Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Short-term seasonal habitat facilitation mediated by an insect herbivore
Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Ode, Paul J. ; Malcicka, Miriama ; Gols, Rieta - \ 2016
Basic and Applied Ecology 17 (2016)5. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 447 - 454.
Clubiona phragmitis - Community - Earwig - Ecological interactions - Forficula auricularia - Porcellio scaber - Spider - Woodlice

In nature some organisms may facilitate others by creating shelter or other niches that they use for variable periods. We describe a natural multitrophic-species complex in the Netherlands involving a plant, the common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium) a specialist chewing herbivore, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) and various arthropods associated with them. Larvae of D. pastinacella feed on H. sphondylium seeds and, after they have finished feeding, chew holes in the hollow stems where they pupate. In some areas of the country almost 50% of plants are attacked by webworms. The holes are used by other arthropods to gain access to the stems including herbivores, omnivores, predators and decomposers. The duration of plant occupancy varies between 3 and 4 months, until the plants die. Plants without moth-produced holes were always free of other arthropods, whereas plants with holes, in addition to pupae (and/or mummified-parasitized webworm larvae), often contained many woodlice, earwigs and/or spiders. Earwigs and woodlice perform important ecological functions as predators (in orchards) and decomposers respectively. Our results show that the simple biological activity of one herbivore species can have at least short-term effects on the local arthropod community. In der Natur können manche Organismen andere begünstigen, indem sie Refugien oder andere Nischen erschaffen, die sie für unterschiedliche Zeiträume nutzen. Wir beschreiben einen natürlichen multitrophischen Artenkomplex in den Niederlanden, der den Wiesen-Bärenklau (Heracleum sphondylium), die Pastinakmotte (Depressaria pastinacella) und verschiedene mit ihnen assoziierte Arthropoden umfasst. Die Larven der Pastinakmotte fressen an Bärenklausamen und beißen später Löcher in die hohlen Stengel, um sich darin zu verpuppen. Die Löcher werden von anderen Arthropoden genutzt, um Zugang ins Stengelinnere zu erhalten. Die Pflanze wird für etwa drei bis vier Monate besiedelt bis sie abstirbt. Pflanzen ohne Mottenlöcher wurden niemals von anderen Arthropoden besiedelt, während Stengel mit Löchern zusätzlich zu den Mottenpuppen bzw. parasitierten Larvenmumien häufig viele Asseln, Ohrwürmer und/oder Spinnen enthielten. Ohrwürmer und Asseln erfüllen wichtige ökologische Funktionen als Räuber in Obstplantagen bzw. als Zersetzer. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die einfache biologische Aktivität einer Herbivorenart zumindest kurzfristige Auswirkungen auf die lokale Arthropodengemeinschaft haben kann.

Host preference and offspring performance are linked in three congeneric hyperparasitoid species
Harvey, J.A. ; Gols, R. ; Snaas, H. ; Malcicka, M. ; Visser, B. - \ 2015
Ecological Entomology 40 (2015)2. - ISSN 0307-6946 - p. 114 - 122.
monoctonus-paulensis hymenoptera - optimal bad motherhood - parasitoid wasps - reproductive strategies - sex allocation - age preference - lysibia-nana - braconidae - ichneumonidae - oviposition
1. The optimisation theory predicts that insect mothers should oviposit on resources on which they attain the highest exclusive fitness. The development of parasitoid wasps is dependent on limited host resources that are often not much larger than the adult parasitoid. 2. In the present study preference and development in three congeneric species of secondary hyperparasitoids attacking cocoons of two congeneric primary parasitoids that differ significantly in size were compared. Gelis agilis (Fabricius) and G. acarorum (L.) are wingless hyperparasitoids that forage in grassy habitats, whereas G. areator (Panzer) is fully winged and forages higher in the canopy of forbs. 3. The three species were reared on cocoons containing pupae of a small gregarious endoparasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (L.), and a larger solitary species, C. rubecula (Marshall), both of which develop in the caterpillars of pierid butterflies. 4. Adult mass was correlated with initial cocoon mass in all three species, whereas development time was unaffected. Wasps were larger when developing in C. rubecula. However, for a given host mass, wasps were larger when developing on the smaller host, C. glomerata. This suggests that there is a physiological limit to hyperparasitoid size that was exceeded when C. rubecula served as host. 5. All three hyperparasitoids strongly preferred to attack cocoons of the larger species, C. rubecula, often avoiding cocoons of C. glomerata entirely. 6. Preference and performance are correlated in the three Gelis species. However, owing to variation in the distribution and thus abundance of their hosts, it is argued that cumulative fitness may be still higher in the smaller host species.
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