Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Towards valuation of biodiversity in agricultural soils : A case for earthworms
Plaas, Elke ; Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike ; Banse, Martin ; Bengtsson, Jan ; Bergmann, Holger ; Faber, Jack ; Potthoff, Martin ; Runge, Tania ; Schrader, Stefan ; Taylor, Astrid - \ 2019
Ecological Economics 159 (2019). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 291 - 300.
Economic value - Ecosystem engineers - Ecosystem services - Soil biodiversity - Soil management practices - Sustainability

Soil biodiversity is deteriorating in Europe due to an on-going intensification of agriculture, climate change and food production supporting measures of the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Nevertheless, the CAP tries to take biodiversity into account via proposing a range of agri-environmental measures. These ES contribute to food security, climate change mitigation, water retention and plant biomass growth. Healthy soils also help to prevent erosion, desertification, and landslides and to stabilise crop yields. The provision of ES by soil biota is a result of their impact on soil processes in interaction with soil conditions as well as soil management practices of the farmers such as tillage or crop rotations. Some taxa amongst soil biota play key roles in regulating soil processes. With respect to biocontrol of soil-borne pests, the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris is known to play an important role in suppressing toxigenic plant pathogens, such as Fusarium culmorum and its mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). We highlight the importance of earthworms for pest control to conceptualise and show how farmers’ management practices influence soil ecosystem services and outline how this can be examined in a socio-ecological context by providing a concrete example of an economical evaluation of ES provided by earthworms.

Input Selection of Wavelet-Coupled Neural Network Models for Rainfall-Runoff Modelling
Shoaib, Muhammad ; Shamseldin, Asaad Y. ; Khan, Sher ; Sultan, Muhammad ; Ahmad, Fiaz ; Sultan, Tahir ; Dahri, Zakir Hussain ; Ali, Irfan - \ 2019
Water Resources Management 33 (2019)3. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 955 - 973.
Artificial neural network - Discrete wavelet transformation - Rainfall-runoff modelling - Wavelet sub-series

The use of wavelet-coupled data-driven models is increasing in the field of hydrological modelling. However, wavelet-coupled artificial neural network (ANN) models inherit the disadvantages of containing more complex structure and enhanced simulation time as a result of use of increased multiple input sub-series obtained by the wavelet transformation (WT). So, the identification of dominant wavelet sub-series containing significant information regarding the hydrological system and subsequent use of those dominant sub-series only as input is crucial for the development of wavelet-coupled ANN models. This study is therefore conducted to evaluate various approaches for selection of dominant wavelet sub-series and their effect on other critical issues of suitable wavelet function, decomposition level and input vector for the development of wavelet-coupled rainfall-runoff models. Four different approaches to identify dominant wavelet sub-series, ten different wavelet functions, nine decomposition levels, and five different input vectors are considered in the present study. Out of four tested approaches, the study advocates the use of relative weight analysis (RWA) for the selection of dominant input wavelet sub-series in the development of wavelet-coupled models. The db8 and the dmey (Discrete approximation of Meyer) wavelet functions at level nine were found to provide the best performance with the RWA approach.

Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of moniliformin in food and feed
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Naegeli, Hanspeter ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Eskola, Mari ; Manen, Mathijs van; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)3. - ISSN 1831-4732
Moniliformin (MON) is a mycotoxin with low molecular weight primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Following a request of the European Commission, the CONTAM Panel assessed the risk of MON to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. The limited information available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals indicated haematotoxicity and cardiotoxicity as major adverse health effects of MON. MON causes chromosome aberrations in vitro but no in vivo genotoxicity data and no carcinogenicity data were identified. Due to the limitations in the available toxicity data, human acute or chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) could not be established. The margin of exposure (MOE) between the no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 6.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) for cardiotoxicity from a subacute study in rats and the acute upper bound (UB) dietary exposure estimates ranged between 4,000 and 73,000. The MOE between the lowest benchmark dose lower confidence limit (for a 5% response ‐ BMDL05) of 0.20 mg MON/kg bw per day for haematological hazards from a 28‐day study in pigs and the chronic dietary human exposure estimates ranged between 370 and 5,000,000 for chronic dietary exposures. These MOEs indicate a low risk for human health but were associated with high uncertainty. The toxicity data available for poultry, pigs, and mink indicated a low or even negligible risk for these animals from exposure to MON in feed at the estimated exposure levels under current feeding practices. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity as for pigs, the CONTAM Panel considered a low or even negligible risk for the other animal species for which no toxicity data suitable for hazard characterisation were identified. Additional toxicity studies are needed and depending on their outcome, the collection of more occurrence data on MON in food and feed is recommended to enable a comprehensive human risk assessment.
Risk to human and animal health related to the presence of 4,15‐diacetoxyscirpenol in food and feed
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Levorato, Sara ; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)8. - ISSN 1831-4732
4,15‐Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. As requested by the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) assessed the risk of DAS to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. Very limited information was available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals. Due to the limitations in the available data set, human acute and chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) were established based on data obtained in clinical trials of DAS as an anticancer agent (anguidine) after intravenous administration to cancer patients. The CONTAM Panel considered these data as informative for the hazard characterisation of DAS after oral exposure. The main adverse effects after acute and repeated exposure were emesis, with a no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 32 μg DAS/kg body weight (bw), and haematotoxicity, with a NOAEL of 65 μg DAS/kg bw, respectively. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 3.2 μg DAS/kg bw and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.65 μg DAS/kg bw were established. Based on over 15,000 occurrence data, the highest acute and chronic dietary exposures were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.49 μg DAS/kg bw per day, respectively, and were not of health concern for humans. The limited information for poultry, pigs and dogs indicated a low risk for these animals at the estimated DAS exposure levels under current feeding practices, with the possible exception of fattening chicken. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity than for poultry, the risk was considered overall low for other farm and companion animal species for which no toxicity data were available. In consideration of the similarities of several trichothecenes and the likelihood of co‐exposure via food and feed, it could be appropriate to perform a cumulative risk assessment for this group of substances.
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 contributes to freezing tolerance
Arisz, Steven A. ; Heo, Jae-Yun ; Koevoets, Iko Tamar ; Zhao, Tao ; Egmond, Pieter van; Meyer, Jessica ; Zeng, Weiqing ; Niu, Xiaomu ; Wang, Baosheng ; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas ; Schranz, M.E. ; Testerink, Christa - \ 2018
Plant Physiology 177 (2018)4. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1410 - 1424.
Freezing limits plant growth and crop productivity, and plant species in temperate zones have the capacity to develop freezing tolerance through complex modulation of gene expression affecting various aspects of metabolism and physiology. While many components of freezing tolerance have been identified in model species under controlled laboratory conditions, little is known about the mechanisms that impart freezing tolerance in natural populations of wild species. Here, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study of acclimated freezing tolerance in seedlings of Boechera stricta, a highly adapted relative of Arabidopsis thaliana native to the Rocky Mountains. A single QTL was identified that contained the gene encoding ACYL-COA:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE 1 (BstDGAT1), whose expression is highly cold responsive. The primary metabolic enzyme DGAT1 catalyzes the final step in assembly of triacylglycerol (TAG) by acyl transfer from acyl-CoA to diacylglycerol. Freezing tolerant plants showed higher DGAT1 expression during cold acclimation than more sensitive plants and this resulted in increased accumulation of TAG in response to subsequent freezing. Levels of oligogalactolipids which are produced by SFR2 (SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2), an indispensable element of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis, were also higher in freezing tolerant plants. Furthermore, overexpression of AtDGAT1 led to increased freezing tolerance. We propose that DGAT1 confers freezing tolerance in plants by supporting SFR2-mediated remodeling of chloroplast membranes.
Identification of Chaoborus kairomone chemicals that induce defences in Daphnia
Weiss, Linda C. ; Albada, Bauke ; Becker, Sina M. ; Meckelmann, Sven W. ; Klein, Julia ; Meyer, Martin ; Schmitz, Oliver J. ; Sommer, Ulf ; Leo, Markus ; Zagermann, Johannes ; Metzler-Nolte, Nils ; Tollrian, Ralph - \ 2018
Nature Chemical Biology 14 (2018). - ISSN 1552-4450 - p. 1133 - 1139.

Infochemicals play important roles in aquatic ecosystems. They even modify food web interactions, such as by inducing defenses in prey. In one classic but still not fully understood example, the planktonic freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex forms specific morphological defenses (neckteeth) induced by chemical cues (kairomones) released from its predator, the phantom midge larva Chaoborus. On the basis of liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical synthesis, we report here the chemical identity of the Chaoborus kairomone. The biologically active cues consist of fatty acids conjugated to the amino group of glutamine via the N terminus. These cues are involved in Chaoborus digestive processes, which explains why they are consistently released despite the disadvantage for its emitter. The identification of the kairomone may allow in-depth studies on multiple aspects of this inducible defense system.

Carbon storage potential in degraded forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia
Ferraz, António ; Saatchi, Sassan ; Xu, Liang ; Hagen, Stephen ; Chave, Jerome ; Yu, Yifan ; Meyer, Victoria ; Garcia, Mariano ; Silva, Carlos ; Roswintiart, Orbita ; Samboko, Ari ; Sist, Plinio ; Walker, Sarah ; Pearson, Timothy R.H. ; Wijaya, Arief ; Sullivan, Franklin B. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Hoekman, Dirk ; Ganguly, Sangram - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
aboveground biomass mapping - airborne lidar - carbon - forest degradation - Indonesia - Kalimantan - peat swamp forests

The forests of Kalimantan are under severe pressure from extensive land use activities dominated by logging, palm oil plantations, and peatland fires. To implement the forest moratorium for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia's government requires information on the carbon stored in forests, including intact, degraded, secondary, and peat swamp forests. We developed a hybrid approach of producing a wall-to-wall map of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of intact and degraded forests of Kalimantan at 1 ha grid cells by combining field inventory plots, airborne lidar samples, and satellite radar and optical imagery. More than 110 000 ha of lidar data were acquired to systematically capture variations of forest structure and more than 104 field plots to develop lidar-biomass models. The lidar measurements were converted into biomass using models developed for 66 439 ha of drylands and 44 250 ha of wetland forests. By combining the AGB map with the national land cover map, we found that 22.3 Mha (106 ha) of forest remain on drylands ranging in biomass from 357.2 ±12.3 Mgha-1 in relatively intact forests to 134.2 ±6.1 Mgha-1 in severely degraded forests. The remaining peat swamp forests are heterogeneous in coverage and degradation level, extending over 3.62 Mha and having an average AGB of 211.8 ±12.7 Mgha-1. Emission factors calculated from aboveground biomass only suggest that the carbon storage potential of more than 15 Mha of degraded and secondary dryland forests will be about 1.1 PgC.

Global DNA Compaction in Stationary-Phase Bacteria Does Not Affect Transcription
Janissen, Richard ; Arens, Mathia M.A. ; Vtyurina, Natalia N. ; Rivai, Zaïda ; Sunday, Nicholas D. ; Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz ; Gritsenko, Alexey A. ; Laan, Liedewij ; Ridder, Dick de; Artsimovitch, Irina ; Dekker, Nynke H. ; Abbondanzieri, Elio A. ; Meyer, Anne S. - \ 2018
Cell 174 (2018)5. - ISSN 0092-8674 - p. 1188 - 1199.e14.
DNA condensation - Dps - magnetic tweezers - nucleoid - RNA polymerase - single-molecule biophysics - stationary phase - stress response - transcription

In stationary-phase Escherichia coli, Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells) is the most abundant protein component of the nucleoid. Dps compacts DNA into a dense complex and protects it from damage. Dps has also been proposed to act as a global regulator of transcription. Here, we directly examine the impact of Dps-induced compaction of DNA on the activity of RNA polymerase (RNAP). Strikingly, deleting the dps gene decompacted the nucleoid but did not significantly alter the transcriptome and only mildly altered the proteome during stationary phase. Complementary in vitro assays demonstrated that Dps blocks restriction endonucleases but not RNAP from binding DNA. Single-molecule assays demonstrated that Dps dynamically condenses DNA around elongating RNAP without impeding its progress. We conclude that Dps forms a dynamic structure that excludes some DNA-binding proteins yet allows RNAP free access to the buried genes, a behavior characteristic of phase-separated organelles. Despite markedly condensing the bacterial chromosome, the nucleoid-structuring protein Dps selectively allows access by RNA polymerase and transcription factors at normal rates while excluding other factors such as restriction endonucleases.

Agent-based modelling of socio-ecological systems : Models, projects and ontologies
Gotts, Nicholas M. ; Voorn, George A.K. van; Polhill, J.G. ; Jong, Eline de; Edmonds, Bruce ; Hofstede, Gert Jan ; Meyer, Ruth - \ 2018
Ecological Complexity (2018). - ISSN 1476-945X - 15 p.
Agent-based model - Complexity - Ontology - Socio-ecological system

Socio-Ecological Systems (SESs) are the systems in which our everyday lives are embedded, so understanding them is important. The complex properties of such systems make modelling an indispensable tool for their description and analysis. Human actors play a pivotal role in SESs, but their interactions with each other and their environment are often underrepresented in SES modelling. We argue that more attention should be given to social aspects in models of SESs, but this entails additional kinds of complexity. Modelling choices need to be as transparent as possible, and to be based on analysis of the purposes and limitations of modelling. We recommend thinking in terms of modelling projects rather than single models. Such a project may involve multiple models adopting different modelling methods. We argue that agent-based models (ABMs) are an essential tool in an SES modelling project, but their expressivity, which is their major advantage, also produces problems with model transparency and validation. We propose the use of formal ontologies to make the structure and meaning of models as explicit as possible, facilitating model design, implementation, assessment, comparison and extension.

Multiple facets of biodiversity drive the diversity–stability relationship
Craven, Dylan ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Pearse, William D. ; Hautier, Yann ; Isbell, Forest ; Roscher, Christiane ; Bahn, Michael ; Beierkuhnlein, Carl ; Bönisch, Gerhard ; Buchmann, Nina ; Byun, Chaeho ; Catford, Jane A. ; Cerabolini, Bruno E.L. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Craine, Joseph M. ; Luca, Enrica De; Ebeling, Anne ; Griffin, John N. ; Hector, Andy ; Hines, Jes ; Jentsch, Anke ; Kattge, Jens ; Kreyling, Jürgen ; Lanta, Vojtech ; Lemoine, Nathan ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Minden, Vanessa ; Onipchenko, Vladimir ; Polley, H.W. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Schamp, Brandon ; Smith, Melinda D. ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Tilman, David ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Wilsey, Brian ; Manning, Peter - \ 2018
Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1579 - 1587.

A substantial body of evidence has demonstrated that biodiversity stabilizes ecosystem functioning over time in grassland ecosystems. However, the relative importance of different facets of biodiversity underlying the diversity–stability relationship remains unclear. Here we use data from 39 grassland biodiversity experiments and structural equation modelling to investigate the roles of species richness, phylogenetic diversity and both the diversity and community-weighted mean of functional traits representing the ‘fast–slow’ leaf economics spectrum in driving the diversity–stability relationship. We found that high species richness and phylogenetic diversity stabilize biomass production via enhanced asynchrony in the performance of co-occurring species. Contrary to expectations, low phylogenetic diversity enhances ecosystem stability directly, albeit weakly. While the diversity of fast–slow functional traits has a weak effect on ecosystem stability, communities dominated by slow species enhance ecosystem stability by increasing mean biomass production relative to the standard deviation of biomass over time. Our in-depth, integrative assessment of factors influencing the diversity–stability relationship demonstrates a more multicausal relationship than has been previously acknowledged.

Influence of seed size on performance of non-native annual plant species in a novel community at two planting densities
Radny, Janina ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Tielbörger, Katja ; Meyer, Katrin M. - \ 2018
Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 92 (2018). - ISSN 1146-609X - p. 131 - 137.
Biotic interactions - Competition - Exotic species - Greenhouse - Plant size - Range expansion

Climate warming enables plant species to migrate to higher latitudes and altitudes. Within Europe, the Mediterranean harbours many species that might expand their ranges towards Western Europe. Small seed size may facilitate dispersal, however, it may impair establishment of the range-expanding plant species in the novel vegetation. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined effects of average seed size of Mediterranean plant species on their establishment in a mixed community of Western European plant species. Applying two levels of densities of the natives and a herbivory treatment, we tested how seed size is linked to response in plant growth and fitness in novel vegetation. While all non-native plant species showed a negative response to increased planting density, species with small seeds showed a less negative response. This effect persisted under herbivory. Our data suggest that small-seeded non-native plant species may tolerate competitive pressure from novel plant communities better than large-seeded species, so that small seed size may confer a higher probability of establishment of non-native species in novel communities.

Interregional flows of ecosystem services : Concepts, typology and four cases
Schröter, Matthias ; Koellner, Thomas ; Alkemade, Rob ; Arnhold, Sebastian ; Bagstad, Kenneth J. ; Erb, Karl Heinz ; Frank, Karin ; Kastner, Thomas ; Kissinger, Meidad ; Liu, Jianguo ; López-Hoffman, Laura ; Maes, Joachim ; Marques, Alexandra ; Martín-López, Berta ; Meyer, Carsten ; Schulp, Catharina J.E. ; Thober, Jule ; Wolff, Sarah ; Bonn, Aletta - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 31 (2018). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 231 - 241.
Drivers - Effects - Spatial flows - Sustainability - Teleconnection - Telecoupling
Conserving and managing global natural capital requires an understanding of the complexity of flows of ecosystem services across geographic boundaries. Failing to understand and to incorporate these flows into national and international ecosystem assessments leads to incomplete and potentially skewed conclusions, impairing society's ability to identify sustainable management and policy choices. In this paper, we synthesise existing knowledge and develop a conceptual framework for analysing interregional ecosystem service flows. We synthesise the types of such flows, the characteristics of sending and receiving socio-ecological systems, and the impacts of ecosystem service flows on interregional sustainability. Using four cases (trade of certified coffee, migration of northern pintails, flood protection in the Danube watershed, and information on giant pandas), we test the conceptual framework and show how an enhanced understanding of interregional telecouplings in socio-ecological systems can inform ecosystem service-based decision making and governance with respect to sustainability goals.
Reduced specificity of Erns antibody ELISAs for samples from piglets with maternally derived antibodies induced by vaccination of sows with classical swine fever marker vaccine CP7_E2alf
Meyer, D. ; Loeffen, W. ; Postel, A. ; Fritsche, S. ; Becher, P. - \ 2018
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2018)2. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. e505 - e508.
classical swine fever virus - CP7_E2alf - DIVA assay - E antibody ELISA - marker vaccine - maternally derived antibodies
Successful implementation of marker vaccines against classical swine fever virus is dependent on a reliable accompanying diagnostic assay that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) as well as the development of a testing scheme during emergency vaccination. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to breeding farms, because the offspring of marker vaccinated sows possess maternally derived antibodies (MDAs). So far, limited information is available on the influence of MDAs on serological testing in the context of a DIVA strategy. Therefore, two commercially available Erns antibody ELISAs were compared, using serum samples of piglets with a high-to-moderate titre of MDAs against marker vaccine CP7_E2alf. False-positive results were detected by both Erns antibody ELISAs for serum samples of piglets with an age of up to 4 weeks. Interestingly, most samples tested false-positive in the first Erns antibody ELISA were identified correctly by the other Erns antibody ELISA and vice versa. In conclusion, in case of emergency vaccination of sows, the specificity of both ELISAs in newborn piglets younger than 4 weeks may be relatively low. This could be addressed in a testing strategy by either not sampling piglets up to the age of 4 weeks or using both ELISAs in a screening-confirmation set-up.
The efficacy of daily snack replacement with oligofructose-enriched granola bars in overweight and obese adults : a 12-week randomised controlled trial
Pol, Korrie ; Graaf, Cees de; Meyer, Diederick ; Mars, Monica - \ 2018
The British journal of nutrition 119 (2018)9. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1076 - 1086.
Body composition - Dietary supplements - Food intake - Inulin-type fructan - Obesity - Oligofructose - Overweight - Satiety
Oligofructose is a prebiotic dietary fibre obtained from chicory root inulin. Oligofructose supplementation may affect satiety, food intake, body weight and/or body composition. The aim was to examine the efficacy of oligofructose-supplemented granola bars on the following weight management outcomes: satiety, energy intake, body weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. In all, fifty-five adults with overweight or obesity (thirty-six females/nineteen males; age: 41 (sd 12) years; 90·6 (sd 11·8) kg; BMI: 29·4 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) participated in a parallel, triple-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A total of twenty-nine subjects replaced their snacks twice a day with an equienergetic granola bar supplemented with 8 g of oligofructose (OF-Bar). Subjects in the control group (n 26) replaced their snack with a control granola bar without added oligofructose (Co-Bar). Satiety, 24-h energy intake, body weight and body composition (fat mass and waist circumference) were measured at baseline, weeks 6 and 12. In addition, weekly appetite and gastrointestinal side effects were measured. During the intervention, energy intake, body weight and fat mass remained similar in the Co-Bar and OF-Bar groups (all P>0·05). Both groups lost 0·3 (sd 1·2) kg lean mass (P<0·01) and reduced their waist circumference with −2·2 (sd 3·6) cm (P<0·0001) after 12 weeks. The OF-Bar group reported decreased hunger in later weeks of the intervention (P=0·04), less prospective food consumption (P=0·03) and less thirst (P=0·003). To conclude, replacing daily snacks for 12 weeks with oligofructose-supplemented granola bars does not differentially affect energy intake, body weight and body composition compared with a control bar. However, there was an indication that appetite was lower after oligofructose bar consumption.
Deriving spatially explicit water uses from land use change modelling results in four river basins across Europe
Huber García, Verena ; Meyer, Swen ; Kok, Kasper ; Verweij, Peter ; Ludwig, Ralf - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 628-629 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1079 - 1097.
change detection - iCLUE model - irrigation - land use model - River Basin Management Plan - water scarcity
The objective of this study is to provide spatially distributed water use maps at a high spatial and thematic resolution as detailed input data for further modelling purposes. The maps were derived on the basis of official water statistics and land use maps to represent the current conditions in four European river basins affected by water scarcity (Adige, Ebro, Evrotas and Sava) and allow setting up reference scenarios. The present land use distribution was modelled based on CORINE data with the land use change model iCLUE. Modelling the land use allows to create dynamic land and water use maps adapted to the needs of eventual scenario analyses compared to using only observed land use maps. The availability of several CORINE datasets allowed calibrating and validating the results of the iCLUE model carrying out a three map comparison. Sectoral water uses were attributed to different land use classes and by this means located in space. Both the location and the magnitude of urban and agricultural water uses can be derived from the final maps. The created maps together with the corresponding land use data provide a coherent set of information crucial to most environmental modelling activities and often missing at this spatial and thematic resolution. This work also aims at visualizing and validating the water use statistics provided by official institutions such as the River Basin Management Plans. The results show that in some cases they are not consistent and underline the importance of harmonised data collection regarding water statistics, as otherwise comparisons within one study area and with others are hampered. This study is embedded in the EU-FP7 GLOBAQUA project which analyses the effects of stressors, such as changes of land and water use, on aquatic ecosystems in areas suffering water scarcity.
Communicatielessen uit 40 jaar Plak ervaring : Zelfsturing zorgt voor grote betrokkenheid en creatieve denkkracht
Aarts, M.N.C. ; Meyer, M. - \ 2017
Communicatie (2017)4. - ISSN 0771-7342 - p. 36 - 39.
Het succes van zelfsturende organisaties is jaloersmakend – kijk naar Semco SA of, dichter bij huis, Café de Plak in Nijmegen. Noelle Aarts en Michael Meyer hebben er beiden gewerkt. De kiem van hun denken over interne communicatie ligt in hun ervaring met dat collectief.
Prebiotic potential of pectin and pectic oligosaccharides to promote anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in the human colon
Chung, Wing Sun Faith ; Meijerink, Marjolein ; Zeuner, Birgitte ; Holck, Jesper ; Louis, Petra ; Meyer, Anne S. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Flint, Harry J. ; Duncan, Sylvia H. - \ 2017
FEMS microbiology ecology 93 (2017)11. - ISSN 0168-6496
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron - Eubacterium eligens - Faecalibacterium prausnitzii - Firmicutes - glycosyl hydrolase - pectate lyase
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilise pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. Eubacterium eligens DSM3376 utilises apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively. We confirmed that certain Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strains possess some ability to utilise apple pectin and report here that F. prausnitzii strains in common with E. eligens can utilise the galacturonide oligosaccharides DP4 and DP5 derived from sugar beet pectin. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strains have been shown previously to exert anti-inflammatory effects on host cells, but we show here for the first time that E. eligens strongly promotes the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in in vitro cell-based assays. These findings suggest the potential to explore further the prebiotic potential of pectin and its derivatives to re-balance the microbiota towards an anti-inflammatory profile.
Scientific opinion: Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated and modified forms in food and feed
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Naegeli, Hanspeter ; Parent-Massin, Dominique ; Rietjens, Ivonne ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Eskola, Mari ; Gergelova, Petra ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Benkova, Bistra ; Dörr, Barbara ; Gkrillas, Athanasios ; Gustavsson, Nicklas ; Manen, Mathijs Van; Edler, Lutz - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)9. - ISSN 1831-4732
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Following the request of the European Commission, the CONTAM Panel assessed the risk to animal and human health related to DON, 3-acetyl-DON (3-Ac-DON), 15-acetyl-DON (15-Ac-DON) and DON-3-glucoside in food and feed. A total of 27,537, 13,892, 7,270 and 2,266 analytical data for DON, 3-Ac-DON, 15-Ac-DON and DON-3-glucoside, respectively, in food, feed and unprocessed grains collected from 2007 to 2014 were used. For human exposure, grains and grain-based products were main sources, whereas in farm and companion animals, cereal grains, cereal by-products and forage maize contributed most. DON is rapidly absorbed, distributed, and excreted. Since 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON are largely deacetylated and DON-3-glucoside cleaved in the intestines the same toxic effects as DON can be expected. The TDI of 1 μg/kg bw per day, that was established for DON based on reduced body weight gain in mice, was therefore used as a group-TDI for the sum of DON, 3-Ac-DON, 15-Ac-DON and DON-3-glucoside. In order to assess acute human health risk, epidemiological data from mycotoxicoses were assessed and a group-ARfD of 8 μg/kg bw per eating occasion was calculated. Estimates of acute dietary exposures were below this dose and did not raise a health concern in humans. The estimated mean chronic dietary exposure was above the group-TDI in infants, toddlers and other children, and at high exposure also in adolescents and adults, indicating a potential health concern. Based on estimated mean dietary concentrations in ruminants, poultry, rabbits, dogs and cats, most farmed fish species and horses, adverse effects are not expected. At the high dietary concentrations, there is a potential risk for chronic adverse effects in pigs and fish and for acute adverse effects in cats and farmed mink.
SIEVE ELEMENT-LINING CHAPERONE1 restricts aphid feeding on arabidopsis during heat stress
Kloth, Karen J. ; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline ; Wiegers, Gerrie L. ; Kruijer, Willem ; Buijs, Gonda ; Meyer, Rhonda C. ; Albrectsen, Benedicte R. ; Bouwmeester, Harro J. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Jongsma, Maarten A. - \ 2017
The Plant Cell 29 (2017)10. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 2450 - 2464.
The role of phloem proteins in plant resistance to aphids is still largely elusive. By genome-wide association mapping of aphid behavior on 350 natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified the small heat shock-like SIEVE ELEMENT-LINING CHAPERONE1 (SLI1). Detailed behavioral studies on near-isogenic and knockout lines showed that SLI1 impairs phloem feeding. Depending on the haplotype, aphids displayed a different duration of salivation in the phloem. On sli1 mutants, aphids prolonged their feeding sessions and ingested phloem at a higher rate than on wild-type plants. The largest phenotypic effects were observed at 26°C, when SLI1 expression is upregulated. At this moderately high temperature, sli1 mutants suffered from retarded elongation of the inflorescence and impaired silique development. Fluorescent reporter fusions showed that SLI1 is confined to the margins of sieve elements where it lines the parietal layer and colocalizes in spherical bodies around mitochondria. This localization pattern is reminiscent of the clamp-like structures observed in previous ultrastructural studies of the phloem and shows that the parietal phloem layer plays an important role in plant resistance to aphids and heat stress.
Multiscale scenarios for nature futures
Rosa, Isabel M.D. ; Pereira, Henrique Miguel ; Ferrier, Simon ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Acosta, Lilibeth A. ; Resit Akcakaya, H. ; Belder, E. den; Fazel, Asghar M. ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Harfoot, Mike ; Harhash, Khaled A. ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Hauck, Jennifer ; Hendriks, Rob J.J. ; Hernández, Gladys ; Jetz, Walter ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Kim, Hyejin ; King, Nicholas ; Kok, Marcel ; Kolomytsev, Grygoriy O. ; Lazarova, Tanya ; Leadley, Paul ; Lundquist, Carolyn J. ; García Márquez, Jaime ; Meyer, Carsten ; Navarro, Laetitia M. ; Nesshöver, Carsten ; Ngo, Hien T. ; Ninan, Karachepone N. ; Palomo, Maria G. ; Pereira, Laura ; Peterson, G.D. ; Pichs, Ramon ; Popp, Alexander ; Purvis, Andy ; Ravera, Federica ; Rondinini, Carlo ; Sathyapalan, Jyothis ; Schipper, Aafke ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Settele, Josef ; Sitas, Nadia ; Vuuren, D. van - \ 2017
Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 (2017)10. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1416 - 1419.
Targets for human development are increasingly connected with targets for nature, however, existing scenarios do not explicitly address this relationship. Here, we outline a strategy to generate scenarios centred on our relationship
with nature to inform decision-making at multiple scales.
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