Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Sketching sustainable land use in Europe by 2040 : a multi-stakeholder participatory approach to elicit cross-sectoral visions
Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Paterson, James ; Metzger, Marc J. ; Gramberger, Marc ; Houtkamp, Joske ; Jensen, Anne ; Murray-Rust, Dave ; Verkerk, Pieter J. - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 775 - 787.
Cross-sectoral - Europe - Land-use visions - Multifunctionality - Participatory process - Sustainability
The continuously growing global demands on a finite land resource will require better strategic policies and management of trade-offs to avoid conflicts between different land-use sectors. Visions of the future can support strategic planning by stimulating dialogue, building a consensus on shared priorities and providing long-term targets. We present a novel approach to elicit stakeholder visions of future desired land use, which was applied with a broad range of experts to develop cross-sectoral visions in Europe. The approach is based on (i) combination of software tools and facilitation techniques to stimulate engagement and creativity; (ii) methodical selection of stakeholders; (iii) use of land attributes to deconstruct the multifaceted sectoral visions into land-use changes that can be clustered into few cross-sectoral visions, and (iv) a rigorous iterative process. Three cross-sectoral visions of sustainable land use in Europe in 2040 emerged from applying the approach in participatory workshops involving experts in nature conservation, recreation, agriculture, forestry, settlements, energy, and water. The three visions—Best Land in Europe, Regional Connected and Local Multifunctional—shared a wish to achieve a land use that is sustainable through multifunctionality, resource use efficiency, controlled urban growth, rural renewal and widespread nature. However, they differ on the scale at which land services are provided—EU-wide, regional or local—reflecting the land-sparing versus land-sharing debate. We discuss the usefulness of the approach, as well as the challenges posed and solutions offered by the visions to support strategic land-use planning.
Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

Towards a roadmap for sustainable land use in Europe
Metzger, Marc J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Pedroli, Bas - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 707 - 713.
How do Europeans want to live in 2040? Citizen visions and their consequences for European land use
Metzger, Marc J. ; Murray-Rust, Dave ; Houtkamp, Joske ; Jensen, Anne ; Riviere, Inge la; Paterson, James S. ; Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Valluri-Nitsch, Christiane - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 789 - 802.
Citizen science - Crowdsourcing - European citizens - Land use - Scenarios - Visions
The aspirations, motivations and choices of individual European citizens are a major driver of the future of global, European and local land use. However, until now no land use study has explicitly attempted to find out how the general public wants to live in the future. This paper forms a first attempt to survey European citizens to understand their desired future lives in relation to consequences for European land use. We used a crowdsourcing experiment to elicit visions from young Europeans about their lives in 2040. Participants completed a graphic novel around carefully selected questions, allowing them to create a story of their imagined future lives in pictures. The methodology worked well, and the sample seemed reasonably representative albeit skewed towards an educated population. In total, 1131 responses from 29 countries were received. Results show a strong desire for change, and for more sustainable lifestyles. There is desire for local and ecologically friendly food production, to eat less meat, to have access to green infrastructure and the ability to cycle to work. However, international travel remains popular, and the desire for extensive food production and owning detached houses with gardens will likely result in complex land use trade-offs. Future work could focus more specifically on quantifying these trade-offs and inform respondents about the consequences of their lifestyle choices. This was a first attempt to use crowdsourcing to understand citizen visions for their lives in the future, and our lessons learned will help future studies improve representativeness and increase responses.
Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Observations: Why, Where, What and How?
Jongman, R.H.G. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Metzger, M. - \ 2017
In: The GEO-Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks / Walters, Michele, Scholes, Robert J., Cham, Switzerland : Springer - ISBN 9783319272863 - p. 19 - 38.
This chapter covers the questions of ecosystem definition and the organisation of a monitoring system. It treats where and how ecosystems should be measured and the integration between in situ and RS observations. Ecosystems are characterised by composition, function and structure. The ecosystem level is an essential link in biodiversity surveillance and monitoring between species and populations on the one hand and land use and landscapes on the other. Ecosystem monitoring requires a clear conceptual model that incorporates key factors influencing ecosystem dynamics to base the variables on that have to be monitored as well as data collection methods and statistics. Choices have to be made on the scale at which monitoring should be carried out and eco-regionalisation or ecological stratification are approaches for identification of the units to be sampled. This can be done on expert judgement but nowadays also on stratifications derived from multivariate statistical clustering. Data should also be included from individual research sites over the entire world and from organically grown networks covering many countries. An important added value in the available monitoring technologies is the integration of in situ and RS observations, as various RS technologies are coming into reach of ecosystem research. For global applications this development is essential. We can employ an array of instruments to monitor ecosystem characteristics, from fixed sensors and in situ measurements to drones, planes and satellite sensors. They allow to measure biogeochemical components that determine much of the chemistry of the environment and the geochemical regulation of ecosystems. Important global databases on sensor data are being developed and frequent high resolution RS scenes are becoming available. RS observations can complement field observations as they deliver a synoptic view and the opportunity to provide consistent information in time and space especially for widely distributed habitats. RS has a high potential for developing distribution maps, change detection and habitat quality and composition change at various scales. Hyperspectral sensors have greatly enhanced the possibilities of distinguishing related habitat types at very fine scales. The end-users can use such maps for estimating range and area of habitats, but they could also serve to define and update the sampling frame (the statistical ‘population’) of habitats for which field sample surveys are in place. Present technologies and data availability allow us to measure fragmentation through several metrics that can be calculated from RS data. In situ data have been collected in several countries over a longer term and these are fit for statistical analysis, producing statistics on species composition change, habitat richness and habitat structure. It is now possible to relate protocols for RS and in situ observations based on plant life forms, translate them and provide direct links between in situ and RS data.
A framework for habitat monitoring and climate change modelling : construction and validation of the Environmental Stratification of Estonia
Villoslada, Miguel ; Bunce, Robert G.H. ; Sepp, Kalev ; Jongman, Rob H.G. ; Metzger, Marc J. ; Kull, Tiiu ; Raet, Janar ; Kuusemets, Valdo ; Kull, Ain ; Leito, Aivar - \ 2017
Regional Environmental Change 17 (2017)2. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 335 - 349.
Climate - Clustering algorithm - Geomorphology - Monitoring - Stratified random sampling

Environmental stratifications provide the framework for efficient surveillance and monitoring of biodiversity and ecological resources, as well as modelling exercises. An obstacle for agricultural landscape monitoring in Estonia has been the lack of a framework for the objective selection of monitoring sites. This paper describes the construction and testing of the Environmental Stratification of Estonia (ESE). Principal components analysis was used to select the variables that capture the most amount of variation. Seven climate variables and topography were selected and subsequently subjected to the ISODATA clustering routine in order to produce relatively homogeneous environmental strata. The ESE contains eight strata, which have been described in terms of soil, land cover and climatic parameters. In order to assess the reliability of the stratification procedure for the selection of monitoring sites, the ESE was compared with the previous map of Landscape Regions of Estonia and correlated with five environmental data sets. All correlations were significant. The stratification has therefore already been used to extend the current series of samples in agricultural landscapes into a more statistically robust series of monitoring sites. The potential for applying climate change scenarios to assess the shifts in the strata and associated ecological impacts is also examined.

The VOLANTE Roadmap towards sustainable land resource management in Europe
Pedroli, G.B.M. ; Rounsevell, M. ; Metzger, M. ; Paterson, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - ISBN 9789462574076 - 24 p.
Visions of future land use in Europe; Stakeholder visions for 2040
Pérez-Soba, M. ; Paterson, J. ; Metzger, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR
Stakeholder integrated research (STIR): a new approach tested in climate change adaptation research
Gramberger, M. ; Zellmer, K. ; Kok, K. ; Metzger, M.J. - \ 2015
Climatic Change 128 (2015)3-4. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 201 - 214.
policy - engagement - knowledge - impacts - science
Ensuring active participation of stakeholders in scientific projects faces many challenges. These range from adequately selecting stakeholders, overcoming stakeholder fatigue, and dealing with the limited time available for stakeholder engagement, to interacting with, and integrating, the research itself. At the same time, stakeholder participation is seen as a key component in developing research results that are conclusive to political and societal decision-making, and conducive to practical application. This article puts forward the Stakeholder Integrated Research (STIR) approach, designed to address these challenges by proving a structured method for stakeholder engagement in research. An assessment of the stakeholder engagement process within the CLIMSAVE project, including evaluations by participating stakeholders, is used to illustrate the STIR approach, highlighting its value for improving stakeholder involvement within two case studies of a highly complex climate change adaptation project. In comparison to other approaches, STIR directly addresses major stakeholder engagement challenges and simultaneously covers new ground to provide an encompassing and structured approach for integrating stakeholder engagement in research. Further attention needs to be given to involving stakeholder in project set-up and over the course of multiple years, as well as to improving stakeholder-science data translation.
Rapid assessment of historic, current and future habitat quality for biodiversity around UK Natura 2000 sites
Vogiatzakis, I.N. ; Stirpe, M.T. ; Rickebusch, S. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Xu, G. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. ; Bommarco, R. ; Potts, S.G. - \ 2015
Environmental Conservation 42 (2015)1. - ISSN 0376-8929 - p. 31 - 40.
use change scenarios - land-use - aerial-photography - conservation - fragmentation - landscapes - dynamics - cover - area - grasslands
Changes in landscape composition and structure may impact the conservation and management of protected areas. Species that depend on specific habitats are at risk of extinction when these habitats are degraded or lost. Designing robust methods to evaluate landscape composition will assist decision- and policy-making in emerging landscapes. This paper describes a rapid assessment methodology aimed at evaluating land-cover quality for birds, plants, butterflies and bees around seven UK Natura 2000 sites. An expert panel assigned quality values to standard Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) land-cover classes for each taxonomic group. Quality was assessed based on historical (1950, 1990), current (2000) and future (2030) land-cover data, the last projected using three alternative scenarios: a growth-applied strategy (GRAS), a business-as-might-be-usual (BAMBU) scenario, and sustainable European development goal (SEDG) scenario. A quantitative quality index weighted the area of each land-cover parcel with a taxa-specific quality measure. Land parcels with high quality for all taxonomic groups were evaluated for temporal changes in area, size and adjacency. For all sites and taxonomic groups, the rate of deterioration of land-cover quality was greater between 1950 and 1990 than current rates or as modelled using the alternative future scenarios (2000–2030). Model predictions indicated land-cover quality stabilized over time under the GRAS scenario, and was close to stable for the BAMBU scenario. The SEDG scenario suggested an ongoing loss of quality, though this was lower than the historical rate of c. 1% loss per decade. None of the future scenarios showed accelerated fragmentation, but rather increases in the area, adjacency and diversity of high quality land parcels in the landscape.
A graphic novel based approach to large scale elicitation of normative future scenarios
Murray-Rust, D. ; Houtkamp, J.M. ; Metzger, M. ; Riviere, I.J. la; Perez-Soba, M. - \ 2014
Ecological Modernisation Theory: Where Do We Stand?
Mol, A.P.J. ; Spaargaren, G. ; Sonnenfeld, D.A. - \ 2014
In: Ökologische Modernisierung - Zur Geschichte und Gegenwart eines Konzepts in Umweltpolitik und Sozialwissenschaften / Bemmann, M., Metzger, B., von Detten, R., Frankfurt : Campus Verlag - ISBN 9783593500614 - p. 35 - 66.
Surveillance of habitats and plant diversity indicators across a regional gradient in the Iberian Peninsula
Ortega, M. ; Guerra, C. ; Honrado, J.P. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Jongman, R.H.G. - \ 2013
Ecological Indicators 33 (2013). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 36 - 44.
species richness - global biodiversity - europe - conservation - landscape - system - spain - edges
Located in the west of the Mediterranean and with high environmental heterogeneity, the Iberian Peninsula represents a challenging region for designing and implementing observation systems for landscape, habitat and species diversity indicators. Within the framework of a project designed to set up a European Biodiversity Observation Network (EBONE), a standardized protocol for field survey was used in pilot sites located across a major gradient in Portugal and Spain. Results are presented and compared to assess the efficiency of the method in detecting patterns along this gradient. These sites represent different types of Iberian landscapes selected using a stratified random procedure implemented in the Madrid province (Spain) and in the north of Portugal. Species and habitat richness and diversity (as well as their components) are compared in their relation to environmental gradients and survey area. Results from spatial analyses of landscape heterogeneity are also presented and discussed in relation to appropriate indicators. The implications for setting up cost-efficient observation schemes that capture the key indicators effectively are discussed. Perspectives for integration with complementary monitoring schemes targeted at key species, habitat and landscape indicators are also discussed in order to optimize the power and efficiency of these observation networks. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A high-resolution bioclimate map of the world: a unifying framework for global biodiversity research and monitoring
Metzger, M.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Sayre, R. ; Trabucco, A. ; Zomer, R. - \ 2013
Global Ecology and Biogeography 22 (2013)5. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 630 - 638.
conterminous united-states - climate-change - land classification - observing system - europe - stratification - ecoregions - impacts - regions - trends
Aim To develop a novel global spatial framework for the integration and analysis of ecological and environmental data. Location The global land surface excluding Antarctica. Methods A broad set of climate-related variables were considered for inclusion in a quantitative model, which partitions geographic space into bioclimate regions. Statistical screening produced a subset of relevant bioclimate variables, which were further compacted into fewer independent dimensions using principal components analysis (PCA). An ISODATA clustering routine was then used to classify the principal components into relatively homogeneous environmental strata. The strata were aggregated into global environmental zones based on the attribute distances between strata to provide structure and support a consistent nomenclature. Results The global environmental stratification (GEnS) consists of 125 strata, which have been aggregated into 18 global environmental zones. The stratification has a 30 arcsec resolution (equivalent to 0.86 km2 at the equator). Aggregations of the strata were compared with nine existing global, continental and national bioclimate and ecosystem classifications using the Kappa statistic. Values range between 0.54 and 0.72, indicating good agreement in bioclimate and ecosystem patterns between existing maps and the GEnS. Main conclusions The GEnS provides a robust spatial analytical framework for the aggregation of local observations, identification of gaps in current monitoring efforts and systematic design of complementary and new monitoring and research. The dataset is available for non-commercial use through the GEO portal (http://www.geoportal.org).
Combining qualitative and quantitative understanding for exploring cross-sectoral climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Europe.
Harrison, P.A. ; Holman, I.P. ; Cojocaru, G. ; Kok, K. ; Kontogianni, A. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Gramberger, M. - \ 2013
Regional Environmental Change 13 (2013)4. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 761 - 780.
global water-resources - agricultural land-use - north-west england - integrated assessment - east-anglia - model - scenarios - policy - scale - coastal
Abstract Climate change will affect all sectors of society and the environment at all scales, ranging from the continental to the national and local. Decision-makers and other interested citizens need to be able to access reliable science-based information to help them respond to the risks of climate change impacts and assess opportunities for adaptation. Participatory integrated assessment (IA) tools combine knowledge from diverse scientific disciplines, take account of the value and importance of stakeholder ‘lay insight’ and facilitate a two-way iterative process of exploration of ‘what if’s’ to enable decision-makers to test ideas and improve their understanding of the complex issues surrounding adaptation to climate change. This paper describes the conceptual design of a participatory IA tool, the CLIMSAVE IA Platform, based on a professionally facilitated stakeholder engagement process. The CLIMSAVE (climate change integrated methodology for cross-sectoral adaptation and vulnerability in Europe) Platform is a user-friendly, interactive web-based tool that allows stakeholders to assess climate change impacts and vulnerabilities for a range of sectors, including agriculture, forests, biodiversity, coasts, water resources and urban development. The linking of models for the different sectors enables stakeholders to see how their interactions could affect European landscape change. The relationship between choice, uncertainty and constraints is a key cross-cutting theme in the conduct of past participatory IA. Integrating scenario development processes with an interactive modelling platform is shown to allow the exploration of future uncertainty as a structural feature of such complex problems, encouraging stakeholders to explore adaptation choices within real-world constraints of future resource availability and environmental and institutional capacities, rather than seeking the ‘right’ answers.
A spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity to global change in Europe
Acosta, L. ; Klein, R.J.T. ; Reidsma, P. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. ; Leemans, R. - \ 2013
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 23 (2013)5. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 1211 - 1224.
klimaatverandering - scenario-analyse - modellen - klimaatadaptatie - europa - climatic change - scenario analysis - models - climate adaptation - europe - quantitative vulnerability assessment - fuzzy-set-theory - land-use change - climate-change - environmental-change - adaptation - indicators - growth - susceptibility - uncertainty
Traditional impact models combine exposure in the form of scenarios and sensitivity in the form of parameters, providing potential impacts of global change as model outputs. However, adaptive capacity is rarely addressed in these models. This paper presents the first spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity, which can be combined with impact models to support quantitative vulnerability assessment. The adaptive capacity model is based on twelve socio-economic indicators, each of which is projected into the future using four global environmental change scenarios, and then aggregated into an adaptive capacity index in a stepwise approach using fuzzy set theory
Environmental stratifications as the basis for national, European and global ecological monitoring
Metzger, M.J. ; Brus, D.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Carey, P.D. ; Goncalves, J. ; Honrado, J. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Trabucco, A. ; Zomer, R. - \ 2013
Ecological Indicators 33 (2013). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 26 - 35.
conterminous united-states - countryside survey - observing system - temporal trend - biodiversity - classification - design - earth - land - landscapes
There is growing urgency for integration and coordination of global environmental and ecological data and indicators required to respond to the ‘grand challenges’ the planet is facing, including climate change and biodiversity decline. A consistent stratification of land into relatively homogenous strata provides a valuable spatial framework for comparison and analysis of ecological and environmental data across large heterogeneous areas. We discuss how statistical stratification can be used to design national, European and global biodiversity observation networks. The value of strategic ecological survey based on stratified samples is first illustrated using the United Kingdom (UK) Countryside Survey, a national monitoring programme that has measured ecological change in the UK countryside for the last 35 years. We then present a design for a European-wide sampling design for monitoring common habitats, and discuss ways of extending these approaches globally, supported by the recently developed Global Environmental Stratification. The latter provides a robust spatial analytical framework for the identification of gaps in current monitoring efforts, and systematic design of new complementary monitoring and research. Examples from Portugal and the transboundary Kailash Sacred Landscape in the Himalayas illustrate the potential use of this stratification, which has been identified as a focal geospatial dataset within the Group on Earth Observation Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON).
Distinct cell wall architectures in seed endosperms in representatives of the brassicaceae and solanaceae
Lee, K.J.D. ; Dekkers, S.J.W. ; Steinbercher, T. ; Walsh, C.T. ; Bacic, T. ; Bentsink, L. ; Leubner-Metzger, G. ; Knox, J.P. - \ 2012
Plant Physiology 160 (2012)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1551 - 1566.
cellulose synthase-like - hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein - arabidopsis-thaliana - abscisic-acid - lepidium-sativum - micropylar endosperm - monoclonal-antibody - elongation growth - hydroxyl radicals - mannanase activity
In some species, a crucial role has been demonstrated for the seed endosperm during germination. The endosperm has been shown to integrate environmental cues with hormonal networks that underpin dormancy and seed germination, a process that involves the action of cell wall remodeling enzymes (CWREs). Here, we examine the cell wall architectures of the endosperms of two related Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the close relative Lepidium (Lepidium sativum), and that of the Solanaceous species, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The Brassicaceae species have a similar cell wall architecture that is rich in pectic homogalacturonan, arabinan, and xyloglucan. Distinctive features of the tobacco endosperm that are absent in the Brassicaceae representatives are major tissue asymmetries in cell wall structural components that reflect the future site of radicle emergence and abundant heteromannan. Cell wall architecture of the micropylar endosperm of tobacco seeds has structural components similar to those seen in Arabidopsis and Lepidium endosperms. In situ and biomechanical analyses were used to study changes in endosperms during seed germination and suggest a role for mannan degradation in tobacco. In the case of the Brassicaceae representatives, the structurally homogeneous cell walls of the endosperm can be acted on by spatially regulated CWRE expression. Genetic manipulations of cell wall components present in the Arabidopsis seed endosperm demonstrate the impact of cell wall architectural changes on germination kinetics.
Sampling efficiency of national, EU and global stratifications : exploring by using CL2000
Metzger, M.J. ; Brus, D.J. ; Ortega, M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2279) - 26
bemonsteren - statistiek - landclassificatie - terrestrische ecosystemen - sampling - statistics - land classification - terrestrial ecosystems
Stratification, dividing the statistical population into less heterogeneous subgroups before sampling, can help improve sampling efficiency by improving representativeness and reducing sampling error. This report explores the added sampling efficiency that is achieved by using the European Environmental stratification for estimating the area covered by the 25 Corine Land Cover (CLC) categories occurring in the semi-natural and managed terrestrial habitats of the wider-countryside. Although the dataset is not ideally suited to assess stratification efficiency for EBONE, the results give some encouragement. The analysis indicates that the pan-European stratification improves sampling efficiency for several land cover categories and performs similar to four more detailed national stratifications, supporting their use as a basis for designing a pan-European biodiversity observation network.
Descriptions of the European environmental zones and strata
Metzger, M.J. ; Shkaruba, A.D. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Bunce, R.G.H. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2281) - 152
klimaatzones - bodem - vegetatie - geologie - zonering - classificatie - europa - climatic zones - soil - vegetation - geology - zoning - classification - europe
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