Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Methane budget estimates in Finland from the CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 data assimilation system
Tsuruta, Aki ; Aalto, Tuula ; Backman, Leif ; Krol, Maarten C. ; Peters, Wouter ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Joos, Fortunat ; Miller, Paul A. ; Zhang, Wenxin ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Hatakka, Juha ; Leskinen, Ari ; Lehtinen, Kari E.J. ; Peltola, Olli ; Vesala, Timo ; Levula, Janne ; Dlugokencky, Ed ; Heimann, Martin ; Kozlova, Elena ; Aurela, Mika ; Lohila, Annalea ; Kauhaniemi, Mari ; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J. - \ 2019
Tellus Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology (2019). - ISSN 0280-6509 - 21 p.
atmospheric CH - CH flux - data assimilation - Finland - flux estimation

We estimated the CH4 budget in Finland for 2004–2014 using the CTE-CH4 data assimilation system with an extended atmospheric CH4 observation network of seven sites from Finland to surrounding regions (Hyytiälä, Kjølnes, Kumpula, Pallas, Puijo, Sodankylä, and Utö). The estimated average annual total emission for Finland is 0.6 ± 0.5 Tg CH4 yr−1. Sensitivity experiments show that the posterior biospheric emission estimates for Finland are between 0.3 and 0.9 Tg CH4 yr−1, which lies between the LPX-Bern-DYPTOP (0.2 Tg CH4 yr−1) and LPJG-WHyMe (2.2 Tg CH4 yr−1) process-based model estimates. For anthropogenic emissions, we found that the EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory (0.4 Tg CH4 yr−1) is likely to overestimate emissions in southernmost Finland, but the extent of overestimation and possible relocation of emissions are difficult to derive from the current observation network. The posterior emission estimates were especially reliant on prior information in central Finland. However, based on analysis of posterior atmospheric CH4, we found that the anthropogenic emission distribution based on a national inventory is more reliable than the one based on EDGAR v4.2 FT2010. The contribution of total emissions in Finland to global total emissions is only about 0.13%, and the derived total emissions in Finland showed no trend during 2004–2014. The model using optimized emissions was able to reproduce observed atmospheric CH4 at the sites in Finland and surrounding regions fairly well (correlation > 0.75, bias < ± ppb), supporting adequacy of the observations to be used in atmospheric inversion studies. In addition to global budget estimates, we found that CTE-CH4 is also applicable for regional budget estimates, where small scale (1x1 in this case) optimization is possible with a dense observation network.

The Glycaemic Index-Food-Frequency Questionnaire: Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Estimate the Dietary Intake of Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load : An Effort by the PREVIEW Consortium
Brouwer, E.M. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Sluik, D. ; Wiel, A.M. van de; Raben, Anne ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 2072-6643
Dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) are indices used to quantify the effect of carbohydrate quality and quantity on postprandial glycaemia. GI/GL-health associations are widely studied but data on the validity of integrated GI/GL measurements are scarce. We evaluated the performance of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically developed to assess GI/GL. In total, 263 Dutch men and 212 women (aged 55 ± 11 years) completed a 58-item GI-FFQ, an 183-item general-FFQ and a 2-day 24 h-recall and donated blood for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) determination. The level of agreement between these methods was evaluated by (1) cross-classification, (2) correlations and (3) Bland and Altman plots. The three dietary assessment methods provided comparable mean intake estimates for total carbohydrates (range: 214–237 g/day), mono/disaccharides (100–107 g/day), polysaccharides (114–132 g/day), as well as bread, breakfast cereals, potatoes, pasta, rice, fruit, dairy, cakes/cookies and sweets. Mean (±SD) GI estimates were also comparable between the GI-FFQ (54 ± 3), general-FFQ (53 ± 4) and 24 h-recalls (53 ± 5). Mean (±SD) GI-FFQ GL (117 ± 37) was slightly lower than the general-FFQ GL (126 ± 38) and 24 h-recalls GL (127 ± 37). Classification of GI in quartiles was identical for the GI-FFQ and general-FFQ for 43% of the population (r = 0.58) and with 24 h-recalls for 35% of the population (de-attenuated r = 0.64). For GL, this was 48% (r = 0.65) and 44% (de-attenuated r = 0.74). Correlations between GI and HbA1c were low (r = −0.09 for GI-FFQ, r = −0.04 for general-FFQ and r = 0.07 for 24 h-recalls). In conclusion, compared to a general-FFQ and 24 h-recalls, the GI-FFQ showed a moderate to good relative validity for carbohydrates, carbohydrate-rich foods and GI/GL. No metric predicted HbA1c.
Embracing 3D Complexity in Leaf Carbon–Water Exchange
Earles, J.M. ; Buckley, Thomas N. ; Brodersen, Craig R. ; Busch, Florian A. ; Cano, F.J. ; Choat, Brendan ; Evans, John R. ; Farquhar, Graham D. ; Harwood, Richard ; Huynh, Minh ; John, Grace P. ; Miller, Megan L. ; Rockwell, Fulton E. ; Sack, Lawren ; Scoffoni, Christine ; Struik, Paul C. ; Wu, Alex ; Yin, Xinyou ; Barbour, Margaret M. - \ 2019
Trends in Plant Science 24 (2019)1. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 15 - 24.
3D - leaf anatomy - leaf hydraulic conductance - mesophyll conductance - photosynthesis

Leaves are a nexus for the exchange of water, carbon, and energy between terrestrial plants and the atmosphere. Research in recent decades has highlighted the critical importance of the underlying biophysical and anatomical determinants of CO2 and H2O transport, but a quantitative understanding of how detailed 3D leaf anatomy mediates within-leaf transport has been hindered by the lack of a consensus framework for analyzing or simulating transport and its spatial and temporal dynamics realistically, and by the difficulty of measuring within-leaf transport at the appropriate scales. We discuss how recent technological advancements now make a spatially explicit 3D leaf analysis possible, through new imaging and modeling tools that will allow us to address long-standing questions related to plant carbon–water exchange.

Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND): Vitamin B-12 Review
Allen, L.H. ; Miller, J. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Rosenberg, I.H. ; Smith, A.D. ; Refsum, H. ; Raiten, D.J. - \ 2018
The Journal of Nutrition 148 (2018)suppl. 4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1995S - 2027S.
This report on vitamin B-12 (B12) is part of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Project, which provides state-of-the art information and advice on the selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, and function. As with the other 5 reports in this series, which focused on iodine, folate, zinc, iron, and vitamin A, this B12 report was developed with the assistance of an expert panel (BOND B12 EP) and other experts who provided information during a consultation. The experts reviewed the existing literature in depth in order to consolidate existing relevant information on the biology of B12, including known and possible effects of insufficiency, and available and potential biomarkers of status. Unlike the situation for the other 5 nutrients reviewed during the BOND project, there has been relatively little previous attention paid to B12 status and its biomarkers, so this report is a landmark in terms of the consolidation and interpretation of the available information on B12 nutrition. Historically, most focus has been on diagnosis and treatment of clinical symptoms of B12 deficiency, which result primarily from pernicious anemia or strict vegetarianism. More recently, we have become aware of the high prevalence of B12 insufficiency in populations consuming low amounts of animal-source foods, which can be detected with ≥1 serum biomarker but presents the new challenge of identifying functional consequences that may require public health interventions.
Cognitive and affective predictors of risks from wolves
Landon, A. ; Miller, C. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Jacobs, M.H. ; Williams, B. - \ 2018
Cognitive and affective predictors of risks from wolves
Landon, A. ; Miller, C. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Jacobs, M.H. - \ 2018
Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions – 2017 literature highlights
Khojasteh, S.C. ; Miller, Grover P. ; Mitra, Kaushik ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2018
Drug Metabolism Reviews 50 (2018)3. - ISSN 0360-2532 - p. 221 - 255.

This annual review is the third one to highlight recent advances in the study and assessment of biotransformations and bioactivations (Table 1). We followed the same format as the previous years with selection and authoring each section (see Baillie et al. 2016; Khojasteh et al. 2017). We acknowledge that many universities no longer train students in mechanistic biotransformation studies reflecting a decline in the investment for those efforts by public funded granting institutions. We hope this work serves as a resource to appreciate the knowledge gained each year to understand and hopefully anticipate toxicological outcomes dependent on biotransformations and bioactivations. This effort itself also continues to evolve. I am pleased that Drs. Rietjens and Miller have again contributed to this annual review. We would like to welcome Kaushik Mitra as an author for this year’s issue, and we thank Deepak Dalvie for his contributions to last year’s edition. We have intentionally maintained a balance of authors such that two come from an academic setting and two come from industry. As always, please drop us a note if you find this review helpful. We would be pleased to hear your opinions of our commentary, and we extend an invitation to anyone who would like to contribute to a future edition of this review.

PREVIEW study—Influence of a behavior modification intervention (PREMIT) in over 2300 people with pre-diabetes : Intention, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies during the early phase of a lifestyle intervention
Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Hansen, Sylvia ; Christensen, Pia ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Sandø-Pedersen, Finn ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Adam, Tanja C. ; Macdonald, Ian A. ; Taylor, Moira A. ; Martinez, J.A. ; Navas-Carretero, Santiago ; Handjiev, Svetoslav ; Poppitt, Sally D. ; Silvestre, Marta P. ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
Psychology Research and Behavior Management 11 (2018). - ISSN 1179-1578 - p. 383 - 394.
Cognition - Diabetes mellitus - Goals - Habits - Weight loss

Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of ≥ 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni-and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss (“achievers”) and those who did not (“non-achievers”). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between “achievers” (1,857) and “non-achievers” (163) were found. “Non-achievers” tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, “achievers” reported higher intentions (healthy eating χ2 (1)=2.57; P <0.008, exercising χ2 (1)=0.66; P <0.008), self-efficacy (F(2; 1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F(4; 1968)=11.22, P <0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the “new” behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.

Tropical land carbon cycle responses to 2015/16 El Niño as recorded by atmospheric greenhouse gas and remote sensing data
Gloor, Emanuel ; Wilson, Chris ; Chipperfield, Martyn P. ; Chevallier, Frederic ; Buermann, Wolfgang ; Boesch, Hartmut ; Parker, Robert ; Somkuti, Peter ; Gatti, Luciana V. ; Correia, Caio ; Domingues, Lucas G. ; Peters, Wouter ; Miller, John ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 12 p.
carbon cycle - fire - global warming - tropical forests

The outstanding tropical land climate characteristic over the past decades is rapid warming, with no significant large-scale precipitation trends. This warming is expected to continue but the effects on tropical vegetation are unknown. El Niño-related heat peaks may provide a test bed for a future hotter world. Here we analyse tropical land carbon cycle responses to the 2015/16 El Niño heat and drought anomalies using an atmospheric transport inversion. Based on the global atmospheric CO2 and fossil fuel emission records, we find no obvious signs of anomalously large carbon release compared with earlier El Niño events, suggesting resilience of tropical vegetation. We find roughly equal net carbon release anomalies from Amazonia and tropical Africa, approximately 0.5 PgC each, and smaller carbon release anomalies from tropical East Asia and southern Africa. Atmospheric CO anomalies reveal substantial fire carbon release from tropical East Asia peaking in October 2015 while fires contribute only a minor amount to the Amazonian carbon flux anomaly. Anomalously large Amazonian carbon flux release is consistent with downregulation of primary productivity during peak negative near-surface water anomaly (October 2015 to March 2016) as diagnosed by solar-induced fluorescence. Finally, we find an unexpected anomalous positive flux to the atmosphere from tropical Africa early in 2016, coincident with substantial CO release.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

Understanding social innovation for the well-being of forest-dependent communities : A preliminary theoretical framework
Kluvánková, Tatiana ; Brnkaľáková, Stanislava ; Špaček, Martin ; Slee, Bill ; Nijnik, Maria ; Valero, Diana ; Miller, David ; Bryce, Rosalind ; Kozová, Mária ; Polman, Nico ; Szabo, Tomáš ; Gežík, Veronika - \ 2018
Forest Policy and Economics 97 (2018). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 163 - 174.
Forest-dependent community - SIMRA transdisciplinary framework - Social innovation - Social innovation factors
Demographic and Social-Cognitive Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Overweight, Pre-diabetic Participants of the PREVIEW Study
Hansen, Sylvia ; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Sluik, Diewertje ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora ; Macdonald, Ian ; Martinez, Alfredo J. ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Poppitt, Sally ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 25 (2018)6. - ISSN 1070-5503 - p. 682 - 692.
Behavioral determination - Lifestyle intervention - Social-cognitive factors - Weight loss

Purpose: Weight loss has been demonstrated to be a successful strategy in diabetes prevention. Although weight loss is greatly influenced by dietary behaviors, social-cognitive factors play an important role in behavioral determination. This study aimed to identify demographic and social-cognitive factors (intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support, and motivation with regard to dietary behavior and goal adjustment) associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants from the PREVIEW study who had pre-diabetes. Method: Prospective correlational data from 1973 adult participants were analyzed. The participants completed psychological questionnaires that assessed social-cognitive variables with regard to dietary behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify baseline demographic and social-cognitive factors associated with weight loss. Results: Overall, being male, having a higher baseline BMI, having a higher income, perceiving fewer disadvantages of a healthy diet (outcome expectancies), experiencing less discouragement for healthy eating by family and friends (social support), and lower education were independently linked to greater weight loss. When evaluating females and males separately, education was no longer associated with weight loss. Conclusion: The results indicate that a supportive environment in which family members and friends avoid discouraging healthy eating, with the application of a strategy that uses specific behavior change techniques to emphasize the benefits of outcomes, i.e., the benefits of a healthy diet, may support weight loss efforts. Weight loss programs should therefore always address the social environment of persons who try to lose body weight because family members and friends can be important supporters in reaching a weight loss goal.

CTDAS-Lagrange v1.0 : A high-resolution data assimilation system for regional carbon dioxide observations
He, Wei ; Velde, Ivar R. van der; Andrews, Arlyn E. ; Sweeney, Colm ; Miller, John ; Tans, Pieter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Nehrkorn, Thomas ; Mountain, Marikate ; Ju, Weimin ; Peters, Wouter ; Chen, Huilin - \ 2018
Geoscientific Model Development 11 (2018)8. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 3515 - 3536.

We have implemented a regional carbon dioxide data assimilation system based on the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research meteorological fields (WRF-STILT). With this system, named CTDAS-Lagrange, we simultaneously optimize terrestrial biosphere fluxes and four parameters that adjust the lateral boundary conditions (BCs) against CO2 observations from the NOAA ESRL North America tall tower and aircraft programmable flask packages (PFPs) sampling program. Least-squares optimization is performed with a time-stepping ensemble Kalman smoother, over a time window of 10 days and assimilating sequentially a time series of observations. Because the WRF-STILT footprints are pre-computed, it is computationally efficient to run the CTDAS-Lagrange system. To estimate the uncertainties in the optimized fluxes from the system, we performed sensitivity tests with various a priori biosphere fluxes (SiBCASA, SiB3, CT2013B) and BCs (optimized mole fraction fields from CT2013B and CTE2014, and an empirical dataset derived from aircraft observations), as well as with a variety of choices on the ways that fluxes are adjusted (additive or multiplicative), covariance length scales, biosphere flux covariances, BC parameter uncertainties, and model-data mismatches. In pseudo-data experiments, we show that in our implementation the additive flux adjustment method is more flexible in optimizing net ecosystem exchange (NEE) than the multiplicative flux adjustment method, and our sensitivity tests with real observations show that the CTDAS-Lagrange system has the ability to correct for the potential biases in the lateral BCs and to resolve large biases in the prior biosphere fluxes. Using real observations, we have derived a range of estimates for the optimized carbon fluxes from a series of sensitivity tests, which places the North American carbon sink for the year 2010 in a range from -0.92 to -1.26PgCyr-1. This is comparable to the TM5-based estimates of CarbonTracker (version CT2016, -0.91±1.10PgCyr-1) and CarbonTracker Europe (version CTE2016, -0.91±0.31PgCyr-1). We conclude that CTDAS-Lagrange can offer a versatile and computationally attractive alternative to these global systems for regional estimates of carbon fluxes, which can take advantage of high-resolution Lagrangian footprints that are increasingly easy to obtain.

Increased water-use efficiency and reduced CO2 uptake by plants during droughts at a continental scale
Peters, W. ; Velde, I.R. van der; Schaik, Erik van; Miller, John B. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Duarte, Henrique F. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Molen, M.K. van der; Scholze, M. ; Schaefer, Kevin ; Vidale, Pier Luigi ; Verhoef, Anne ; Wårlind, D. ; Zhu, Dan ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Vaughn, Bruce ; White, James W.C. - \ 2018
Nature Geoscience 11 (2018). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 744 - 748.
Severe droughts in the Northern Hemisphere cause a widespread decline of agricultural yield, the reduction of forest carbon uptake, and increased CO2 growth rates in the atmosphere. Plants respond to droughts by partially closing their stomata to limit their evaporative water loss, at the expense of carbon uptake by photosynthesis. This trade-off maximizes their water-use efficiency (WUE), as measured for many individual plants under laboratory conditions and field experiments. Here we analyse the 13C/12C stable isotope ratio in atmospheric CO2 to provide new observational evidence of the impact of droughts on the WUE across areas of millions of square kilometres and spanning one decade of recent climate variability. We find strong and spatially coherent increases in WUE along with widespread reductions of net carbon uptake over the Northern Hemisphere during severe droughts that affected Europe, Russia and the United States in 2001–2011. The impact of those droughts on WUE and carbon uptake by vegetation is substantially larger than simulated by the land-surface schemes of six state-of-the-art climate models. This suggests that drought-induced carbon–climate feedbacks may be too small in these models and improvements to their vegetation dynamics using stable isotope observations can help to improve their drought response.
The contribution of mitochondrial metagenomics to large-scale data mining and phylogenetic analysis of Coleoptera
Linard, Benjamin ; Crampton-Platt, Alex ; Moriniere, Jerome ; Timmermans, Martijn J.T.N. ; Andújar, Carmelo ; Arribas, Paula ; Miller, Kirsten E. ; Lipecki, Julia ; Favreau, Emeline ; Hunter, Amie ; Gómez-Rodríguez, Carola ; Barton, Christopher ; Nie, Ruie ; Gillett, Conrad P.D.T. ; Breeschoten, Thijmen ; Bocak, Ladislav ; Vogler, Alfried P. - \ 2018
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 128 (2018). - ISSN 1055-7903 - p. 1 - 11.
Biodiversity discovery - Coleoptera - Mass-trapped samples - Metagenome skimming - Mitochondrial metagenomics

A phylogenetic tree at the species level is still far off for highly diverse insect orders, including the Coleoptera, but the taxonomic breadth of public sequence databases is growing. In addition, new types of data may contribute to increasing taxon coverage, such as metagenomic shotgun sequencing for assembly of mitogenomes from bulk specimen samples. The current study explores the application of these techniques for large-scale efforts to build the tree of Coleoptera. We used shotgun data from 17 different ecological and taxonomic datasets (5 unpublished) to assemble a total of 1942 mitogenome contigs of >3000 bp. These sequences were combined into a single dataset together with all mitochondrial data available at GenBank, in addition to nuclear markers widely used in molecular phylogenetics. The resulting matrix of nearly 16,000 species with two or more loci produced trees (RAxML) showing overall congruence with the Linnaean taxonomy at hierarchical levels from suborders to genera. We tested the role of full-length mitogenomes in stabilizing the tree from GenBank data, as mitogenomes might link terminals with non-overlapping gene representation. However, the mitogenome data were only partly useful in this respect, presumably because of the purely automated approach to assembly and gene delimitation, but improvements in future may be possible by using multiple assemblers and manual curation. In conclusion, the combination of data mining and metagenomic sequencing of bulk samples provided the largest phylogenetic tree of Coleoptera to date, which represents a summary of existing phylogenetic knowledge and a defensible tree of great utility, in particular for studies at the intra-familial level, despite some shortcomings for resolving basal nodes.

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument : Overview of 14 years in space
Levelt, Pieternel F. ; Joiner, Joanna ; Tamminen, Johanna ; Veefkind, J.P. ; Bhartia, Pawan K. ; Zweers, Deborah C.S. ; Duncan, Bryan N. ; Streets, David G. ; Eskes, Henk ; Der, Ronald A. Van; McLinden, Chris ; Fioletov, Vitali ; Carn, Simon ; Laat, Jos De; Deland, Matthew ; Marchenko, Sergey ; McPeters, Richard ; Ziemke, Jerald ; Fu, Dejian ; Liu, Xiong ; Pickering, Kenneth ; Apituley, Arnoud ; Abad, Gonzalo González ; Arola, Antti ; Boersma, Folkert ; Miller, Christopher Chan ; Chance, Kelly ; Graaf, Martin De; Hakkarainen, Janne ; Hassinen, Seppo ; Ialongo, Iolanda ; Kleipool, Quintus ; Krotkov, Nickolay ; Li, Can ; Lamsal, Lok ; Newman, Paul ; Nowlan, Caroline ; Suleiman, Raid ; Tilstra, Lieuwe Gijsbert ; Torres, Omar ; Wang, Huiqun ; Wargan, Krzysztof - \ 2018
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18 (2018)8. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 5699 - 5745.
This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout) and near real-time (NRT) availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.
Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with prediabetes : The PREVIEW study
Swindell, Nils ; Mackintosh, Kelly ; Mcnarry, Melitta ; Stephens, Jeffrey W. ; Sluik, Diewertje ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Macdonald, Ian ; Martinez, J.A. ; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora ; Poppitt, Sally D. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Larsen, Thomas M. ; Raben, Anne ; Stratton, Gareth - \ 2018
Diabetes Care 41 (2018)3. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 562 - 569.
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the association among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and cardiometabolic risk in adults with prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 2,326; 25-70 years old, 67% female) from eight countries, with a BMI >25 kg · m22 and impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol · L21) or impaired glucose tolerance (7.8-11.0 mmol · L21 at 2 h), participated. Seven-day accelerometry objectively assessed PA levels and ST. RESULTS Multiple linear regression revealed that moderate-To-vigorous PA (MVPA) was negatively associated withHOMAof insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (standardizedb =20.078 [95% CI20.128,20.027]), waist circumference (WC) (b =20.177 [20.122,20.134]), fasting insulin (b = 20.115 [20.158, 20.072]), 2-h glucose (b = 20.069 [20.112, 20.025]), triglycerides (b = 20.091 [20.138, 20.044]), and CRP (b = 20.086 [20.127, 20.045]). ST was positively associated with HOMA-IR (b = 0.175 [0.114, 0.236]), WC (b = 0.215 [0.026, 0.131]), fasting insulin (b = 0.155 [0.092, 0.219]), triglycerides (b = 0.106 [0.052, 0.16]), CRP (b = 0.106 [0.39, 0.172]), systolic blood pressure (BP) (b = 0.078 [0.026, 0.131]), and diastolic BP (b = 0.106 [0.39, 20.172]). Associations reported between total PA (counts · min21), and all risk factors were comparable or stronger than for MVPA: HOMA-IR (b = 20.151 [20.194, 20.107]), WC (b = 20.179 [20.224, 20.134]), fasting insulin (b = 20.139 [20.183, 20.096]), 2-h glucose (b = 20.088 [20.131, 20.045]), triglycerides (b = 20.117 [20.162, 20.071]), and CRP (b = 20.104 [20.146, 20.062]). CONCLUSIONS In adults with prediabetes, objectively measured PA and ST were associated with cardiometabolic risk markers. Total PA was at least as strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk markers as MVPA, which may imply that the accumulation of total PA over the day is as important as achieving the intensity of MVPA.
The CarbonTracker Data Assimilation System for CO2 and δ13C (CTDAS-C13 v1.0) : Retrieving information on land-atmosphere exchange processes
Velde, Ivar R. Van Der; Miller, John B. ; Molen, Michiel K. Van Der; Tans, Pieter P. ; Vaughn, Bruce H. ; White, James W.C. ; Schaefer, Kevin ; Peters, Wouter - \ 2018
Geoscientific Model Development 11 (2018)1. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 283 - 304.
To improve our understanding of the global carbon balance and its representation in terrestrial biosphere models, we present here a first dual-species application of the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation System (CTDAS). The system's modular design allows for assimilating multiple atmospheric trace gases simultaneously to infer exchange fluxes at the Earth surface. In the prototype discussed here, we interpret signals recorded in observed carbon dioxide (CO2) along with observed ratios of its stable isotopologues 13CO2/12CO2 (δ13C). The latter is in particular a valuable tracer to untangle CO2 exchange from land and oceans. Potentially, it can also be used as a proxy for continent-wide drought stress in plants, largely because the ratio of 13CO2 and 12CO2 molecules removed from the atmosphere by plants is dependent on moisture conditions. The dual-species CTDAS system varies the net exchange fluxes of both 13CO2 and CO2 in ocean and terrestrial biosphere models to create an ensemble of 13CO2 and CO2 fluxes that propagates through an atmospheric transport model. Based on differences between observed and simulated 13CO2 and CO2 mole fractions (and thus δ13C) our Bayesian minimization approach solves for weekly adjustments to both net fluxes and isotopic terrestrial discrimination that minimizes the difference between observed and estimated mole fractions. With this system, we are able to estimate changes in terrestrial δ13C exchange on seasonal and continental scales in the Northern Hemisphere where the observational network is most dense. Our results indicate a decrease in stomatal conductance on a continent-wide scale during a severe drought. These changes could only be detected after applying combined atmospheric CO2 and δ13C constraints as done in this work. The additional constraints on surface CO2 exchange from δ13C observations neither affected the estimated carbon fluxes nor compromised our ability to match observed CO2 variations. The prototype presented here can be of great benefit not only to study the global carbon balance but also to potentially function as a data-driven diagnostic to assess multiple leaf-level exchange parameterizations in carbon-climate models that influence the CO2, water, isotope, and energy balance.
The sustainable seafood movement is a Governance concert, with the audience playing a key role
Barclay, Kate ; Miller, Alice - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Corporate social responsibility - Ecolabels - Ethical consumption - Green marketing - Supply chain management - Sustainable seafood
Private standards, including ecolabels, have been posed as a governance solution for the global fisheries crisis. The conventional logic is that ecolabels meet consumer demand for certified "sustainable" seafood, with "good" players rewarded with price premiums or market share and "bad" players punished by reduced sales. Empirically, however, in the markets where ecolabeling has taken hold, retailers and brands-rather than consumers-are demanding sustainable sourcing, to build and protect their reputation. The aim of this paper is to devise a more accurate logic for understanding the sustainable seafood movement, using a qualitative literature review and reflection on our previous research. We find that replacing the consumer-driven logic with a retailer/brand-driven logic does not go far enough in making research into the sustainable seafood movement more useful. Governance is a "concert" and cannot be adequately explained through individual actor groups. We propose a new logic going beyond consumer- or retailer/brand-driven models, and call on researchers to build on the partial pictures given by studies on prices and willingness-to-pay, investigating more fully the motivations of actors in the sustainable seafood movement, and considering audience beyond the direct consumption of the product in question.
Labor, social sustainability and the underlying vulnerabilities of work in Southeast Asia's seafood value chains
Bush, Simon R. ; Marschke, Melissa J. ; Belton, Ben - \ 2017
In: Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Development / McGregor, Andrew, Law, Lisa, Miller, Fiona, Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9781138848535 - p. 316 - 329.
Labor, social sustainability and the underlying vulnerabilities of work in Southeast Asia’s seafood value chains
Healthcare entitlements for citizens and transborder mobile peoples in Southeast Asia
Ormond, Meghann ; Khoon, Chan Chee ; Verghis, Sharuna - \ 2017
In: Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Development / McGregor, Andrew, Law, Lisa, Miller, Fiona, Abington : Routledge - ISBN 9781138848535 - p. 186 - 197.
The health of a population is shaped by a complex interplay of economic, political, social, cultural and biological factors that transcend national borders. In this chapter, we consider how these factors work together within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a supra-national regional political space encompassing a population of over 600 million across ten countries. Specifically, we query how economic liberalization and corollary increases in the movement of people, goods and services are challenging and transforming entrenched ideas about who is entitled to and responsible for health and social care within and across ASEAN member states’ national borders.
Association of sleep duration and quality with blood lipids : a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies
Kruisbrink, Marlot ; Robertson, Wendy ; Ji, Chen ; Miller, Michelle A. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Cappuccio, Francesco P. - \ 2017
BMJ Open 7 (2017)12. - ISSN 2044-6055
blood lipids - cholesterol - meta-analysis - sleep duration - sleep quality - systematic review

OBJECTIVES: To assess the longitudinal evidence of the relationships between sleep disturbances (of quantity and quality) and dyslipidaemia in the general population and to quantify such relationships.

SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.

METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Embase (up to 9 September 2017), complemented with manual searches, of prospective population studies describing the association between sleep duration and quality and the incidence of dyslipidaemias. Relative risks (95% CIs) were extracted and pooled using a random effects model. Subgroup analyses by lipid type were performed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. Quality was assessed with Downs and Black score.

PARTICIPANTS: Studies were included if they were prospective, had measured sleep quantity and/or quality at baseline and either incident cases of dyslipidaemia or changes in blood lipid fractions assessed prospectively.

PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of dyslipidaemia and changes in lipid fractions. Dyslipidaemia was defined as a high total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with the reference group.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies were identified (eight using sleep duration, four sleep quality and one both). There was heterogeneity in the sleep quality aspects and types of lipids assessed. Classification of sleep duration (per hour/groups) also varied widely. In the pooled analysis of sleep duration (6 studies, 16 cohort samples; 30 033 participants; follow-up 2.6-10 years), short sleep was associated with a risk of 1.01 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.10) of developing dyslipidaemia, with moderate heterogeneity (I2=56%, P=0.003) and publication bias (P=0.035). Long sleep was associated with a risk of 0.98 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.10) for dyslipidaemia, with heterogeneity (I2=63%, P<0.001) and no significant publication bias (P=0.248).

CONCLUSION: The present analysis was unable to find supportive evidence of a significant relationship between sleep duration and the development of dyslipidaemia. However, heterogeneity and small number of studies limit the interpretation.

PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016045242.

Transdisciplinary understanding of SI in MRAs
Kluvankova, Tatiana ; Gežik, Veronika ; Špaček, Martin ; Brnkalakova, Stanislava ; Slee, Bill ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Valero, Diana ; Bryce, Rosalind ; Alkhaled, Sophie ; Secco, Laura ; Burlando, Catie ; Kozova, Maria ; Miller, David ; Nijnik, Maria ; Perlik, Manfred ; Pisani, Elena ; Price, Martin ; Sarkki, Simo ; Weiss, Gerhard - \ 2017
SIMRA - 53 p.
Set of Methods to Assess SI Implications at Different Levels
Secco, Laura ; Pisani, Elena ; Burlando, Catie ; Re, Riccardo Da; Gatto, Paola ; Pettenella, Davide ; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas ; Akinsete, Ebun ; Koundouri, Phoebe ; Lopolito, Antonio ; Prosperi, Maurizio ; Tuomasiukka, Diana ; Herde, Micheal Den; Lovric, Marko ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Soma, K. ; Ludvig, Alice ; Weiss, Gerhard ; Zivojinovic, Ivana ; Sarkki, Simo ; Ravazzoli, Elisa ; Torre, Cristina Dalla; Streifeneder, Thomas ; Slee, Bill ; Nijnik, Maria ; Miller, David ; Barlagne, Carla ; Prokofieva, Irina - \ 2017
SIMRA - 203 p.
Diseases of Lily
Chastagner, G.A. ; Tuyl, J.M. van; Verbeek, M. ; Miller, William ; Westerdahl, Becky B. - \ 2017
In: Handbook of Florists' Crops Diseases, Handbook of Plant Disease Management / McGovern, R.J., Elmer, W.H., Springer International Publishing (Handbook of Plant Disease Management ) - ISBN 9783319323749 - 61 p.
Lilies (Lilium spp. and hybrids) are the second largest flower bulb crop in the Netherlands and the most important flower bulb crop in the world. They are grown for bulbs, as cut flowers, as container (potted) plants, or in gardens. Lilies are a vegetatively propagated crop and may be routinely increased by micropropagation (tissue culture) or through scaling (removal of bulb scales from which adventitious bulblets are produced). The propagules are subsequently grown in fields for 2 or 3 y to allow the bulbs to reach sufficient size (generally measured in circumference) for proper flowering and maximum horticultural quality. Although the majority of bulbs produced for worldwide distribution are grown mainly in the Netherlands, bulbs are also grown in other northern European countries, the USA, Asia, Israel, and southern hemisphere locations including Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, and Chile. There are a number of diseases caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria, and nematodes and physiological disorders that affect the production and quality of lily bulb and cut flower crops worldwide. Information on the distribution, epidemiology and management, of the common diseases and disorders is presented in this chapter.
Stakeholder and Citizen Participation in Bioeconomy Strategies : BioSTEP Guidelines for Practitioners
Davies, S. ; Miller, S. ; Bakker, H.C.M. de; Beekman, V. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. - \ 2017
BioSTEP - 12 p.
Primary Charge Separation in the Photosystem II Reaction Center Revealed by a Global Analysis of the Two-dimensional Electronic Spectra
Duan, Hong Guang ; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I. ; Wientjes, I.E. ; Croce, Roberta ; Thorwart, Michael ; Miller, R.J.D. - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 9 p.
The transfer of electronic charge in the reaction center of Photosystem II is one of the key building blocks of the conversion of sunlight energy into chemical energy within the cascade of the photosynthetic reactions. Since the charge transfer dynamics is mixed with the energy transfer dynamics, an effective tool for the direct resolution of charge separation in the reaction center is still missing. Here, we use experimental two-dimensional optical photon echo spectroscopy in combination with the theoretical calculation to resolve its signature. A global fitting analysis allows us to clearly and directly identify a decay pathway associated to the primary charge separation. In particular, it can be distinguished from regular energy transfer and occurs on a time scale of 1.5 ps under ambient conditions. This technique provides a general tool to identify charge separation signatures from the energy transport in two-dimensional optical spectroscopy.
Long-term population dynamics in a multi-species assemblage of large herbivores in East Africa
Kiffner, Christian ; Rheault, Helena ; Miller, Elizabeth ; Scheetz, Tanner ; Enriquez, Vivien ; Swafford, Rachelle ; Kioko, John ; Prins, Herbert H.T. - \ 2017
Ecosphere 8 (2017)12. - ISSN 2150-8925
Conservation Effectiveness - Declining Population Paradigm - Ecosystem Dynamics - Lake Manyara National Park - Shrub Encroachment - Ungulates
Wildlife population declines in Africa are widespread. However, species-specific population trends and dynamics in mammal community composition have rarely been described over long time periods. To describe population trends of 13 large herbivore species in Lake Manyara National Park (Tanzania) from 1959 to 2016 and to discover whether the herbivore community structure changed, we used general additive models and additional statistical methods to detect structural changes in the time series. Population dynamics were non-linear and population growth rates were not correlated with precipitation anomalies. Relatively steep population declines of three megaherbivores occurred during the 1980s and early 1990s, resulting in severe reductions in African elephant and buffalo populations and the local extinction of black rhinoceros. These declines coincided with reported peaks of illegal hunting of these species and expansion of agriculture at the periphery of the park. Population densities of elephant and buffalo seem to have stabilized in recent times, yet have not recovered to previous densities. In contrast, eight species (giraffe, zebra, waterbuck, wildebeest, warthog, impala, bushbuck, and baboon) have apparently fared well (similar or higher densities in most recent compared to first decade), despite having undergone substantial fluctuations over the past 58 yr. Population fluctuations in these species were likely caused by disease outbreaks, heavy bush encroachment, and reduced competition with buffalo. Possibly, declines in megaherbivore densities (mainly elephants) facilitated bush encroachment. Albeit grazers are still dominating in the herbivore community, the proportion of browsers is currently increasing, likely encouraged by dense vegetation in the shrub layer in large parts of the park. Overall, herbivore biomass density has declined by ~40% compared to the baseline estimate in the first decade of the time series. Our analyses and ancillary information provide evidence that this overall decline in the herbivore assemblage was triggered by human-induced reductions in megaherbivore population densities during the 1980s, either through excessive poaching, insularization of the park, or both. Likely, this had cascading and interacting effects on the vegetation structure and the herbivore assemblage. Thus, legacy effects of ineffective megaherbivore conservation efforts 30 yr ago are likely still affecting the ecology of this national park.
Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014 : Development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries
Dieleman, Joseph ; Campbell, Madeline ; Chapin, Abigail ; Eldrenkamp, Erika ; Fan, Victoria Y. ; Haakenstad, Annie ; Kates, Jennifer ; Liu, Yingying ; Matyasz, Taylor ; Micah, Angela ; Reynolds, Alex ; Sadat, Nafis ; Schneider, Matthew T. ; Sorensen, Reed ; Evans, Tim ; Evans, David ; Kurowski, Christoph ; Tandon, Ajay ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar ; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, A. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amrock, Stephen Marc ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bernal, Oscar Alberto ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Beyene, Tariku Jibat ; Birungi, Charles ; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie ; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Castro, Ruben Estanislao ; Catalá-López, Ferran ; Dalal, Koustuv ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Jager, Pieter De; Dharmaratne, Samath D. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia E. ; Faro, Andre ; Feigl, Andrea B. ; Fischer, Florian ; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Hay, Simon I. ; Hendrie, Delia ; Horino, Masako ; Jürisson, Mikk ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; John, Denny ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Karimi, Seyed M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Yun Jin ; Kinge, Jonas M. ; Krohn, Kristopher J. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Masiye, Felix ; Meier, Toni ; Meretoja, Atte ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M. ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Nangia, Vinay ; Olgiati, Stefano ; Osman, Abdalla Sidahmed ; Owolabi, Mayowa O. ; Patel, Tejas ; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J. ; Pereira, David M. ; Perelman, Julian ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal ; Roba, Hirbo Shore ; Salama, Joseph ; Savic, Miloje ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Shrime, Mark G. ; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio ; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tediosi, Fabrizio ; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie ; Thomson, Alan J. ; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Undurraga, Eduardo A. ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Violante, Francesco S. ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Wijeratne, Tissa ; Xu, Gelin ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2017
The Lancet 389 (2017)10083. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1981 - 2004.
Background: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development. We also identify countries that deviate from the trends. Methods: We estimated national health spending by type of care and by source, including development assistance for health, based on a diverse set of data including programme reports, budget data, national estimates, and 964 National Health Accounts. These data represent health spending for 184 countries from 1995 through 2014. We converted these data into a common inflation-adjusted and purchasing power-adjusted currency, and used non-linear regression methods to model the relationship between health financing, time, and economic development. Findings: Between 1995 and 2014, economic development was positively associated with total health spending and a shift away from a reliance on development assistance and out-of-pocket (OOP) towards government spending. The largest absolute increase in spending was in high-income countries, which increased to purchasing power-adjusted $5221 per capita based on an annual growth rate of 3.0%. The largest health spending growth rates were in upper-middle-income (5.9) and lower-middle-income groups (5.0), which both increased spending at more than 5% per year, and spent $914 and $267 per capita in 2014, respectively. Spending in low-income countries grew nearly as fast, at 4.6%, and health spending increased from $51 to $120 per capita. In 2014, 59.2% of all health spending was financed by the government, although in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 29.1% and 58.0% of spending was OOP spending and 35.7% and 3.0% of spending was development assistance. Recent growth in development assistance for health has been tepid; between 2010 and 2016, it grew annually at 1.8%, and reached US$37.6 billion in 2016. Nonetheless, there is a great deal of variation revolving around these averages. 29 countries spend at least 50% more than expected per capita, based on their level of economic development alone, whereas 11 countries spend less than 50% their expected amount. Interpretation: Health spending remains disparate, with low-income and lower-middle-income countries increasing spending in absolute terms the least, and relying heavily on OOP spending and development assistance. Moreover, tremendous variation shows that neither time nor economic development guarantee adequate prepaid health resources, which are vital for the pursuit of universal health coverage.
Future and potential spending on health 2015-40 : Development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries
Dieleman, Joseph L. ; Campbell, Madeline ; Chapin, Abigail ; Eldrenkamp, Erika ; Fan, Victoria Y. ; Haakenstad, Annie ; Kates, Jennifer ; Li, Zhiyin ; Matyasz, Taylor ; Micah, Angela ; Reynolds, Alex ; Sadat, Nafis ; Schneider, Matthew T. ; Sorensen, Reed ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, A. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Berheto, Tezera Moshago ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Beyene, Tariku Jibat ; Birungi, Charles ; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie ; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Castro, Ruben Estanislao ; Catalá-López, Ferran ; Dalal, Koustuv ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dharmaratne, Rakhi Dandona Samath D. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Faro, Andé ; Feigl, Andrea B. ; Fischer, Florian ; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph R. ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Hay, Simon I. ; Hendrie, Delia ; Horino, Masako ; Jürisson, Mikk ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; John, Denny ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Karimi, Seyed M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Yun Jin ; Kinge, Jonas M. ; Krohn, Kristopher J. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Leung, Ricky ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Malta, Deborah Carvalho ; Meretoja, Atte ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M. ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Molla, Gedefaw ; Nangia, Vinay ; Olgiati, Stefano ; Owolabi, Mayowa O. ; Patel, Tejas ; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J. ; Pereira, David M. ; Perelman, Julian ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal ; Roba, Hirbo Shore ; Savic, Miloje ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie ; Thomson, Alan J. ; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Undurraga, Eduardo A. ; Vargas, Veronica ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Violante, Francesco S. ; Wijeratne, Tissa ; Xu, Gelin ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2017
The Lancet 389 (2017)10083. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 2005 - 2030.
Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future spending can be beneficial for policy makers and planners, and can identify financing gaps. In this study, we estimate future gross domestic product (GDP), all-sector government spending, and health spending disaggregated by source, and we compare expected future spending to potential future spending. Methods: We extracted GDP, government spending in 184 countries from 1980-2015, and health spend data from 1995-2014. We used a series of ensemble models to estimate future GDP, all-sector government spending, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending through 2040. We used frontier analyses to identify patterns exhibited by the countries that dedicate the most funding to health, and used these frontiers to estimate potential health spending for each low-income or middle-income country. All estimates are inflation and purchasing power adjusted. Findings: We estimated that global spending on health will increase from US$9.21 trillion in 2014 to $24.24 trillion (uncertainty interval [UI] 20.47-29.72) in 2040. We expect per capita health spending to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 5.3% (UI 4.1-6.8) per year. This growth is driven by continued growth in GDP, government spending, and government health spending. Lower-middle income countries are expected to grow at 4.2% (3.8-4.9). High-income countries are expected to grow at 2.1% (UI 1.8-2.4) and low-income countries are expected to grow at 1.8% (1.0-2.8). Despite this growth, health spending per capita in low-income countries is expected to remain low, at $154 (UI 133-181) per capita in 2030 and $195 (157-258) per capita in 2040. Increases in national health spending to reach the level of the countries who spend the most on health, relative to their level of economic development, would mean $321 (157-258) per capita was available for health in 2040 in low-income countries. Interpretation: Health spending is associated with economic development but past trends and relationships suggest that spending will remain variable, and low in some low-resource settings. Policy change could lead to increased health spending, although for the poorest countries external support might remain essential.
Mode of action based risk assessment of the botanical food-borne alkenylbenzenesapiol and myristicin
Alajlouni, Abdul - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens, co-promotor(en): Jacques Vervoort; Sebas Wesseling. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434584 - 212

Alkenylbenzenes including estragole, methyleugenol, safrole, elemicin, apiol, and myristicin are naturally occurring in many herbs such as parsley, dill, basil, tarragon, fennel and nutmeg (Kreydiyyeh and Usta, 2002, Smith et al., 2002, Semenov et al., 2007). Estragole, methyleugenol and safrole are genotoxic and carcinogenic in rodent bioassays inducing liver tumors (Boberg et al., 1986, Boberg et al., 1983, Drinkwater et al., 1976, Miller et al., 1983, Swanson et al., 1981, Wiseman et al., 1985, Wiseman et al., 1987, Wislocki et al., 1977). Because of that, the use of methyleugenol, safrole and estragole as pure substances in foodstuff has been prohibited in the EU from September 2008 onwards (European Commission (EC), 2008). For apiol and myristicin data for their risk assessment are limited and more research is needed to support the evaluation of the risk resulting from consumption of products containing these compounds (WHO, 2009). The aim of the current thesis was to perform a mode of action based risk assessment of exposure to low doses of apiol and myristicin by using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling based read-across from other alkenylbenzenes and to use the results obtained for risk assessment of consumption of plant food supplements (PFS) and other botanical products containing parsley and dill.

Chapter 1 provides general background information to alkenylbenzenes especially apiol and myristicin, a description of the chemical, metabolic and toxicity characteristics of apiol and myristicin and other structurally related alkenylbenzenes, a brief outline of the method used for their risk assessment and a short introduction to PBK modelling. Besides that, Chapter 1 include the aim of the current thesis. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, PBK models for respectively apiol and myristicin in male rat and human were defined, enabling prediction of dose-dependent effects in bioactivation and detoxification of these alkenylbenzenes. The PBK model based predictions were subsequently compared to those for safrole enabling estimation of a BMDL10 for apiol and myristicin from read-across from the BMDL10 available for safrole, thereby enabling risk assessment of current dietary exposure to apiol. In Chapter 4 and 5, the risk assessment of exposure to apiol and related alkenylbenzenes through drinking of parsley and dill based herbal teas and consumption of parsley and dill containing PFS was performed using the BMDL10 values derived in Chapter 2 and 3. The results showed that consumption of parsley and dill based herbal teas and PFS would be a priority for risk management if consumed for longer periods of time. Chapter 6 includes a general discussion of the thesis results obtained and the future perspectives that describe the needs to further research, based on alternatives for animals testing, to improve the risk assessment approaches for different botanical preparations.

Altogether, the results obtained through different thesis chapters show that integration of different approaches provides the basis for a mode of action and PBK modelling based read-across from compounds for which tumor data are available to related compounds for which such data are lacking. This can contribute to the development of alternatives for animal testing and will facilitate the risk assessment of compounds for which in vivo toxicity studies on tumor formation data are unavailable.

Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions–2016 literature highlights
Khojasteh, S.C. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Dalvie, Deepak ; Miller, Grover - \ 2017
Drug Metabolism Reviews 49 (2017)3. - ISSN 0360-2532 - p. 285 - 317.
aldehyde oxidase - bioactivation - Biotransformation - cytochrome P450 - UGT
We are pleased to present a second annual issue highlighting a previous year’s literature on biotransformation and bioactivation. Each contributor to this issue worked independently to review the articles published in 2016 and proposed three to four articles, which he or she believed would be of interest to the broader research community. In each synopsis, the contributing author summarized the procedures, analyses and conclusions as described in the original manuscripts. In the commentary sections, our authors offer feedback and highlight aspects of the work that may not be apparent from an initial reading of the article. To be fair, one should still read the original article to gain a more complete understanding of the work conducted. Most of the articles included in this review were published in Drug Metabolism and Disposition or Chemical Research in Toxicology, but attempts were made to seek articles in 25 other journals. Importantly, these articles are not intended to represent a consensus of the best papers of the year, as we did not want to make any arbitrary standards for this purpose, but rather they were chosen by each author for their notable findings and descriptions of novel metabolic pathways or biotransformations. I am pleased that Drs. Rietjens and Dalvie have again contributed to this annual review. We would like to welcome Grover P Miller as an author for this year’s issue, and we thank Tom Baillie for his contributions to last year’s edition. We have intentionally maintained a balance of authors such that two come from an academic setting and two come from industry. Finally, please drop us a note if you find this review helpful. We would be pleased to hear your opinions of our commentary, and we extend an invitation to anyone who would like to contribute to a future edition of this review. This article is dedicated to Professor Thomas Baillie for his exceptional contributions to the field of drug metabolism.
Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. Nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov
Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Miller, William G. ; St. Leger, Judy ; Chapman, Mary H. ; Timmerman, Arjen J. ; Duim, Birgitta ; Foster, Geoffrey ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. - \ 2017
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 67 (2017)6. - ISSN 1466-5026 - p. 1961 - 1968.
Average nucleotide identity - Campylobacter - Novel species - Pinnipeds - Urease - Whole genome sequencing

During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

Indicators of the ‘wild seafood’ provisioning ecosystem service based on the surplus production of commercial fish stocks
Piet, G.J. ; Overzee, H.M.J. van; Miller, D.C.M. ; Gelabert, E.R. - \ 2017
Ecological Indicators 72 (2017). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 194 - 202.
Ecosystem services - Fisheries management - Fishing mortality - Seafood provisioning - Spawning stock biomass - Sustainable exploitation

The ‘Wild Seafood’ Provisioning Service (WSPS), on which commercial fisheries rely, is probably one of the best studied marine ecosystem services due to its economic relevance and because extensive information sources exist for assessment purposes. Yet, the indicators often proposed are not suitable to describe the capacity of the ecosystem to deliver the WSPS. Therefore this study proposes surplus production (SP), a well-established concept in fisheries science, as the basis to calculate the capacity of marine ecosystems to provide the WSPS. SP is defined as the difference between stock production (through recruitment and body growth) and losses through natural mortality. This is, therefore, the production of the stock that could be harvested sustainably without decreasing the biomass. To assess the sustainability of the exploitation of the WSPS we also developed an indicator for this based on SP and compared it to existing fisheries management indicators. When both SP-based indicators showed a decreasing trend, contrasting with an increasing trend in the existing fisheries management indicators, the calculation of the SP-based indicators was scrutinized revealing that the weighting of the stocks into an aggregated indicator, strongly determines the indicator values, even up to the point that the trend is reversed. The aggregated indicators based on SP-weighted stocks can be considered complementary to existing fisheries management indicators as the former accurately reflect the capacity of the commercial fish to provide the WSPS and the sustainability of the exploitation of this service. In contrast the existing fisheries management indicators primarily reflect the performance of management towards achieving fisheries-specific policy goals.

D3.3: Good practice guidelines for stakeholder and citizen participation in bioeconomy strategies
Davies, Sara ; Ribeiro, Barbara ; Millar, Kate ; Miller, Stephen ; Vironen, Heidi ; Charles, David ; Griestop, Laura ; Hasenheit, Marius ; Kiresiewa, Zoritza ; Hoes, A.C. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Bianchini, Chiara - \ 2016
EU - 35 p.
biobased economy - government policy - public participation - case studies - decision making - multi-stakeholder processes - overheidsbeleid - publieke participatie - gevalsanalyse - besluitvorming - multi-stakeholder processen
This document has been developed as part of Work Package 3 of the BioSTEP project, which has examined current participatory practices, involving both stakeholders and citizens, in bioeconomy strategies in six case studies, namely: Two case studies at national level (Finland and Germany); Four case studies at regional level (Bio-based Delta in the Netherlands, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, Scotland in the United Kingdom, and the Veneto in Italy). Key documentary sources include international and national practice-based literature on stakeholder and public engagement, as well as other BioSTEP publications. Two earlier reports (Charles et al., 2016; Davies et al., 2016) provide a detailed overview of participation in these six case studies of national and regional bioeconomy strategies. Building on this work, as well as on a review of existing research on stakeholder and citizen engagement in the bioeconomy, this document sets out guidance and suggestions for designing and undertaking engagement with stakeholders and citizens in relation to national and regional bioeconomy strategies.
International Advances in Pesticide Application : at the School of Agriculture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, on 13-15 January 2016
Balsari, P. ; Cooper, S.E. ; Gill, E. ; Glass, C.R. ; Jones, W. ; Magri, B. ; Miller, P.C.H. ; Mountford-Smith, D. ; Nuyttens, D. ; Robinson, T.H. ; Stock, D. ; Taylor, J.C. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2016
The Association of Applied Biologists (Aspects of Applied Biology 132) - 430 p.
This international event marked the 14th occasion of this biennial conference and provided an opportunity to discuss pesticide (and bio-pesticide) application issues in an informal setting with platform and poster presentations. Key workers from research institutes, industry and regulatory authorities provided a unique mix of biological and engineering sciences.

Many governments of late have realised the importance of agricultural technologies with renewed emphasis on funding strategies aimed at developing new ideas and bringing developments to market. All this, in an effort to provide sustained development of their agricultural industry and food security while globally offering sustenance for an ever growing population. While much of these efforts gravitate towards the informatics and precision control technologies we should not forget the expanse that is crop protection and application technology’s part. The adoption of the holistic approaches of Integrated Pest Management offer growers’ avenues for control as the registration pressure on traditional chemistry continues to erode the farmers’ armoury. The diversion of attention towards the development of bio-pesticides by many major companies reinforces this shift in attitude and expectations, but may also encourage accepted application methods to be re-examined. While the use of larger more sophisticated machines in the application of pesticides and bio pesticides offer opportunities in maximising production on an industrial scale it must be remembered that assistance on a small scale can also offer considerable benefits. The papers presented here contribute to the wealth of knowledge needed to support a safe, sustainable and efficient industry.
Feed intake, growth, and body and carcass attributes of feedlot steers supplemented with two levels of calcium nitrate or urea
Hegarty, R.S. ; Miller, J. ; Oelbrandt, N. ; Li, L. ; Luijben, J.P.M. ; Robinson, D.L. ; Nolan, J.V. ; Perdok, H.B. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 5372 - 5381.
Beef cattle - Body composition - Carcass - Feedlot - Nitrate - Urea

Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A feedlot study was conducted to assess the effects of supplementing 0.25 or 0.45% NPN in dietary DM as either urea (Ur) or calcium nitrate (CaN) on DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass attributes of feedlot steers (n = 383). The levels of NPN inclusion were selected as those at which nitrate has previously achieved measurable mitigation of enteric methane. The higher level of NPN inclusion reduced ADG as did replacement of Ur with CaN (P <0.01). A combined analysis of DMI for 139 steers with individual animal intake data and pen-average intakes for 244 bunk-fed steers showed a significant interaction between NPN source and level (P = 0.02) with steers on the high-CaN diet eating less than those on the other 3 diets (P <0.001). Neither level nor NPN source significantly affected cattle G:F. There was a tendency (P = 0.05) for nitratesupplemented cattle to have a slower rate of eating (g DMI/min) than Ur-supplemented cattle. When adjusted for BW, neither NPN source nor inclusion level affected cross-sectional area of the LM or fatness measured on the live animal. Similarly, there were no significant main effects of treatments on dressing percentage or fat depth or muscling attributes of the carcass after adjustment for HCW (P > 0.05). Analysis of composited meat samples showed no detectable nitrates or nitrosamines in raw or cooked meat, and the level of nitrate detected in meat from nitrate-supplemented cattle was no higher than for Ur-fed cattle (P > 0.05). We conclude that increasing NPN inclusion from 0.25 to 0.45% NPN in dietary DM and replacing Ur with CaN decreased ADG in feedlot cattle without improving G:F.

Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages
Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Miller, William G. ; Yee, Emma ; Zomer, Aldert ; Graaf-Van Bloois, Linda Van Der; Fitzgerald, C. ; Forbes, Ken J. ; Méric, Guillaume ; Sheppard, S. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Duim, Birgitta - \ 2016
Genome Biology and Evolution 8 (2016)6. - ISSN 1759-6653 - p. 2006 - 2019.
Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies.
Studying the Mammalian Intestinal Microbiome Using Animal Models
Hugenholtz, F. ; Zhang, J. ; O'Toole, P.W. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2016
In: Manual of Environmental Microbiology / Yates, Marylyn V., Nakatsu, Cindy H., Miller, Robert V., Pillai, Suresh D., Washington DC : ASM Press - ISBN 9781555816025 - p. 4.4.2 - 1-4.4.2-10.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and animals is colonized by microorganisms immediately after birth. The composition of the GI tract microbiota undergoes remarkable alterations during early age, reaches a relative stable status in adulthood, and is driven by external factors such as habitual diet, location along the intestine, antibiotic therapy and maternal microbiota, and intrinsic factors such as host species and genotype. Whereas usually faecal samples are used for assessing the impact on the microbiota in human intervention studies, in vitro and animal models provide an easier way to collect many (invasive) samples, have multiple comparisons and regulating the genotype background. Animal models, and in particular mammalian models, provide an alternative way to study the in vivo responses to beneficial, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms in the GI tract, including studies that aim to see the impact of the host system as well. The main animals used to study the mammalian GI tract are rodents (mainly mice and rats) and pigs. Rodent and pig models, including gnotobiotic and humanized rodents and pigs and minipigs, have been extensively employed in gut microbiota studies, and especially the piglet model has been suggested as an appropriate model for human infant studies. With pig models, several intestinal sampling techniques can be applied in kinetic microbiota studies, including small intestinal segment perfusion and cannulation. In many cases, to test a certain treatment, a tiered approach consisting of complementary methods is employed, comprising in vitro, in vivo animal models, eventually leading towards human intervention studies.
Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior
Barban, Nicola ; Jansen, Rick ; Vlaming, Ronald de; Vaez, Ahmad ; Mandemakers, Jornt J. ; Tropf, Felix C. ; Shen, Xia ; Wilson, James F. ; Chasman, Daniel I. ; Nolte, Ilja M. ; Tragante, Vinicius ; Laan, Sander W. van der; Perry, John R.B. ; Kong, Augustine ; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. ; Albrecht, Eva ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura ; Atzmon, Gil ; Auro, Kirsi ; Ayers, Kristin ; Bakshi, Andrew ; Ben-Avraham, Danny ; Berger, Klaus ; Bergman, Aviv ; Bertram, Lars ; Bielak, Lawrence F. ; Bjornsdottir, Gyda ; Bonder, Marc Jan ; Broer, Linda ; Bui, Minh ; Barbieri, Caterina ; Cavadino, Alana ; Chavarro, Jorge E. ; Turman, Constance ; Concas, Maria Pina ; Cordell, Heather J. ; Davies, Gail ; Eibich, Peter ; Eriksson, Nicholas ; Esko, Tõnu ; Eriksson, Joel ; Falahi, Fahimeh ; Felix, Janine F. ; Fontana, Mark Alan ; Franke, Lude ; Gandin, Ilaria ; Gaskins, Audrey J. ; Gieger, Christian ; Gunderson, Erica P. ; Guo, Xiuqing ; Hayward, Caroline ; He, Chunyan ; Hofer, Edith ; Huang, Hongyan ; Joshi, Peter K. ; Kanoni, Stavroula ; Karlsson, Robert ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Kifley, Annette ; Kluttig, Alexander ; Kraft, Peter ; Lagou, Vasiliki ; Lecoeur, Cecile ; Lahti, Jari ; Li-Gao, Ruifang ; Lind, Penelope A. ; Liu, Tian ; Makalic, Enes ; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto ; Matteson, Lindsay ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; McArdle, Patrick F. ; McMahon, George ; Meddens, S.F.W. ; Mihailov, Evelin ; Miller, Mike ; Missmer, Stacey A. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Most, Peter J. van der; Myhre, Ronny ; Nalls, Mike A. ; Nutile, Teresa ; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota ; Porcu, Eleonora ; Prokopenko, Inga ; Rajan, Kumar B. ; Rich-Edwards, Janet ; Rietveld, Cornelius A. ; Robino, Antonietta ; Rose, Lynda M. ; Rueedi, Rico ; Ryan, Kathleen A. ; Saba, Yasaman ; Schmidt, Daniel ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Stolk, Lisette ; Streeten, Elizabeth ; Tönjes, Anke ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Ulivi, Sheila ; Wedenoja, Juho ; Wellmann, Juergen ; Willeit, Peter ; Yao, Jie ; Yengo, Loic ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Zhao, Wei ; Zhernakova, Daria V. ; Amin, Najaf ; Andrews, Howard ; Balkau, Beverley ; Barzilai, Nir ; Bergmann, Sven ; Biino, Ginevra ; Bisgaard, Hans ; Bønnelykke, Klaus ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Buring, Julie E. ; Campbell, Harry ; Cappellani, Stefania ; Ciullo, Marina ; Cox, Simon R. ; Cucca, Francesco ; Toniolo, Daniela ; Davey-Smith, George ; Deary, Ian J. ; Dedoussis, George ; Deloukas, Panos ; Duijn, Cornelia M. van; Geus, Eco J.C. de; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Evans, Denis A. ; Faul, Jessica D. ; Sala, Cinzia Felicita ; Froguel, Philippe ; Gasparini, Paolo ; Girotto, Giorgia ; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen ; Greiser, Karin Halina ; Groenen, Patrick J.F. ; Haan, Hugoline G. de; Haerting, Johannes ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Heikkilä, Kauko ; Hofman, Albert ; Homuth, Georg ; Holliday, Elizabeth G. ; Hopper, John ; Hyppönen, Elina ; Jacobsson, Bo ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Johannesson, Magnus ; Jugessur, Astanand ; Kähönen, Mika ; Kajantie, Eero ; Kardia, Sharon L.R. ; Keavney, Bernard ; Kolcic, Ivana ; Koponen, Päivikki ; Kovacs, Peter ; Kronenberg, Florian ; Kutalik, Zoltan ; Bianca, Martina la; Lachance, Genevieve ; Iacono, William G. ; Lai, Sandra ; Lehtimäki, Terho ; Liewald, David C. ; Lindgren, Cecilia M. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Luben, Robert ; Lucht, Michael ; Luoto, Riitta ; Magnus, Per ; Magnusson, Patrik K.E. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; McGue, Matt ; McQuillan, Ruth ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Meisinger, Christa ; Mellström, Dan ; Metspalu, Andres ; Traglia, Michela ; Milani, Lili ; Mitchell, Paul ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis ; Mutsert, Renée de; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Olsen, Jørn ; Ong, Ken K. ; Paternoster, Lavinia ; Pattie, Alison ; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. ; Perola, Markus ; Peyser, Patricia A. ; Pirastu, Mario ; Polasek, Ozren ; Power, Chris ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Raffel, Leslie J. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Raitakari, Olli ; Ridker, Paul M. ; Ring, Susan M. ; Roll, Kathryn ; Rudan, Igor ; Ruggiero, Daniela ; Rujescu, Dan ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Schlessinger, David ; Schmidt, Helena ; Schmidt, Reinhold ; Schupf, Nicole ; Smit, Johannes ; Sorice, Rossella ; Spector, Tim D. ; Starr, John M. ; Stöckl, Doris ; Strauch, Konstantin ; Stumvoll, Michael ; Swertz, Morris A. ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Thurik, A.R. ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Tung, Joyce Y. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Vaccargiu, Simona ; Viikari, Jorma ; Vitart, Veronique ; Völzke, Henry ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Vuckovic, Dragana ; Waage, Johannes ; Wagner, Gert G. ; Wang, Jie Jin ; Wareham, Nicholas J. ; Weir, David R. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Willeit, Johann ; Wright, Alan F. ; Zondervan, Krina T. ; Stefansson, Kari ; Krueger, Robert F. ; Lee, James J. ; Benjamin, Daniel J. ; Cesarini, David ; Koellinger, Philipp D. ; Hoed, Marcel den; Snieder, Harold ; Mills, Melinda C. - \ 2016
Nature Genetics 48 (2016)12. - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 1462 - 1472.
The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior—age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)—has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.
Teaching and learning reflexivity in problem-oriented inter- and transdisciplinary research
Fortuin, K.P.J. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van - \ 2016
In: Conference Proceedings. - Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - p. 209 - 213.
A crucial skill for researchers involved in inter- and transdisciplinary projects is the ability to reflect not only on the problem and its solutions but also on the process of knowledge production itself. In other words, these researchers require reflexive skills. Reflexive skills refer to the ability of researchers to question the different sorts of knowledge used, to recognize the epistemological and normative aspects involved, and to reflect on their own and others' roles in these knowledge processes (Fortuin and van Koppen 2015). Literature shows that reflexivity in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research is important, yet difficult to learn (Miller et al. 2008, Godemann 2008, Kueffer et al. 2012). Reflexive skills need to be trained. Existing literature provides, however, little specific guidance on how to do so. The research presented in this paper aimed at developing and evaluating a teaching and learning strategy for reflexive skills in interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity specifically.
Comparative genomics of campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts
Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Miller, William G. ; Yee, Emma ; Kik, Marja ; Zomer, Aldert L. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Duim, Birgitta - \ 2016
Genome Biology and Evolution 8 (2016)9. - ISSN 1759-6653 - p. 3022 - 3029.
Campylobacter Iguaniorum - Comparative Genomics - Evolution - Phylogeny - Recombination - Reptile

Campylobacter iguaniorum is most closely related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, andC. lanienae. Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be a primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorumstrain 1485E, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and strain 2463D, isolated froma green iguana (Iguana iguana), with the genomes of closely related taxa, in particular with reptile-Associated C. fetus subsp.Testudinum. In contrast to C. fetus, C. iguaniorum is lacking an S-layer encoding region. Furthermore, a defined lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis locus, encoding multiple glycosyltransferases and bounded by waa genes, is absent from C. iguaniorum. Instead, multiple predicted glycosylation regionswere identified inC. iguaniorum.One of these regions is>50 kb withdeviantG+Ccontent, suggesting acquisition via lateral transfer. These similar, but non-homologous glycosylation regions were located at the same position on the genome in both strains. Multiple genes encoding respiratory enzymes not identified to date within the C. fetus clade were present. C. iguaniorum shared highest homology with C. hyointestinalis and C. fetus. As in reptile-Associated C. fetus subsp.Testudinum, a putative tricarballylate catabolism locus was identified. However, despite colonizing a shared host, no recent recombination between both taxa was detected. This genomic study provides a better understanding of host adaptation, virulence, phylogeny, and evolution of C. iguaniorum and related Campylobacter taxa.

Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates
Esser, Helen J. ; Foley, Janet E. ; Bongers, Frans ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Miller, Matthew J. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2016
International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5 (2016)3. - ISSN 2213-2244 - p. 295 - 304.
20/80 Rule - Panama - Parasite fauna - Pareto principle - Proportional similarity - Species richness

Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

Molecular ecological insights into neotropical bird-tick interactions
Miller, Matthew J. ; Esser, Helen J. ; Loaiza, Jose R. ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Aguilar, Celestino ; Quintero, Diomedes ; Alvarez, Eric ; Bermingham, Eldredge - \ 2016
PLoS ONE 11 (2016)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 17 p.

In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of emerging tropical tick-borne pathogens should explicitly consider wild bird as hosts.

Improving the knowledge basis for advice on North Sea horse mackerel : developing new methods to get insight on stock boundaries and abundance
Brunel, Thomas ; Farrell, Edward D. ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Kwadijk, Christiaan ; Verkempynck, Ruben ; Chen, Chun ; Miller, David - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C092/16) - 57
trachurus trachurus - fish stocks - fisheries - models - visstand - visserij - modellen
The North Sea horse mackerel stock is currently classified by ICES as a data poor stock, for which the catch advice is based on the trend in an abundance index. The development of an analytical stock assessment, necessary to give more accurate advice, is hampered by a number of limitations on the input data, among which the most important are the poor quality of catch-at-age data and the absence of a targeted survey for North Sea horse mackerel. The aim of this project was to study possibilities to improve the data quality used for an analytical stock assessment model.
A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food
Raptis, Ioannis ; Misiakos, Konstantinos ; Makarona, Eleni ; Salapatas, Alexandros ; Petrou, Panagiota ; Kakabakos, Sotirios ; Botsialas, Athanasios ; Jobst, Gerhard ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo ; Lees, Michelle ; Valamontes, Evangelos - \ 2016
In: Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems VIII. - SPIE (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging 37) - ISBN 9781628419597
food safety - lab-on-a-chip - Mach-Zehnder interferometry - optoelectronic chip

Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

Longer lifespan in male mice treated with a weakly estrogenic agonist, an antioxidant, an α-glucosidase inhibitor or a Nrf2-inducer
Strong, Randy ; Miller, Richard A. ; Antebi, Adam ; Astle, Clinton M. ; Bogue, Molly ; Denzel, Martin S. ; Fernandez, Elizabeth ; Flurkey, Kevin ; Hamilton, Karyn L. ; Lamming, Dudley W. ; Javors, Martin A. ; Magalhães, João Pedro de; Martinez, Paul Anthony ; McCord, Joe M. ; Miller, Benjamin F. ; Müller, Michael ; Nelson, James F. ; Ndukum, Juliet ; Rainger, G.E. ; Richardson, Arlan ; Sabatini, David M. ; Salmon, Adam B. ; Simpkins, James W. ; Steegenga, Wilma T. ; Nadon, Nancy L. ; Harrison, David E. - \ 2016
Aging Cell 15 (2016)5. - ISSN 1474-9718 - p. 872 - 884.
17-α-estradiol - acarbose - fish oil - metformin - NDGA - Protandim - rapamycin - UDCA

The National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP) evaluates agents hypothesized to increase healthy lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice. Each compound is tested in parallel at three sites, and all results are published. We report the effects of lifelong treatment of mice with four agents not previously tested: Protandim, fish oil, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and metformin – the latter with and without rapamycin, and two drugs previously examined: 17-α-estradiol and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), at doses greater and less than used previously. 17-α-estradiol at a threefold higher dose robustly extended both median and maximal lifespan, but still only in males. The male-specific extension of median lifespan by NDGA was replicated at the original dose, and using doses threefold lower and higher. The effects of NDGA were dose dependent and male specific but without an effect on maximal lifespan. Protandim, a mixture of botanical extracts that activate Nrf2, extended median lifespan in males only. Metformin alone, at a dose of 0.1% in the diet, did not significantly extend lifespan. Metformin (0.1%) combined with rapamycin (14 ppm) robustly extended lifespan, suggestive of an added benefit, based on historical comparison with earlier studies of rapamycin given alone. The α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, at a concentration previously tested (1000 ppm), significantly increased median longevity in males and 90th percentile lifespan in both sexes, even when treatment was started at 16 months. Neither fish oil nor UDCA extended lifespan. These results underscore the reproducibility of ITP longevity studies and illustrate the importance of identifying optimal doses in lifespan studies.

Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production
Graaf-van Bloois, Linda van der; Duim, Birgitta ; Miller, William G. ; Forbes, Ken J. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Zomer, Aldert - \ 2016
BMC Genomics 17 (2016)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis - Campylobacter fetus - Core genome SNP analysis - Cysteine transporter - HS production - Subspecies differentiation

Background: Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft). Subspecies identification of mammal-associated C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis (BGC), a syndrome associated with Cfv. The prescribed methods for subspecies identification of the Cff and Cfv isolates are: tolerance to 1 % glycine and H2S production. Results: In this study, we observed the deletion of a putative cysteine transporter in the Cfv strains, which are not able to produce H2S from L-cysteine. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within Cff and Cfv strains divided these strains into five different clades and showed that the Cfv clade and a Cff clade evolved from a single Cff ancestor. Conclusions: Multiple C. fetus clades were observed, which were not consistent with the biochemical differentiation of the strains. This suggests the need for a closer evaluation of the current C. fetus subspecies differentiation, considering that the phenotypic differentiation is still applied in BGC control programs.

Quantification of Stereochemical Communication in Metal–Organic Assemblies
Castilla, Ana M. ; Miller, Mark A. ; Nitschke, Jonathan R. ; Smulders, Maarten M.J. - \ 2016
Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 55 (2016)36. - ISSN 1433-7851 - p. 10616 - 10620.
cage compounds - diastereoselectivity - statistical mechanics - stereochemical communication - supramolecular chemistry

The derivation and application of a statistical mechanical model to quantify stereochemical communication in metal–organic assemblies is reported. The factors affecting the stereochemical communication within and between the metal stereocenters of the assemblies were experimentally studied by optical spectroscopy and analyzed in terms of a free energy penalty per “incorrect” amine enantiomer incorporated, and a free energy of coupling between stereocenters. These intra- and inter-vertex coupling constants are used to track the degree of stereochemical communication across a range of metal–organic assemblies (employing different ligands, peripheral amines, and metals); temperature-dependent equilibria between diastereomeric cages are also quantified. The model thus provides a unified understanding of the factors that shape the chirotopic void spaces enclosed by metal–organic container molecules.

D3.2: Case studies of regional bioeconomy strategies across Europe
Charles, David ; Davies, S. ; Miller, S. ; Clement, K. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Hoes, A.C. ; Hasenheit, Marius ; Kiresiewa, Zoritza ; Kah, Stefan ; Bianchini, Chiara - \ 2016
EU - 80 p.
regional economics - regional development - economic development - biobased economy - european union - government policy - regionale economie - regionale ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - europese unie - overheidsbeleid
This report provides a summary of issues raised in the four regional case studies: Scotland, South-West Netherlands, Saxony-Anhalt and Veneto. It examines the ways in which the bioeconomy has been defined in regional strategies and the ways in which those regional strategies have been initi-ated and implemented in the four regions. Each of the regions has a distinctive approach, specialis-ing around the particular assets and strengths of the region and its core stakeholders. Typically, re-gional strategies have been developed by regional government or by stakeholder groups sponsored by those governments, and hence the main objectives have been to promote economic development through the application of developments in the bioeconomy. A primary driver of strategy development has been the need to respond to the requirements of the EU smart specialisation strategies.
Gender specific differences in the liver proteome of rats exposed to short term and low-concentration hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)
Miller, I. ; Diepenbroek, C. ; Rijntjes, E. ; Renaut, J. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Kwadijk, C. ; Cambier, S. ; Murk, A.J. ; Gutleb, A.C. ; Serchi, T. - \ 2016
Toxicology Research 5 (2016)5. - ISSN 2045-452X - p. 1273 - 1283.

The influence of short term (7-day) exposure of male rats to the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was studied by investigation of the liver proteome, both in euthyroid and hypothyroid rats and by comparing results with general data on animal physiology and thyroid hormone, leptin, insulin and gonadotropin concentrations determined in parallel. Proteome analysis of liver tissue by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) revealed that only small protein pattern changes were induced by exposure in males, on just a few proteins with different functions and not involved in pathways in common. This is in contrast to previous findings in similarly exposed eu- and hypothyroid female rats, where general metabolic pathways had been shown to be affected. The largest gender-dependent effects concerned basal concentrations of liver proteins already in control and hypothyroid animals, involving mainly the pathways which were also differently affected by HBCD exposure. Among them were differences in lipid metabolism, which-upon exposure to HBCD-may also be the reason for the considerably higher ratio of γ-HBCD accumulated in white adipose tissue of exposed female rats compared to males. The results further elucidate the already suggested different sensitivity of genders towards HBCD exposure on the protein level, and confirm the need for undertaking toxicological animal experiments in both genders.

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