Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance
Mlotshwa, S. ; Verver, J. ; Sithole-Niang, I. ; Prins, M. ; Kammen, A. van; Wellink, J. - \ 2002
Virus Genes 25 (2002)1. - ISSN 0920-8569 - p. 45 - 47.
Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed enhanced symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and also after infection with a heterologous potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) and a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). On the other hand, transgenic lines expressing nontranslatable HC-Pro or translatable HC-Pro with a deletion of the central domain showed wild type symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and heterologous viruses. These results showed that CABMV HC-Pro is a pathogenicity determinant that conditions enhanced sensitivity to virus infection in plants, and that the central domain of the protein is essential for this. The severe symptoms in CABMV-infected HC-Pro expressing lines were remarkably followed by brief recovery and subsequent re-establishment of infection, possibly indicating counteracting effects of HC-Pro expression and a host defense response. One of the HC-Pro expressing lines (h48) was found to contain low levels of transgenic HC-Pro RNA and to be resistant to CABMV and to recombinant CPMV expressing HC-Pro. This indicated that h48 was (partially) posttranscriptionally silenced for the HC-Pro transgene inspite of the established role of HC-Pro as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Line h48 was not resistant to PVY, but instead showed enhanced symptoms compared to nontransgenic plants. This may be due to relief of silencing of the HC-Pro transgene by HC-Pro expressed by PVY.
Subcellular location of the helper component-proteinase of Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus
Mlotshwa, S. ; Verver, J. ; Sithole-Niang, I. ; Gopinath, K. ; Carette, J. ; Kammen, A. van; Wellink, J. - \ 2002
Virus Genes 25 (2002)2. - ISSN 0920-8569 - p. 207 - 216.
The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to obtain HC-Pro antiserum that was used as an analytical tool for HC-Pro studies. The antiserum was used in immunofluorescence assays to study the subcellular location of HC-Pro expressed with other viral proteins in cowpea protoplasts in a natural CABMV infection, or in protoplasts transfected with a transient expression construct expressing HC-Pro separately from other viral proteins under the control of the 35S promoter. In both cases the protein showed a diffuse cytoplasmic location. Similar localisation patterns were shown in live protoplasts when the transient expression system was used to express HC-Pro as a fusion with the green fluorescent protein as a reporter. In an alternative expression system, the HC-Pro coding region was subcloned in-frame between the movement protein and large coat protein genes of RNA2 of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Upon transfection of protoplasts with this construct, HC-Pro was expressed as part of the RNA2 encoded polyprotein from which it was fully processed. In this case, the protein localised in broad cytoplasmic patches reminiscent of the typical CPMV induced cytopathic structures in which CPMV replication occurs, suggesting an interaction of HC-Pro with CPMV proteins or host factors in these structures. Finally, recombinant CPMV expressing HC-Pro showed a strongly enhanced virulence on cowpea and Nicotiana benthamiana consistent with the role of HC-Pro as a pathogenicity determinant, a phenomenon now known to be linked to its role as a suppressor of host defense responses based on post-transcriptional gene silencing.
The genomic sequence of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and its similarities with other potyviruses
Mlotshwa, S. ; Verver, J. ; Sithole-Niang, I. ; Kampen, T. van; Kammen, A. van; Wellink, J. - \ 2002
Archives of Virology 147 (2002). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 1043 - 1052.
The genomic sequence of a Zimbabwe isolate of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV-Z) was determined by sequencing overlapping viral cDNA clones generated by RT-PCR using degenerate and/or specific primers. The sequence is 9465 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly (A) tail and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) of 9159 nucleotides encoding a large polyprotein of 3 053 amino acids and predicted Mr of 348. The size of the genome and the encoded polyprotein is in agreement with other potyviruses and contains nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and motifs conserved in homologous proteins of other potyviruses. The P1 and P3 were the most variable proteins while CI, NIb and CP were the most conserved.
|Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV)
Mlotshwa, S. ; Sithole-Niang, I. ; Kammen, A. van; Wellink, J. - \ 2000
In: Research advances in virology / Mohan, R.M., Kerala : Global Research Network - ISBN 9788187736110 - p. 127 - 136.
The helper component-proteinase of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus
Mlotshwa, S. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Kammen; J. Wellink; I. Sithole-Niang. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083401 - 111
vigna unguiculata - vignabonen - potyvirus - kousenbandrolmozaïekvirus - pathogeniteit - weerstand - dna-sequencing - dna - genoomanalyse - genetische modificatie - genetische transformatie - ziekteresistentie - cowpeas - blackeye cowpea mosaic virus - pathogenicity - resistance - dna sequencing - genome analysis - genetic engineering - genetic transformation - disease resistance
<p>Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus causes severe yield losses in cowpea, an important legume crop in semi-arid regions of Africa. We have elucidated the genomic sequence of the virus and subsequently focused our attention on the so-called helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), a virus-encoded multifunctional protein with roles in different steps of the virus life cycle. Our study has shed more insight into some of the molecular properties of this protein. We have shown that HC-Pro is able to shut down host defense responses, and this puts HC-Pro at the core of the success of CABMV as a pathogen. The phenomenon also seems to benefit other viruses as they accumulate to higher levels and elicit enhanced symptoms in the presence of HC-Pro. On the other hand, we have found that the host does manifest an ability to counter the deleterious effects of HC-Pro. A full understanding of the molecular basis of this contest would enable the design of effective new strategies to protect plants from virus infections.</p>