2019
Environmental Science & Policy 100 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 13 - 20.
biodiversity - clearinghouse - indicators - reporting obligations - stakeholders

To secure the sustainable use of nature, governments track nature's health and develop regulations and policies. Although there is a seeming abundance in observation-recordings, decision- and policy-makers are constrained by the lack of data and indicators, mostly as a result of barriers preventing existing data from being found, accessed, made suitable for (automated) processing and reused, but also due to missing visualisations targeted at answering questions asked by policy makers. This paper explores the process and principles for developing a biodiversity web-platform that informs policy and management on the state and trends of nature, based on experiences with the Dutch Caribbean Biodiversity Database (DCBD). The DCBD supports the assessment of the state of nature and guarantees long-term data availability in an environment that experiences a high turnover in project funds and personnel. Three principles made DCBD's uptake and growth possible: The platform is funded, promoted and used by national and regional policy makers, it simplifies tasks of local management and rapporteurs, and it is continuously being adapted to changing needs and insights. Stronger dissemination of DCBD's narratives in social arenas (e.g. newspapers, social media) may make Caribbean nature and biodiversity more politically and societally relevant.

The dark side of technological advances in analysis of microbial ecosystems
Bailey, Mick ; Thomas, Amy ; Francis, Ore ; Stokes, Christopher ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2019
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 1674-9782
Biobanking - Experimental design - Horizon-scanning - Microbiome - Replacement, Reduction, Refinement - Technological advances

Recent technological advances mean that samples from animal experiments may be analysed more cheaply, more easily and with a much greater return of data than previously. Research groups are frequently faced with a choice of continuing to use established technology in which they may have made a significant investment of time and resources, and have significant amounts of reference data, or switching to new technology where reference data may be limited. Apart from cost, the choice needs to be based on a comparison between the increase in data available from future experiments by switching and the value of comparison with reference data from historical experiments analysed with earlier technology. One approach to this problem is to ensure that sufficient quantity and variety of samples are taken from each experiment and appropriately stored to allow re-establishment of a sufficiently large reference set and to avoid the need to repeat animal experiments. The establishment of 'biobanks' of experimental material will require funding for infrastructure, consistent storage of metadata and, importantly, horizon-scanning to ensure that samples are taken appropriately for techniques which will become accessible in future. Such biobanks are a recognised resource in human medicine, where the value of samples increases as more analysis is carried out and added to the metadata.

Economics of antibiotic usage on Dutch farms : The impact of antibiotic reduction on economic results of pig and broiler farms in the Netherlands
Bergevoet, R.H.M. - \ 2019
Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research Policy Paper 019-026) - 16 p.
Reduction in antibiotic usage did not lead to a weaker competitive position of Dutch farmers.
The reduction in antibiotic usage on broiler and pig farms in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2017 did not result in a deviation from the long-term trend in average production and economic results in these sectors.
To improve animal health, which made a reduction in antibiotic usage possible, farmers used a variety of relatively easy and cheap measures, such as more attention to hygiene, use of pain killers and anti- inflammatory agents or more preventive vaccinations. International cost competitiveness of Dutch broiler and pig farms was not hampered by the reduction in anti biotic usage. The deterioration of the cost competitiveness in especially sow farms was caused by other factors, e.g. an increase of environmental costs.
Multiplex genome editing of microorganisms using CRISPR-Cas
Adiego-Pérez, Belén ; Randazzo, Paola ; Daran, Jean Marc ; Verwaal, René ; Roubos, Johannes A. ; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale ; Oost, John van der - \ 2019
FEMS Microbiology Letters 366 (2019)8. - ISSN 0378-1097
Cas12a - Cas9 - cell factories - CRISPR-Cas - genome editing - multiplex

Microbial production of chemical compounds often requires highly engineered microbial cell factories. During the last years, CRISPR-Cas nucleases have been repurposed as powerful tools for genome editing. Here, we briefly review the most frequently used CRISPR-Cas tools and describe some of their applications. We describe the progress made with respect to CRISPR-based multiplex genome editing of industrial bacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms. We also review the state of the art in terms of gene expression regulation using CRISPRi and CRISPRa. Finally, we summarize the pillars for efficient multiplexed genome editing and present our view on future developments and applications of CRISPR-Cas tools for multiplex genome editing.

An ecotope map of the trilateral Wadden Sea
Baptist, Martin J. ; Wal, Jan Tjalling Van Der; Folmer, Eelke O. ; Gräwe, Ulf ; Elschot, Kelly - \ 2019
Journal of Sea Research 152 (2019). - ISSN 1385-1101
Mapping - Ecotope - Habitat - Biotope - Tidal basin - Wadden Sea
Here we present the first digital, publicly available, ecotope map of the trilateral Wadden Sea covering the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. This ecotope map, representative for the time period 2008–2012, was developed on the basis of bathymetry, salinity, flow velocity, exposure time, sediment composition, hard substrates and salt marshes. Ecotopes are discrete classes of the physical environment based on the distributions of communities in an ecosystem. An ecotope map can give a first–order estimate of the potential spatial distribution
of species and communities. The use of a single, consistent and well-defined ecotope system made it possible to compare the proportions of the different ecotopes and compare properties of the tidal basins over the entire trilateral Wadden Sea. The 39 tidal basins within the Wadden Sea were clustered in four distinct types, using an unsupervised clustering algorithm. These four types included: 1) basins that are characterised by a large proportion of low-dynamic low-littoral ecotopes, 2) basins with a high proportion of high-dynamic sublittoral ecotopes, 3) shallow basins with over 50% low-dynamic mid-littoral ecotopes and 4) basins with an equal distribution of low-dynamic low-littoral and low-dynamic mid-littoral ecotopes. The clustering in four major tidal basin types gives clear guidance for comparative ecological and morphological studies between tidal basins. The ecotope map can be used for environmental research, policy and conservation purposes of the trilateral Wadden Sea in an integrated manner.
Modeling Quantitative Value of Habitats for Marine and Estuarine Populations
Lipcius, Romuald N. ; Eggleston, David B. ; Fodrie, F.J. ; Meer, Jaap Van Der; Rose, Kenneth A. ; Vasconcelos, Rita P. ; De Wolfshaar, Karen E. Van - \ 2019
Frontiers in Marine Science 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-7745 - 22 p.
dynamic energy budget model - habitat value - individual based model - integral projection model - matrix model - nursery model - population dynamics - population model
Coastal habitats (e.g., seagrass beds, shallow mud, and sand flats) strongly influence survival, growth, and reproduction of marine fish and invertebrate species. Many of these species have declined over the past decades, coincident with widespread degradation of coastal habitats, such that an urgent need exists to model the quantitative value of coastal habitats to their population dynamics. For exploited species, demand for habitat considerations will increase as fisheries management contends with habitat issues in stock assessments andmanagement in generalmoves toward amore ecosystem-based approach. The modeling of habitat function has, to date, been done on a case-by-case
basis involving diverse approaches and types of population models, which has made it difficult to generalize about methods for incorporating habitat into population models. In this review, we offer guiding concepts for how habitat effects can be incorporated in population models commonly used to simulate the population dynamics of fish and invertebrate species. Many marine species share a similar life-history strategy as long-lived adults with indeterminate growth, high fecundity, a planktonic larval form, and benthic juveniles and adults using coastal habitats. This suite of life-history traits unites the marine species across the case studies, such that the population models can be adapted for other marine species. We categorize population models based on whether they are static or dynamic representations of population status, and for dynamic,
further into unstructured, age/size class structured, and individual-based. We then use examples, with an emphasis on exploited species, to illustrate how habitat has been incorporated, implicitly (correlative) and explicitly(mechanistically), into each of these categories. We describe the methods used and provide details on their implementation and utility to facilitate adaptation of the approaches for other species and systems. We anticipate that our review can serve as a stimulus for more widespread use of population models to quantify the value of coastal habitats, so that their importance can be accurately realized and to facilitate cross-species and cross-system comparisons. Quantitative evaluation of habitat effects in population dynamics will increasingly be needed for traditional stock assessments, ecosystem-based management, conservation
of at-risk habitats, and recovery of overexploited stocks that rely on critical coastal habitats during their life cycle.
Optimal utilization of a boiler, combined heat and power installation, and heat buffers in horticultural greenhouses
Beveren, P.J.M. van; Bontsema, J. ; Straten, G. van; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2019
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 162 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 1035 - 1048.
Dynamic optimization - Energy cost saving - Equipment deployment - Greenhouse - Greenhouse operational management - Zero-or-range constraint

In the daily operation of a greenhouse, decisions must be made about the best deployment of equipment for generating heat and electricity. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1)To demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of an optimal control framework for allocating heat and electricity demand to available equipment, by application to two different configurations used in practice. (2)To show that for a given energy and electricity demand benefit can be obtained by minimizing costs during resource allocation. The allocation problem is formulated as an optimal control problem, with a pre-defined heat and electricity demand pattern as constraints. Two simplified, yet realistic, configurations are presented, one with a boiler and heat buffer, and a second one with an additional combined heat and power generator (CHP)and a second heat buffer. A direct comparison with the grower is possible on those days where the other equipment that was at the grower's disposal was not used (63 days in the available 2012 data set). On those days overall costs savings of 20% were obtained. This shows that a given heat demand does not come with a fixed price to pay. Rather, benefits can be obtained by determining the utilization of the equipment by dynamic optimization. It also appears that prior knowledge of gas and electricity prices in combination with dynamic optimization has a high potential for cost savings in horticultural practice. To determine the factors influencing the outcome, different sensitivities to the optimization result were analyzed.

Encouraging encounters: unusual aggregations of bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus in the western Fram Strait
Boer, M.N. de; Janinhoff, N. ; Nijs, G. ; Verdaat, H. - \ 2019
Endangered Species Research 39 (2019). - ISSN 1863-5407 - p. 51 - 62.
Bowhead whale - Balaena mysticetus - Svalbard stock - Abundance - Platform of opportunity - Conservation - Fram Strait
The subpopulation of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus in the East Greenland-Svalbard-Barents Sea is endangered and until recently was believed to number in the tens. Recent studies have suggested that this subpopulation appears to be increasing. Here, we report on unusual aggregations of bowhead whales within the Fram Strait. We present opportunistic and effort-corrected observations of bowhead whales made from a small expedition vessel during
cruises in June (2015−2018). Bowhead whales were sighted on 85 occasions (220−227 whales). An aggregation in 2015 (n = 84 whales) and high numbers in 2018 (n = 104−110) exceeded all previous records. The index of whale abundance was significantly higher in open water-leads (1.08−1.14 whales km−1 of survey effort) compared to areas with drift-ice (0.51−0.53 whales km−1). The highest abundance index was measured in deep waters where the bottom slope was relatively steep. Our findings highlight the temporal and spatial consistency of this species in areas with relatively loose ice cover (open water-leads) and steep slopes. It is unknown how global warming and resultant changes in ice-extent are going to affect bowhead whales within the Strait
and whether they will find new feeding grounds due to an expanding open-ocean habitat. These slopes may become increasingly important to bowhead whales and Arctic top predators as a spring/early summer feeding ground. These relatively large numbers of bowhead whales are encouraging and can help direct future research monitoring programs to study the population ecology of these endangered whales.
Unieke genetische variatie in een bijzondere Nederlandse rundveestapel met zeldzame kleuren en aftekeningen
Schurink, Anouk ; Windig, Jack ; Sulkers, Henk ; Hulsegge, Ina ; Oldenbroek, Kor - \ 2019
Wageningen : Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands (CGN), Wageningen University & Research (CGN rapport 43) - 28
The herd of van der Veen family consists of about 40 cattle with the color-sided pattern and the rare diluted and roan color. Rare colors and pattern that are brought together through years of targeted breeding and conservation. The exclusive herd of small size therefore has unique combinations of rare alleles and genotypes. Because there are no registration papers present, the genetic make-up of this herd was investigated through DNA analysis. The herd of van der Veen family does not cluster with any one of the local Dutch cattle breeds and therefore consists of unique combinations of breeds and genetic diversity. The observed rare colors were verified through DNA analysis. The DNA, expect for one individual, matched the observed color for red/black and the absence or presence of the diluted color. F or the color-sided pattern, and the spotted and roan color no conclusions could be made as the mutation itself was not genotyped. Based on DNA all known mother-offspring relationships were verified and DNA also provided insights concerning other relationships between the individuals. The herd consists of unique combinations of rare colors and pattern and the animals are genetically unique. It is therefore important to conserve the genetic diversity within this herd.
Identification of interdisciplinary research based upon co-cited journals
Veller, M.G.P. van - \ 2019
Collection and Curation 38 (2019)3. - ISSN 2514-9326 - p. 68 - 77.
Purpose – This paper aims to the identification of journal articles that probably report on interdisciplinary research at Wageningen University & Research (WUR). Design/methodology/approach – For identification of interdisciplinary research, an analysis is performed on journals from which articles have been cited in articles (co-)authored by WUR staff. The journals with cited articles are inventoried from the reference lists of the WUR articles. For each WUR article, a mean dissimilarity is calculated between the journal in which it has been published and the journals inventoried from the reference lists. Dissimilarities are derived from a large matrix with similarity values between journals, calculated from co-occurrence of these journals in the WUR articles’ reference lists. Findings – For 21,191 WUR articles published between 2006 and 2015 in 2,535 journals mean dissimilarities have been calculated. The analysis shows that WUR articles with high mean dissimilarities often are published in multidisciplinary journals. Also, WUR articles with high mean dissimilarities are found in non-multidisciplinary (research field-specific) journals. For these articles (with high mean dissimilarities), this paper shows that citations are often made to more various research fields than for articles with lower mean dissimilarities. Originality/value – Identification of articles reporting on interdisciplinary research may be important to WUR policy for strategic purposes or for the evaluation of researchers or groups. Also, this analysis enables to identify journals with high mean dissimilarities (due to WUR articles citing more various research fields). Identification of these journals with a more interdisciplinary scope can be important for collection management by the library
A critical review of the Ganges Water Sharing arrangement
Rahman, Kazi Saidur ; Islam, Zahidul ; Navera, Umme Kulsum ; Ludwig, Fulco - \ 2019
Water Policy 21 (2019)2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 259 - 276.
Farakka Barrage - Ganges Water Sharing Treaty - Regional cooperation - Transboundary rivers - Water conflicts

The 1996 Ganges Water Sharing Treaty was an important breakthrough in solving disputes over sharing Ganges water between India and Bangladesh. This study evaluates cooperation reflected in the Treaty by performing a quantitative analysis on available water sharing data. The study recognized that inaccurate projection of future flow and the obligation of allocating guaranteed 991 m 3 /s flows perpetuate the ongoing water sharing conflicts. The provision of guaranteed minimal flow alternately to India and Bangladesh during critical periods leads to frequent occurrences of low-flow events. Results indicated that the Treaty underestimated the impact of climate variability and possibly increasing upstream water abstraction. Statistical analysis of the post-Treaty data (1997–2016) also indicated that 65% of the time Bangladesh did not receive its guaranteed share during critical dry periods with high water demand. It is advised to project the reliable water availability using a combination of modelling and improved observation of river flows. In addition, the condition of minimum guaranteed share should be removed to reduce the frequency of low-flow events in future. Although our analyses show a number of weaknesses, the Treaty could still enhance the future regional cooperation if some adjustments are made to the current terms and conditions.

Northern fowl mite infestation affects the nocturnal behavior of laying hens
Jacobs, Leonie ; Vezzoli, Giuseppe ; Beerda, Bonne ; Mench, Joy A. - \ 2019
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 216 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 33 - 37.
Ectoparasite - Irritation - Laying hen - Nighttime behavior - Northern fowl mite - Sleep

The northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) is a key pest for caged laying hens. High infestation levels can lead to anemia, reduced production, and mortality. Although the mites cause skin irritation and thus likely affect resting behavior, the nocturnal behavior of infested chickens has not yet been studied. We investigated the impact of mite infestation on nighttime behavior of 16 beak-trimmed White Leghorn hens. The hens were housed individually in wire cages. They were experimentally inoculated with approximately 35 mites at 25 weeks of age and observed for the behaviors dozing, sleeping, preening and being active. Continuous observations were made from video recordings taken from 22:00 h until 06:00 h for two consecutive nights at pre-infestation week 0 and post-infestation weeks 3, 5 and 7. Mite infestation levels were measured weekly on an 8-point scale (0 (no mites) to 7 (≥10,000 mites per hen)). For statistical analyses with linear mixed models, mite infestation levels were categorized as score 0 (no mites), 3–4 (51–500), 5 (501–1000) and 6–7 (>1000). Higher levels of mite infestation were associated with hens spending less time dozing (P < 0.001) and more time preening (P < 0.001) and being active (P = 0.012). Dozing decreased from 90% of the observed time for mite score 0 to 76% for score 6–7. Preening increased from 2% (score 0) to 9% (6–7) and time spent being active increased from 1% (0) to 7% (6–7). Mite infestation increased the number of uninterrupted bouts of all behaviors (P ≤ 0.020), especially dozing and preening (P < 0.001), suggesting restlessness in the mite-infested hens due to irritation and itching. The mite-infested hens’ increased nocturnal activity, including preening, as well as the fragmentation of behavioral activities together with decreased dozing, indicate disturbed resting behavior and suggest a reduction in the welfare of mite-infested hens.

Medical travel/tourism and the city
Ormond, M.E. ; Kaspar, Heidi - \ 2019
In: Global Urban Health / Vojnovic, I., Asiki, G., DeVerteuil, G., Allen, A., Abingdon : Routledge - ISBN 9781138206250 - 19 p.
Transnational medical travel/tourism, by and large, involves travel to cities and metropolitan areas. Only urban areas possess the sufficient volume and variety of world-class medical expertise, cutting-edge technology, transportation infrastructure, communication and mediation facilities and hospitality services and infrastructure to be able to emerge as transnational medical travel destinations. Yet how cities and transnational flows of patients, standards and capital interact to generate new urban assemblages and new assemblages of health care is a story that has yet to really be told. While research on transnational medical travel/tourism is becoming more nuanced, involving a broader variety of perspectives, actors and medical mobilities, any attention given thus far to urban areas has been largely implicit and, thus, conceptually under-explored and -utilised. In this chapter, we argue for a relational approach on the urban as well as on transnational health care. Our focus was on how elements become mobile, circulate and assemble to form medical travel/tourism and how this assembling entangles with the elements and relations that constitute the urban. The presented cases show that networks are fluid and constantly being made, as elements entangle and disentangle and, through relational processes of dissociation and re-association, themselves transform. Through the assembling of medical travel/tourism, hospitals’ incomes can rise and their interiors can be ‘internationalised’; neighbours and hotels can learn to accommodate the presence of ‘sick’ bodies; patients can become health consumers and, perhaps, evangelise the benefits of travelling abroad for medical purposes; penniless refugees and wealthy doctors alike can become care brokers; and, last but not least, hopeless, ignored ‘medical cases’ at home can become hopeful, desired customers abroad.
A classification scheme for interfacial mass transfer and the kinetics of aroma release
Weterings, Martijn ; Bodnár, Igor ; Boom, Remko M. ; Beyrer, Michael - \ 2019
Trends in Food Science and Technology (2019). - ISSN 0924-2244
Air water mass transfer - Aroma classification - Aroma release dynamics - Flavor release - Food modelling - food processing - Interfacial mass transfer

Background: The study of aroma release has gained popularity in food science. Nowadays, experiments become increasingly more complex. However, an application of theories on mass transfer, which may help to better explain the results, is lagging behind on these developments. Scope and approach: The goal of this review is to get together, in a concise way, the state of the art on fundamental knowledge of mass transfer in aroma release plus creating an extension of theory with a comprehensible classification that is useful for food scientists. The existing mathematical model is simplified and points that have received little attention are identified. Key findings and conclusions: An overview of experimental studies that focus on the influence of viscosity on aroma release show that there is heterogeneity in results and no consensus exists on the influence of viscosity. Such heterogeneity may be better understood with the effects of mass transfer. These effects are summarized by describing three implications based on non-proportional relationships between the partition coefficient and (A)the overall mass transfer coefficient, (B)the depletion and saturation time-scales, and (C)the peak value of the aroma concentration in the head space. A classification scheme is made to enable food scientists and technologists to apply the complex description in shorter and simpler terms that can be communicated and compared more easily. The scheme depends on a classification in two dimensions based on a thermodynamic factor, the partition coefficient, and a kinetic factor which divides aroma's and experiments into four different classes.

Comparison of a mouth aspirator and a mechanical vacuum aspirator for the collection of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in eguids
Elbers, A.R.W. ; Pacholewicz, Ewa ; Gonzales, Jose - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Entomology (2019). - ISSN 0931-2048
In a controlled field trial, a mechanical vacuum and a mouth aspirator were compared with respect to Culicoides midge catching results. The two collection methods were equally applied to two Haflinger horses. Once every hour between 2 hr before sunset and sunset, midges were aspirated for 3 min directly off from the coat of each horse at the same time. In total, 16 replicate measurement days were made. To get insight into the number of (blood‐fed) midges collected on different body parts, four replicate measurement days were done in which the hourly 3‐min samples for each collecting method were separately collected and counted per body part. Mean number of Culicoides midges collected on the legs and on the belly of the horse was two times and significantly higher by the mechanical vacuum aspirator compared to the mouth aspirator. Although the mean number of Culicoides midges from the other part of the host sampled (head/neck/manes/back/flanks) was comparable between the two methods, the mean number of blood‐fed Culicoides midges was four times and significantly higher collected by the mouth aspirator compared to the mechanical vacuum aspirator. In conclusion, it can be recommended to use a mechanical vacuum aspirator instead of a mouth aspirator for the legs and belly area, where a systematic, stroke‐by‐stroke‐vacuum procedure is recommended. For the rest of the body, it is strongly recommended to use a targeted procedure by visual guidance of the presence of midges. For now, based on this experiment, we can only recommend using the mouth aspirator for this targeted approach. However, it might be worth assessing the use of the mechanical vacuum aspirator in a targeted way for future studies.
A social-ecological perspective on ecosystem vulnerability for the invasive creeper coralita (Antigonon leptopus)in the Caribbean: A review
Heger, W.T. ; Andel, Tinde van - \ 2019
Global Ecology and Conservation 18 (2019). - ISSN 2351-9894
Anthropogenic disturbance - Climate change - Dutch Caribbean - Invasive species - Overgrazing - St. Eustatius

The Caribbean islands are a hotspot for biodiversity, harboring 2.3% of the world's endemic plant species on just 0.18% of the earth surface. Due to habitat degradation, invasive species are considered a major environmental problem on these islands. The vine coralita (Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.)is the most abundant invasive species on the Dutch Caribbean island of St. Eustatius. Forming thick, monospecific carpets, it is seen as a threat to biodiversity. Insight is needed as to the ecological and social factors that influence the local ecosystem's vulnerability for invasion by A. leptopus. We used a Social-Ecological Systems framework for a literature review to answer our research questions: 1)What is currently known about the social and ecological factors that make an ecosystem vulnerable for invasions by invasive species and A. leptopus in particular? 2)How much empirical evidence is provided to back up the claims made in the reviewed literature? and 3)Which research and management priorities can be identified for St. Eustatius based on this analysis? Our review yielded 46 relevant documents, of which only 21 were peer-reviewed scientific articles. We assessed the level of empirical support for each of the factors mentioned in the reviewed literature and used these to shape our conceptual Social-Ecological model. Three major factors appeared to be responsible for the vulnerability of ecosystems for A. leptopus invasion: overgrazing by feral animals (16 papers), anthropogenic disturbance (19)and climate change (6). Empirical evidence for the relation between A. leptopus invasion and social and ecological factors is scarce: only anthropogenic disturbance and overgrazing were supported by quantitative data (three papers each). Our literature review also indicates that the invasion of A. leptopus on St. Eustatius is more a symptom than a cause in itself. Efforts to manage coralita by chemical or manual removal are futile if not combined with active vegetation restoration and grazer exclusion. Conservation efforts have led to an increase in forested areas on the island, in which coralita is not present. More experimental research is needed to inform policy and management decisions, preferably on the effects of feral grazer exclusion and shading by native trees on the recovery of natural vegetation in areas now dominated by coralita.

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