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Flexitarianism and Social Marketing : Reflections on Eating Meat in Moderation
Dagevos, H. ; Reinders, M.J. - \ 2018
In: Handbook of Research on Social Marketing and Its Influence on Animal Origin Food Product Consumption / Bogueva, D., Marinova, D., Raphaely, T., IGI Global - ISBN 9781522547570 - p. 105 - 120.
Society increasingly expresses concerns about the meat-centred food system, there is an increasing choice of plant-based meat substitutes and a growing amount of food consumers abstain from eating meat for several days per week (i.e., flexitarianism). However, consumers differ in their engagement regarding meat consumption moderation, leading to different transition routes of reducing meat consumption. Social marketing strategies are relevant when it comes to this transition and can be divided along a spectrum from light (“education”) to heavy (“law”). In the middle of this spectrum, nudging may be typified as aiming to unconsciously change behaviour by intervening in the context of consumption. This chapter presents two field experiments showing how these unconscious behavioural interventions could offer opportunities to effectively reduce meat consumption. Despite the promising contributions of these nudging interventions, a sustainable transition towards less meat consumption also requires changes in both prevalent consumers' mind-set and consumer culture.
Limited coalescence and Ostwald ripening in emulsions stabilized by hydrophobin HFBII and milk proteins
Dimitrova, Lydia M. ; Boneva, Mariana P. ; Danov, Krassimir D. ; Kralchevsky, Peter A. ; Basheva, Elka S. ; Marinova, Krastanka G. ; Petkov, Jordan T. ; Stoyanov, Simeon D. - \ 2016
Colloids and Surfaces. A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 509 (2016). - ISSN 0927-7757 - p. 521 - 538.
Drop size distribution - Emulsification - Emulsion stability - HFBII hydrophobin - Ostwald ripening
Hydrophobins are proteins isolated from filamentous fungi, which are excellent foam stabilizers, unlike most of the proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that hydrophobin HFBII can also serve as excellent emulsion stabilizer. The HFBII adsorption layers at the oil/water interface solidify similarly to those at the air/water interface. The thinning of aqueous films sandwiched between two oil phases ends with the formation of a 6 nm thick protein bilayer, just as in the case of foam films, which results in strong adhesive interactions between the emulsion drops. The drop-size distribution in hydrophobin stabilized oil-in-water emulsions is investigated at various protein concentrations and oil volume fractions. The data analysis indicates that the emulsification occurs in the Kolmogorov regime or in the regime of limited coalescence, depending on the experimental conditions. The emulsions with HFBII are very stable – no changes in the drop-size distributions are observed after storage for 50 days. However, these emulsions are unstable upon stirring, when they are subjected to the action of shear stresses. This instability can be removed by covering the drops with a second adsorption layer from a conventional protein, like β-lactoglobulin. The HFBII surface layer is able to suppress the Ostwald ripening in the case when the disperse phase is oil that exhibits a pronounced solubility in water. Hence, the hydrophobin can be used to stabilize microcapsules of fragrances, flavors, colors or preservatives due to its dense adsorption layers that block the transfer of oil molecules.
Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry
Danov, Krassimir D. ; Stanimirova, Rumyana D. ; Kralchevsky, Peter A. ; Marinova, Krastanka G. ; Stoyanov, Simeon D. ; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B.J. ; Cox, Andrew R. ; Pelan, Eddie G. - \ 2016
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 233 (2016). - ISSN 0001-8686 - p. 223 - 239.
Bubble and drop adhesion to walls - Capillary meniscus dynamometry - Disjoining pressure vs. transversal tension - Foams and emulsions - Isotropic and anisotropic interfaces - Protein and egg yolk solutions
Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are based on a new data analysis protocol, which allows one to decouple the two components of non-isotropic surface tension. For an axisymmetric non-fluid interface (e.g. bubble or drop covered by a protein adsorption layer with shear elasticity), the CMD determines the two different components of the anisotropic surface tension, σs and σϕ , which are acting along the "meridians" and "parallels", and vary throughout the interface. The method uses data for the instantaneous bubble (drop) profile and capillary pressure, but the procedure for data processing is essentially different from that of the conventional drop shape analysis (DSA) method. In the case of bubble or drop pressed against a substrate, which forms a capillary bridge, the CBD method allows one to determine also the capillary-bridge force for both isotropic (fluid) and anisotropic (solidified) adsorption layers. The experiments on bubble (drop) detachment from the substrate show the existence of a maximal pulling force, F max, that can be resisted by an adherent fluid particle. F max can be used to quantify the strength of adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces. Its value is determined by a competition of attractive transversal tension and repulsive disjoining pressure forces. The greatest F max values have been measured for bubbles adherent to glass substrates in pea-protein solutions. The bubble/wall adhesion is lower in solutions containing the protein HFBII hydrophobin, which could be explained with the effect of sandwiched protein aggregates. The applicability of the CBD method to emulsion systems is illustrated by experiments with soybean-oil drops adherent to hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in egg yolk solutions. The results reveal how the interfacial rigidity, as well as the bubble/wall and drop/wall adhesion forces, can be quantified and controlled in relation to optimizing the properties of foams and emulsions.
Exploring Flexitarianism : Meat Reduction in a Meat-Centred Food Culture
Dagevos, H. - \ 2016
In: Impact of meat consumption on health and environmental sustainability / Raphaely, T., Marinova, D., IGI Global - ISBN 9781466695535 - p. 233 - 243.
Broad scholarly consensus exists nowadays that high meat consumption is particularly critical from an ecological perspective. Traditionally, technological progress and efficiency innovations in food supply processes are identified as key to solving food sustainability problems. However, it is increasingly recognised that technological innovation and efficiency gains alone are not enough to reduce the environmental impacts of growing meat production and consumption. Therefore, this chapter's point of view is consumption-oriented. Are consumers part of the solution by making transitions towards more sustainable consumption patterns in general and less meat-centric diets specifically? This chapter explores flexitarianism as a present-day food style that consists of different forms or levels, ranging from minor adjustments to regular meat consumption patterns to fundamental departure from habitual meat eating practices.
Capillary meniscus dynamometry - Method for determining the surface tension of drops and bubbles with isotropic and anisotropic surface stress distributions
Danov, K.D. ; Stanimirova, R.D. ; Kralchevsky, P.A. ; Marinova, K.G. ; Alexandrov, N.A. ; Stoyanov, S.D. ; Blijdenstein, T.B.J. ; Pelan, E.G. - \ 2015
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 440 (2015). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 168 - 178.
Anisotropic interfacial layers - Drop shape analysis - Non-uniform surface tension - Pendant drops and buoyant bubbles - Protein adsorption layers - Surface stress balances
The stresses acting in interfacial adsorption layers with surface shear elasticity are, in general, anisotropic and non-uniform. If a pendant drop or buoyant bubble is covered with such elastic layer, the components of surface tension acting along the "meridians" and "parallels", σs and σϕ, can be different and, then, the conventional drop shape analysis (DSA) is inapplicable. Here, a method for determining σs and σϕ is developed for axisymmetric menisci. This method, called 'capillary meniscus dynamometry' (CMD), is based on processing data for the digitized drop/bubble profile and capillary pressure. The principle of the CMD procedure for data processing is essentially different from that of DSA. Applying the tangential and normal surface stress balance equations, σs and σϕ are determined in each interfacial point without using any rheological model. The computational procedure is fast and could be used in real time, during a given process. The method is applied to determine σs and σϕ for bubbles and drops formed on the tip of a capillary immersed in solutions of the protein HFBII hydrophobin. Upon a surface compression, meridional wrinkles appear on the bubble surface below the bubble "equator", where the azimuthal tension σϕ takes negative values. The CMD method allows one to determine the local tensions acting in anisotropic interfacial layers (films, membranes), like those formed from proteins, polymers, asphaltenes and phospholipids. The CMD is applicable also to fluid interfaces (e.g. surfactant solutions), for which it gives the same surface tension as the conventional methods.
Competitive adsorption of the protein hydrophobin and an ionic surfactant: Parallel vs sequential adsorption and dilatational rheology
Stanimirova, R. ; Marinova, K.G. ; Danov, K.D. ; Kralchevsky, P.A. ; Basheva, E.S. ; Stoyanov, S.D. ; Pelan, E.G. - \ 2014
Colloids and Surfaces. A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 457 (2014). - ISSN 0927-7757 - p. 307 - 317.
air-water-interface - sodium dodecyl-sulfate - beta-casein - air/water interface - fluid interfaces - layers - hfbii - elasticity - stability - mixtures
The competitive adsorption of the protein HFBII hydrophobin and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is investigated in experiments on parallel and sequential adsorption of the two components. The dynamic surface tension and the surface storage and loss dilatational moduli are determined by the oscillating bubble method. A new procedure for data processing is proposed, which allows one to collect data from many different runs on a single master curve and to determine more accurately the dependence of the dilatational elasticity on the surface pressure. Experiments on sequential adsorption are performed by exchanging the HFBII solution around the bubble with an SDS solution. Experiments with separate thin foam films bring additional information on the effect of added SDS. The results indicate that if HFBII has first adsorbed at the air/water interface, it cannot be displaced by SDS at any concentration, both below and above the critical micellization concentration (CMC). In the case of parallel adsorption, there is a considerable difference between the cases below and above the CMC. In the former case, SDS cannot prevent the adsorption of HFBII at the interface, whereas in the latter case adsorption of HFBII is absent, which can be explained with hydrophilization of the hydrophobin aggregates by the SDS in the bulk. The surface dilatational elasticity of the HFBII adsorption layers markedly decreases in the presence of SDS, but it recovers after washing out the SDS. With respect to their dilatational rheology, the investigated HFBII layers exhibit purely elastic behavior, the effect of dilatational viscosity being negligible. As a function of surface tension, the elasticity of the investigated interfacial layers exhibits a high maximum, which could be explained with the occurrence of a phase transition in the protein adsorption layer.
|Symbol of poverty? Children's valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, India
Cruz Garcia, G.S. - \ 2014
In: An offprint from plants and people. Choices and diversity through time / Chevalier, A., Marinova, E., Pena-Chocarro, Leonor, Oxford : Oxbow Books (Early agricultural remnants and technical heritage (EARTH): 8,000 years of resilience and innovation 1) - ISBN 9781842175149 - p. 421 - 427.
|Introduction: Wild food plants in the present and past
Cruz Garcia, G.S. ; Ertug, F. - \ 2014
In: An offprint from plants and people. Choices and diversity through time / Chevalier, A., Marinova, E., Pena-Chocarro, Leonor, Oxford : Oxbow Books - ISBN 9781842175149 - p. 211 - 215.
|Exploring diversity in the present: ethnobotany studies
Cruz Garcia, G.S. - \ 2014
In: An offprint from plants and people. Choices and diversity through time / Chevalier, A., Marinova, E., Pena-Chocarro, Leonor, Oxford : Oxbow Books - ISBN 9781842175149 - p. 42 - 50.
Interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin: Dynamic surface tension, dilatational elasticity and relaxation times
Alexandrov, N.A. ; Marinova, K.G. ; Gurkov, T.D. ; Danov, K.D. ; Kralchevsky, P.A. ; Stoyanov, S.D. ; Blijdenstein, T.B.J. ; Arnaudov, L.N. ; Pelan, E.G. ; Lips, A. - \ 2012
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 376 (2012). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 296 - 306.
class-ii hydrophobins - air-water-interface - trichoderma-reesei - structural-analysis - crystal-structures - curved interfaces - latex-particles - beta-casein - adsorption - rheology
The pendant-drop method (with drop-shape analysis) and Langmuir trough are applied to investigate the characteristic relaxation times and elasticity of interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin. Such layers undergo a transition from fluid to elastic solid films. The transition is detected as an increase in the error of the fit of the pendant-drop profile by means of the Laplace equation of capillarity. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial expansion follows an exponential-decay law, which indicates adsorption kinetics under barrier control. The experimental data for the relaxation time suggest that the adsorption rate is determined by the balance of two opposing factors: (i) the barrier to detachment of protein molecules from bulk aggregates and (ii) the attraction of the detached molecules by the adsorption layer due to the hydrophobic surface force. The hydrophobic attraction can explain why a greater surface coverage leads to a faster adsorption. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial compression follows a different, square-root law. Such behavior can be attributed to surface diffusion of adsorbed protein molecules that are condensing at the periphery of interfacial protein aggregates. The surface dilatational elasticity, E, is determined in experiments on quick expansion or compression of the interfacial protein layers. At lower surface pressures (
Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe: Challenges and opportunities for cities together with supportive national and European policies
Georgi, B. ; Swart, R.J. ; Marinova, N. ; Hove, B. van; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. - \ 2012
Copenhagen : EEA (EEA report 2/2012) - ISBN 9789292133085 - 148
klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - milieubeleid - climatic change - urban areas - environmental policy
Climate change leading to higher temperatures, changing precipitation patterns and sea level rise, is a reality in Europe. Climate change mitigation measures will limit the magnitude and rate of related events in the future, but they will not prevent them. Pro-active adaptation to climate change is therefore imperative. While urban adaptation to climate change at a first glance may seem to be purely a local governance issue, the strong connections between European cities and their surrounding regions, or countries, warrant a broader perspective.
Effects of phenolic compounds on adventitious root formation and oxidative decarboxylation of applied indoleacetic acid in Malus 'Jork 9'
Klerk, G.J.M. de; Guan, H. ; Huisman, P. ; Marinova, S. - \ 2011
Plant Growth Regulation 63 (2011)2. - ISSN 0167-6903 - p. 175 - 185.
Stem slices (1-mm thick) cut from apple microshoots were cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and increasing concentrations of various phenolic compounds. Both auxins were added at a concentration suboptimal for rooting. Indole-3-acetic acid is metabolized through oxidation and conjugation but NAA through conjugation only; which might have affected the results. With IAA, all tested orthodiphenols, paradiphenols and triphenols promoted adventitious root formation from the stem slices. Ferulic acid (FA, a methylated orthodiphenol) had the largest effect and increased the number of adventitious roots from 0.9 to 5.8. With NAA there was little or no promotion after addition of phenolics. Phloroglucinol (a triphenol) and FA were examined in detail. Their effects on the dose–response curve of IAA and the timing of their action indicated that both acted as antioxidants protecting IAA from decarboxylation and the tissue from oxidative stress. Experiments with carboxyl-labelled IAA showed that IAA was massively decarboxylated by the slices and that decarboxylation was strongly reduced by phenolics. Decarboxylation was to a great extent attributable to the wound response and did not occur to such an extent in non-wounded plant tissues. In shoots, FA promoted little rooting. Slices were cultured on top of the medium and shoots were stuck into the medium. Possibly, the anaerobic conditions in the medium near the basal part of the stem of shoots reduced the wound response and consequently decarboxylation of IAA. The monophenolic compound salicylic acid (SA) promoted IAA decarboxylation. Accordingly, SA reduced rooting when added during the initial days of the rooting process (the period during which auxin enhances rooting), and promoted outgrowth of root primordia later on (the period during which auxin inhibits rooting).
|Sea level scenarios for Venice for 2100: an International assessment
Vellinga, P. ; Marinova, N.A. ; Lionello, P. ; Gualdi, S. ; Artale, V. ; Jorda, G. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
Climate Adaptation – modelling water scenarios and sectoral impacts. Final Report ClimWatAdapt project
Florke, M.F. ; Wimmer, F. ; Laaser, C. ; Vidaurre, R. ; Troltzsch, J. ; Dworak, T. ; Stein, U. ; Marinova, N.A. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. ; Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R.J. ; Hoang, L.P. ; Giupponi, C. ; Bosello, F. ; Mysiak, J. - \ 2011
Kassel, Germany : CESR – Center for Environmental Systems Research - 158 p.
3D modelling of branching in plants
Evers, J.B. - \ 2011
In: Proceedings of the MODSIM2011, 19th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 12-16 December 2011, Perth, Australia. - Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand - ISBN 9780987214317 - p. 982 - 988.
Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants. Branching is regulated by multiple internal factors which are modulated by different environmental signals. A key environmental signal in the context of a plant population is a low red / far-red intensity ratio (R:FR) of the light reflected by neighbouring plants. For instance, low R:FR results in suppression of branching in favour of elongation growth, which is a key aspect of shade avoidance. Shade avoidance enables plants to anticipate future competition by preventing being shaded, rather than to react to prevailing shade conditions. Internally, branching is regulated by a finely tuned plant hormone network. The interactions within this network are modified by environmental cues such as R:FR which is perceived by specific photoreceptors. Combined, internal and external signals enable regulation of branch formation under the influence of environmental conditions. The different aspects of branching control act at different levels of biological organization (organ, whole plant, plant community). These aspects can be integrated in one modelling approach, called functional-structural plant modelling (FSPM), explicitly considering spatial 3D plant development. An FSP model typically contains detailed information at any moment in development of the plant on the number, size, location and orientation of all organs that make up the plant. In FSP models, physiological and physical processes occur within the plant (e.g. photosynthesis and transport of assimilates), and interaction with the environment occurs at the interface of organ and environment (e.g. light absorption by a leaf). Explicit simulation of absorption and scattering of light at the level of the plant organ is an important aspect of FSPM. In combination with dedicated experiments, this modelling tool can be used to analyse the response of plants to (imminent) competition, simulate the competitive advantage of shade avoidance for plants of different architecture, and predict plant form in various light environments. To assess the effect of plant population density through R:FR signalling on tillering (branching) in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an FSPM study was conducted (Figure 1). A simple descriptive relationship was used to link R:FR as perceived by the plant to extension growth of tiller buds and probability of a bud to form a tiller. A further study included a complete sub-model of branching regulation, aiming at simulating branching as an emergent property in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) under the influence of R:FR. These and other studies show that FSPM is a promising tool to simulate aspects of plant development, such as branching, under the influence of environmental factors. In close combination with dedicated experiments, FSPM can shape our ideas of the mechanisms controlling plant development, can integrate existing knowledge on plant development, and can predict plant development in untested conditions.
Climate adaption - modelling water scenarios and sectoral impacts. Final report ClimWatAdapt project
Florke, M.F. ; Wimmer, F. ; Laaser, C. ; Vidaurre, R. ; Trolzsch, J. ; Dworak, T. ; Stein, U. ; Marinova, N. ; Jaspers, F. ; Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R. ; Hoang, L.P. ; Giupponi, C. ; Bosello, F. ; Mysiak, J. - \ 2011
Kassel : CESR – Center for Environmental Systems Research - 159
klimaatverandering - gevoeligheidsanalyse - maatregelen - waterkwaliteit - ecosystemen - regio's - europese unie - climatic change - sensitivity analysis - measures - water quality - ecosystems - regions - european union
The main objective of this project is the assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts and adaptation measures. Therefore, the main aim of this project was to set up an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF), which allows to analyze which regions in Europe are potentially vulnerable to climate change and to identify which adaptation measures could potentially be promoted at the EU level.
Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a ‘beyond 4°C world’ in the twenty-first century
Nicholls, R. ; Marinova, N.A. ; Lowe, J. ; Brown, S. ; Vellinga, P. - \ 2011
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series A, Mathematical, physical and engineering sciences 369 (2011)1934. - ISSN 1364-503X - p. 161 - 181.
greenland ice-sheet - climate-change - coastal zones - international tourism - 21st-century - constraints - scenarios - countries - collapse - erosion
The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5¿m and 2¿m—the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed.
Climate change and sea level rise in the Mediterranean region from a high-resolution coupled AOGCM perspective
Marinova, Natasha - \ 2010
Policy options in a worst case climate change world
Swart, R.J. ; Marinova, N.A. - \ 2010
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15 (2010)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 531 - 549.
albedo enhancement - carbon-dioxide - schemes - capture - system - energy - cycle - air - co2
Climatic changes more rapid and extreme than assessed by the IPCC cannot be excluded, because of the possibility of positive earth system feedbacks and thresholds. Do today's policy makers have to take these into account, and if so, are the options different from those considered today? The paper briefly summarizes the types of extreme climatic changes noted in the literature and then evaluates the options to address them in a what-if manner. Different from other studies, which usually look at only one type of measure, we consider a broader portfolio of options: drastic emissions reduction programmes, drawing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere ("carbon dioxide removal"), "emergency cooling" through influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere ("solar radiation management"), and finally adaptation beyond the options considered seriously today. Politics will have to decide on the choice or mix of "emergency" measures, but research can ensure that such decisions are based on the best scientific information. If through concerted international efforts to mitigate greenhouse emissions low stabilization levels could be reached, such decisions may never have to be made. However, research in support of some form of a "plan B" is now warranted, focusing on those options that have the most positive ratio between potential effectiveness and feasibility on the one hand, and environmental and political risks on the other hand. Such plan should not be limited to one set of options such as geo-engineering and should explicitly take into account not only the relationships between the options but also the wide variety in characteristics of the individual options in terms of effectiveness, feasibility, environmental risks, and political implications.
Climate Adaptation – modelling water scenarios and sectoral impacts
Florke, M.F. ; Wimmer, F. ; Laaser, C. ; Vidaurre, R. ; Troltzsch, J. ; Dworak, T. ; Stein, U. ; Marinova, N.A. ; Jaspers, F. ; Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R.J. ; Hoang, L.P. ; Giupponi, C. ; Bosello, F. ; Mysiak, J. - \ 2009
Kassel : CESR – Center for Environmental Systems Research - 31 p.