Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components
Bauer, E. ; Metzler-Zebeli, B.U. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Mosenthin, R. - \ 2011
Nutrition Research Reviews 24 (2011)2. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 155 - 175.
total parenteral-nutrition - glucagon-like peptide-2 - chain fatty-acids - growth-factor-i - nf-kappa-b - oligopeptide transporter pept-1 - ischemia-reperfusion injury - inflammatory-bowel-disease - messenger-rna expression - activated receptor-gamma
The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids, participate in the regulation of intestinal gene expression. However, nutrients may also escape digestion by mammalian enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These nutrients can be used by the microflora, resulting in the production of bacterial metabolites, for example, SCFA, which may affect intestinal gene expression indirectly. The present review provides an insight on possible effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression, as it may occur post-weaning. Detailed knowledge on effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression may help to understand weaning-associated intestinal dysfunctions and diseases. Examples are given of intestinal genes which may be altered in their expression due to supply with specific nutrients. In that way, gene expression could be modulated by dietary means, thereby acting as a potential therapeutic tool. This could be achieved, for example, by influencing genes coding for digestive or absorptive proteins, thus optimising digestive function and metabolism, but also with regard to immune response, or by influencing proliferative processes, thereby enhancing mucosal repair. This would be of special interest when designing a diet to overcome weaning-associated problems
In vitro fermentation of various carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients combined with chyme from pigs
Bauer, E. ; Wiliams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
Archives of Animal Nutrition 64 (2010)5. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 394 - 411.
fatty-acid production - gastrointestinal-tract - microbial activity - diet composition - growing pigs - large-intestine - chicory roots - ileum chyme - boar taint - gut
Increased carbohydrate fermentation, compared with protein fermentation, could benefit gut health. In two in vitro experiments, the effect of carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients on fermentation characteristics of ileal chyme from pigs was assessed, using the cumulative gas production technique. Ingredients of the first experiment included gums, inulins, pectins, transgalacto-oligosaccharides, lactose and xylan. In the second experiment, a gum, pectin and transgalacto-oligosaccharides were added at different starting weights, to determine their effects on fermentation characteristics of chyme, in relation to differences in the carbohydrate concentrations. In comparison to fermentation of chyme alone, added carbohydrates led to higher total gas production (p <0.05), faster maximum rate of gas production (except for xylan) (p <0.05), and a decreased branched-chain fatty acids to straight chain fatty acids ratio (BCR) (p <0.05). In the second experiment, for all carbohydrate ingredients, the BCR decreased with increasing starting weights (p <0.05). If these supplemented dietary carbohydrates were to reach the terminal ileum of the living animal, carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine could be stimulated, which is known to have beneficial effects on host health.
Definition of apparent, true, and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in pigs
Stein, H.H. ; Fuller, M.F. ; Moughan, P.J. ; Seve, B. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Fernandez, J.A. ; Lange, C.F.M. de - \ 2007
Livestock Science 109 (2007)1-3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 282 - 285.
growing pigs - endogenous losses - distal ileum - feed-intake - protein - level
Measures of ileal digestibility (ID) are used routinely as estimates of amino acid (AA) bio-availability in pig feed ingredients. Values for ID may be expressed as apparent (AID), standardized (SID), or true (TID). Values for AID are calculated by deducting the total ileal outflow of AA (the sum of endogenous losses (IAA(end)) and non-digested dietary AA) from dietary AA intake. The IAA(end) may be separated into basal losses, which are not influenced by feed ingredient composition, and specific losses induced by feed ingredient characteristics such as anti-nutritional factors and dietary fiber. If the AID values are corrected for total IAA(end) then values for TID are calculated. Lack of additivity of AID values in feed formulation may be overcome by correcting AID values for basal IAA(end) only, which yields SID values. Until reliable procedures for the routine measurement of specific IAA(end) become available, it is suggested that SID values are used for feed formulation. It is advisable that basal IAA(end) are measured in digestibility experiments and that these losses are reported with SID values. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Standardization of methods for the determination of ileal amino acid digestibilities in growing pigs
Mosenthin, R. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Eklund, M. - \ 2007
Livestock Science 109 (2007)1/3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 276 - 281.
digestion - protein - barley - tract
Based on current recommendations of the CVB (1996) in the Netherlands and the GfE (2002, 2005) in Germany, a standardization of methods for the determination of ileal amino acid digestibilities in growing pigs is proposed. Differences and similarities between these protocols in terms of (i) animals, housing and feeding conditions (ii), methods for digesta collection and handling, and (iii) approaches to determine ileal amino acid digestibilities are described
Fermentable carbohydrates, potential dietary modulators of intestinal physiology, microbiology and immunity in pigs
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Mosenthin, R. - \ 2006
In: Biology of nutrition in growing animals / Mosenthin, R., Zentek, J., Zebrowska, T., Edinburgh : Elsevier (Biology of growing animals 4) - ISBN 0444512322 - p. 33 - 64.
Development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota during early life is particularly dynamic, and develops to a dense, complex and stable Community. This bacterial succession involves microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions and is dependent on host-supplied exogenous and endogenous nutrients. Research into possible alternatives for in-feed antibi-otics has focused mainly on the potentially beneficial activities of the GIT microbiota. Prebiotics, or the fermentable carbohydrates, such as nondigestible oligosaccharides, are con-sidered to have beneficial effects both on the composition and activity of the indigenous GIT microbiota, which can enhance resistance against colonization by pathogens. Additional effects of fermentable carbohydrates may also be derived from their beneficial influence on physiological aspects, including mineral absorption, reduced serum lipid levels, or reduced production of putrefactive substances. Furthermore, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as end products of the fermentation process are well known for their health-promoting effects, including their trophic effects on the intestinal epithelium, and their antibacterial activities. Dietary carbohydrates may also exert immunomodulating effects mediated by changes in the intestinal microbiota, such as promotion of lactic acid bacteria which are considered to stimulate the immune response.
Influence of dietary components on development of microbiota in single-stomached species
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Smidt, H. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2006
Nutrition Research Reviews 19 (2006)1. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 63 - 78.
in-vitro fermentation - chain fatty-acids - gradient gel-electrophoresis - human-milk oligosaccharides - exogenous lipolytic enzymes - formula-fed infants - bifidus var pennsylvanicus - human large-intestine - 16s ribosomal dna - gastrointestinal-tract
After birth, development of a normal microbial community occurs gradually, and is affected by factors such as the composition of the maternal gut microbiota, the environment, and the host genome. Diet also has a direct influence, both on composition and activity of this community. This influence begins with the milk, when specific components exert their growth-promoting effect on a beneficial microbiota, thereby suppressing potential pathogens. For example, breast-fed infants compared with formula-fed babies usually have a microbial community dominated by bifidobacteria. When solid food is introduced (weaning), dramatic changes in microbial composition occur, so pathogens can gain access to the disturbed gastrointestinal (GI) ecosystem. However, use of specific dietary components can alter the composition and activity of the microbiota positively. Of all dietary components, fermentable carbohydrates seem to be most promising in terms of promoting proliferation of beneficial bacterial species. Carbohydrate fermentation results in the production of SCFA which are known for their trophic and health-promoting effects. Fermentation of proteins, on the other hand, is often associated with growth of potential pathogens, and results in production of detrimental substances including NH3 and amines. In terms of the GI microbiota, lipids are often associated with the antimicrobial activity of medium-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. The present review aims to provide deeper insights into the composition and development of the neonatal GI microbiota, how this microbiota can be influenced by certain dietary components, and how this might ultimately lead to improvements in host health
Influence of the gastrointestinal microbiota on development of the immune system in young animals
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Smidt, H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Mosenthin, R. - \ 2006
Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology 7 (2006)1. - ISSN 1466-531X - p. 35 - 52.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of adult mammals is colonized by a complex and dynamic community of microorganisms. Most protection against potential pathogens occurs via a mucosal immune system involving mechanisms of innate immunity as well as a secondary lymphoid organ, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). However, the bacterial community also supports its host against invasion by potential pathogens, by a mechanism called 'colonization resistance'. Young animals need time to develop both a complex bacterial community and their immature GIT immune system, and until such developments have taken place, they are vulnerable to the presence of potential pathogens in their GIT. Initial protection against invading pathogens is provided by milk and colostrum, which contain antibodies and other bioactive components. At weaning, with the introduction of solid food and deprivation of the mother's milk, the young must also cope with a rapidly changing microbiota. The colonizing microbiota not only provides colonization resistance to potentially pathogenic bacteria. It also has a major role in the development of the intestinal immune system, both in terms of GALT development and mucosal immunity, and the induction of oral tolerance. Studies using gnotobiotic animal models have revealed that the presence of even limited numbers of the indigenous microbiota may influence the GIT immune system. Regulation of the composition of the GIT microbiota, e.g. by the use of pre- and probiotics, offers the possibility to influence the development of mucosal, and also systemic immunity.
Probiotics - potential dietary modulation of intestinal physiology, microbiology and immunity in pigs
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2005
In: Biology of nutrition in growing animals / Mosenthin, R., Zentek, J., Zebrowska, T., Elsevier - ISBN 0444512322 - 500 p.
Fermentable carbohydrates: potential dietary modulators of intestinal physiology, microbiology and immunity in pigs
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2004
In: Biology of nutrition in growing animals - Volume 4 / Mosenthin, R., Zentek, J., Zebrowska, T., Amsterdam : Elsevier Publishers - ISBN 9780444512321 - p. 33 - 63.
Dose response of selected carbohydrate-rich feed additives to chyme fermentation in vitro
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2004
Differences in microbial activity of digesta from three sections of the porcine large intestine according to in vitro fermentation of carbohydrate-rich substrates
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2004
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84 (2004)15. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 2097 - 2104.
gradient gel-electrophoresis - gas-production - gastrointestinal-tract - ruminant feeds - rumen fluid - pigs - diversity - bacteria - kinetics - urea
To determine whether faecal microorganisms can represent the entire large intestinal population, samples from caecum, mid-colon and rectum of three adult pigs were used for the in vitro fermentation of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), potato starch, wheat bran and oat hulls. The cumulative gas production technique measured fermentation kinetics and end-products such as total gas, NH3 and volatile fatty acids (VFA). There were significant differences in the fermentability of substrates, in terms of both kinetics and end-products. More relevant to this study, there were also differences between pigs in respect of total gas production, the rate of gas production (RM) and VFA production. For large intestine sections, there were more VFA from mid-colon and rectal inocula compared with that from the caecum (p <0.0001). Total gas, RM and NH3 were highest for rectal, intermediate for mid-colon and lowest for caecal inocula (p <0.0001). It was concluded that, while faecal sampling might overestimate caecal fermentation, its use is valid for in vitro assessment of large intestinal fermentation. However, differences between pigs indicate that a mix of samples from several animals remains important
In vitro fermentation characteristics of carbohydrate-rich feedstuffs inoculated with digestata from different sections of the pig large intestine
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
In vitro studies on the impact of carbohydrate-rich ingredients on fermentation characteristics of chyme obtained from pigs
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
In: Proceedings 9th symposium on digestive physiology in pigs Banff, Alberta, Canada : S.n. - p. 14 - 17.
Impact of mammalian enzyme pretreatment of the fermentability of carbohydrate-rich feedstuffs
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83 (2003). - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 207 - 214.
chain fatty-acid - gas-production - gastrointestinal-tract - microbial activity - invitro method - pigs - fermentation - digestion - bacteria - protein
Several carbohydrate-rich substrates (spent brewer's grains, potato peel, potato starch, wheat bran, sugarbeet pulp and a maize-based standard diet for pigs) were pretreated with digestive enzymes, and the in vitro fermentability of these treated substrates and their untreated counterparts was assessed using the cumulative gas production technique. A comparison was also made between the enzyme-treated (ET) and untreated (UT) standard diet for pigs, and chyme which originated from pigs fed that diet, to determine whether the enzyme treatment resulted in material with similar fermentability to that reaching the large intestine in vivo. The enzyme pretreatment was performed according to a modified in vitro method of Babinszky et al (J Sci Food Agric 50:173-178 (1990)). Generally, it was shown that the fermentabilities of the ET and UT substrates were different. There was also a significant difference between the fermentation characteristics of the ET diet and chyme. Chyme produced less gas (P <0.05), and the time at which half of the gas had been produced (C) occurred later (P <0.05). The maximum rate of fermentation (R-M) was slower for chyme (P <0.05). Fermentation of chyme led to more ammonia (P <0.05) and a tendency to more volatile fatty acids at the end of fermentation. These differences in fermentability of the ET diet and chyme (from pigs fed the same diet) may be the result of differences which relate purely to the action of the enzymes chosen to work in vitro, compared with those which are actually present in vivo. However, the results also suggest that it is not only enzymatic digestion which is occurring in the small intestine. This is an important consideration when using ileal techniques to determine digestibility of feedstuffs. (C) 2003 Society of Chemical Industry.
Fermentation capacity of rectal inocula from different pigs fermenting feedstuffs rich in carbohydrates
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores Yucatan, Mexico : Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan - p. 421 - 425.
In vitro fermentation characteristics of carbohydrate-rich feedstuffs using faeces and mixed microbial population from the pig's large intestine
Bauer, E. - \ 2002
University of Hohenheim. Promotor(en): R. Mosenthin, co-promotor(en): B.A. Williams; M.W.A. Verstegen. - Hohenheim : E. Bauer - 171 p.
In vitro Studien zur Fermentation kohlenhydratreicher Futtermittel mit Digesta aus unterschiedlichen Darmsegmenten des Schweines
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Nutrition of Domestic Animals 'Zadravec-Erjavec Days', Radenci (Slowenien), 2001. - [S.l.] : [s.n.], 2001 - p. 144 - 151.
In vitro Unterzuchungen zur Fermentationskinetik kohlenhydratreicher Futtermittel mittels der kumulativen Gasproduktionsmethode
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
In: Kurzfassung der Vortäge des 113. VDLUFA-Kongresses in Berlin, Berlin, 2001. - Darmstadt : VDLUFA-Verlag, 2001 - p. 120 - 121.
Fermentation characteristics of carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients measured with the cumulative gas production technique
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
Proceedings of the society of nutritional physiology 10 (2001). - p. S109 - S109.
Microbial activities of faeces from unweaned and adult pigs, in relation to selected fermentable carbohydrates
Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
Animal Science 73 (2001)2. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 313 - 322.
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