Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Genera of phytopathogenic fungi : GOPHY 2
Marin-Felix, Y. ; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Akulov, A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Gramaje, D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Guarnaccia, V. ; Halleen, F. ; Lombard, L. ; Luangsa-ard, J. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Moslemi, A. ; Mostert, L. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Spies, C.F.J. ; Thangavel, R. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Wilson, A.M. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wood, A.R. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 47 - 133.
26 new taxa - DNA barcodes - Fungal systematics - Six new typifications

This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species are included. This second paper in the GOPHY series treats 20 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives including: Allantophomopsiella, Apoharknessia, Cylindrocladiella, Diaporthe, Dichotomophthora, Gaeumannomyces, Harknessia, Huntiella, Macgarvieomyces, Metulocladosporiella, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Paraphoma, Phaeoacremonium, Phyllosticta, Proxypiricularia, Pyricularia, Stenocarpella, Utrechtiana and Wojnowiciella. This study includes the new genus Pyriculariomyces, 20 new species, five new combinations, and six typifications for older names.

Verminderen van ziekten bij melkvee kan broeikasgasemissies verlagen
Mostert, Pim - \ 2018

Ziekten bij melkvee in Nederland verhogen de uitstoot van broeikasgassen met ongeveer 0.4 Mton per jaar. De reductieopgave van broeikasgassen in Nederland in 2030 bedraagt voor landbouw en landgebruik 3,5 Mton. Het verminderen van ziekten bij melkvee kan hierdoor een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan dit klimaatdoel.

The impact of diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions and economic performance
Mostert, Pim - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Eddy Bokkers; Corina van Middelaar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432740 - 150
The impact of diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production
Mostert, Pim - \ 2018
Diseases in dairy cows result in inefficient production because of a decrease in milk production and fertility, and an increased risk of culling. Therefore, diseases also will have an impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg milk. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of diseases in dairy cows on GHG emissions. Three diseases with a high incidence were included: foot disorders, clinical mastitis, and subclinical ketosis.
Estimating the economic impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle using a dynamic stochastic simulation model
Mostert, P.F. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Hogeveen, H. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
Animal 12 (2018)1. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 145 - 154.
cost - dairy cow - disease - modelling - parity

The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. This metabolic disorder occurs in the period around calving and is associated with an increased risk of other diseases. Therefore, SCK affects farm productivity and profitability. Estimating the economic impact of SCK may make farmers more aware of this problem, and can improve their decision-making regarding interventions to reduce SCK. We developed a dynamic stochastic simulation model that enables estimating the economic impact of SCK and related diseases (i.e. mastitis, metritis, displaced abomasum, lameness and clinical ketosis) occurring during the first 30 days after calving. This model, which was applied to a typical Dutch dairy herd, groups cows according to their parity (1 to 5+), and simulates the dynamics of SCK and related diseases, and milk production per cow during one lactation. The economic impact of SCK and related diseases resulted from a reduced milk production, discarded milk, treatment costs, costs from a prolonged calving interval and removal (culling or dying) of cows. The total costs of SCK were €130 per case per year, with a range between €39 and €348 (5 to 95 percentiles). The total costs of SCK per case per year, moreover, increased from €83 per year in parity 1 to €175 in parity 3. Most cows with SCK, however, had SCK only (61%), and costs were €58 per case per year. Total costs of SCK per case per year resulted for 36% from a prolonged calving interval, 24% from reduced milk production, 19% from treatment, 14% from discarded milk and 6% from removal. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the disease incidence, removal risk, relations of SCK with other diseases and prices of milk resulted in a high variation of costs of SCK. The costs of SCK, therefore, might differ per farm because of farm-specific circumstances. Improving data collection on the incidence of SCK and related diseases, and on consequences of diseases can further improve economic estimations.

The impact of mastitis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions
Mostert, P.F. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2017
The impact of mastitis in dairy cows on the carbon footprint of milk
Mostert, P.F. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2017
The impact of health problems in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions: a case study with mastitis
Mostert, P.F. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group Level. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863143 - p. 51 - 51.
Effects of dry period length on production, cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy herd : A dynamic stochastic simulation model
Kok, Akke ; Middelaar, Corina E. van; Mostert, Pim F. ; Knegsel, Ariëtte T.M. van; Kemp, Bas ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2017
PLoS One 12 (2017)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 21 p.

Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable for informed decision-making by farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate how shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows affects production and cash flows at the herd level, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk, using a dynamic stochastic simulation model. The effects of dry period length on milk yield and calving interval assumed in this model were derived from actual performance of commercial dairy cows over multiple lactations. The model simulated lactations, and calving and culling events of individual cows for herds of 100 cows. Herds were simulated for 5 years with a dry period of 56 (conventional), 28 or 0 days (n = 50 herds each). Partial cash flows were computed from revenues from sold milk, calves, and culled cows, and costs from feed and rearing youngstock. Greenhouse gas emissions were computed using a life cycle approach. A dry period of 28 days reduced milk production of the herd by 3.0% in years 2 through 5, compared with a dry period of 56 days. A dry period of 0 days reduced milk production by 3.5% in years 3 through 5, after a dip in milk production of 6.9% in year 2. On average, dry periods of 28 and 0 days reduced partial cash flows by €1,249 and €1,632 per herd per year, and increased greenhouse gas emissions by 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Considering the potential for enhancing cow welfare, these negative impacts of shortening or omitting the dry period seem justifiable, and they might even be offset by improved health.

Economic and environmental impact of dry period length in dairy cows
Kok, A. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Mostert, P.F. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Kemp, B. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group Level. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863143 - p. 54 - 54.
Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows can improve cow welfare through fewer management changes and improved metabolic health in early lactation, at the cost of milk production. Part of the milk losses are compensated by additional milk before calving. The aim of this study was to model how a transition to a dry period of 28 or 0 days vs a dry period of 56 days affects net financial flows at herd level and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk. The evaluation included financial flows from milk, meat, calves, feed, and youngstock, and greenhouse gas emissions from feed production, enteric fermentation, and manure storage. In the stochastic model in R, dry period length affected milk yield, calving interval, and the risk of culling for fertility. Values for these parameters were derived from data from commercial dairy farms that shorten or omit the dry period since 2010/2011. Other parameters were based on literature. Herds of 100 cows were simulated at cow level for 5 years following the change in dry period length (n=40 herds per scenario). Total herd milk yield in the first year was not different among different dry period lengths (ANOVA, P>0.05), whereas a dry period of 28 days on average reduced yield by 2.9% from the second year onwards (P<0.05); and no dry period reduced yield by 7.0% in the second year (P<0.05), and by 3.7% from the third year onwards (P<0.05). At herd level, dry periods of 28 and 0 days in comparison with 56 days reduced net financial flows by €949 and €1,680 per year and resulted in similar greenhouse gas emissions per unit milk.
How mastitis in dairy cows affects the carbon footprint of milk
Mostert, P.F. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2017
Beyond cattle and communal land : how the Maasai accommodate privatisation in Kenya
Wairimu, W.W. ; Hebinck, P.G.M. - \ 2017
In: Land Law and Governance / Mostert, H., Verstappen, L.C.A., Zevenbergen, J., Cape Town : Juta (Contemporary Studies in Legal and Applied Research series ) - ISBN 9781485120063 - p. 40 - 62.
This chapter discusses the dynamics brought about by privatising land ownership. Changes in land tenure are analysed here from a socio-relational perspective. Changes in land tenure do not just concern ownership but also transform the properties of land space as a result of which new forms of land use emerge. Moreover, this chapter argues that the Maasai are not passive receivers of new land tenure policies enacted by the Kenyan state. They accommodate land tenure changes in many different and unexpected ways. The case discussed here involves the (further) space subdivision of once communal land to group ranches and to individual Maasai families. The further subdivision of land creates space for new practices such as cultivation of crops, notably by women. Men on the other hand build alliances to aggregate smaller pieces of land to allow continuation of a pastoral lifestyle. The chapter also draws attention to land leasing which initiated unsustainable land use practices
How dry period length affects dynamics and production at dairy herd level
Kok, A. ; Mostert, P.F. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Hogeveen, H. ; Kemp, B. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2017
The MSP Tool Guide : Sixty tools to facilitate multi-stakeholder partnerships : companion to The MSP Guide
Brouwer, J.H. ; Brouwers, J.H.A.M. ; Hemmati, Minu ; Gordijn, F. ; Herman Mostert, R.M. ; Mulkerrins, J.L. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation - 148 p.

What is ‘The MSP Tool Guide’ all about?

This compilation of 60 tools is an companion to The MSP Guide, the Wageningen University & Research CDI resource on how to design and facilitate effective multi-stakeholder partnerships.

At the request of many readers we have compiled them into one document to enable easy storing and sharing. These tools are available in summarized version in the MSP Guide in Chapter 6. The detailed versions on how to use the tool, and when to use it, are available on the portal

www.mspguide.org/tools-and-methods. The content of this portal is compiled in this Tool Guide.

The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production
Mostert, P.F. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2016
In: Book of Abstracts of the 10th international conference on Life Cycle Assessment of Food. - - p. 127 - 132.
disease, life cycle assessment, environment
This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact of SCK and related diseases on GHG emissions per ton fat-andprotein-corrected milk (kg CO2e/t FPCM). The model simulates on cow level and the impact on GHG emissions was assessed from cradle-to-farm gate for the Dutch situation. Emissions of GHGs were increased on average by 18.4 kg CO2e/t FPCM per case of SCK. Our study showed that LCA is a useful method to estimate the impact of diseases on GHG emissions and showed that reducing SCK and related diseases will reduce GHG emissions of milk production.
The use of enzymes for beer brewing : Thermodynamic comparison on resource use
Donkelaar, Laura H.G. van; Mostert, Joost ; Zisopoulos, Filippos K. ; Boom, Remko M. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2016
Energy 115 (2016)1. - ISSN 0360-5442 - p. 519 - 527.
Biotechnology - Brewing - Enzymes - Exergy - Unmalted barley

The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. The exergy efficiency of malting was 77%. The main exergy losses stem from the use of natural gas for kilning and from starch loss during germination. The exergy efficiency of the enzyme production process ranges between 20% and 42% depending on if the by-product was considered useful. The main exergy loss was due to high power requirement for fermentation. The total exergy input in the enzyme production process was 30 times the standard chemical exergy of the enzyme, which makes it exergetically expensive. Nevertheless, the total exergy input for the production of 100 kg beer was larger for the conventional process (441 MJ) than for the enzyme-assisted process (354 MJ). Moreover, beer produced using enzymes reduced the use of water, raw materials and natural gas by 7%, 14% and 78% respectively. Consequently, the exergy loss in the enzyme production process is compensated by the prevention of exergy loss in the total beer brewing process.

Environmental and economic consequences of subclinial ketosis and related diseases in dairy farming
Mostert, Pim - \ 2015
Environmental and economic consequences of subclinial ketosis and related diseases in dairy farming
Mostert, Pim - \ 2015
Environmental and economic consequences of subclinial ketosis and related diseases in dairy farming
Mostert, P.F. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
In: Book of Abstracts of the 66th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862696 - p. 141 - 141.
Abstract: Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cattle is a metabolic disease that occurs around the calving period and increases the risk on other diseases. SCK and other diseases result in, e.g., milk losses, reduced pregnancy rate, culling, and therefore have environmental and economic consequences. This study aimed to estimate the environmental and economic consequences of SCK and related diseases in dairy farming. A dynamic stochastic simulation model at cow level was developed and combined with a life cycle assessment and partial budget analysis. The model was divided into 4 parts. In part one, cows receive a parity (1–5+) and a potential milk production. Cows subsequently have a risk on getting retained placenta or milk fever (part 2), SCK (part 3), and metritis, displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, lameness or mastitis (part 4). The risk on diseases depends on parity and previous diseases. The model was parameterized using literature. Inputs are the number of dairy cows, prevalence of diseases and culling rate, outputs are the change in global warming potential (GWP) and profit per case of SCK. Outputs were divided in direct (SCK) and indirect (other diseases due to SCK) consequences, that were estimated with the attributional risk of SCK. Cows with (a combination of) diseases had: a reduced daily milk yield, discarded milk if treated, an increased calving interval, and risk of culling. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to find the variation in the output. Preliminary results showed that the costs increased from €33.0 (±31.3) to €55.2 (±58.3) and GWP increased from 1.3 (±1.3) to 1.8 (±2.0) % CO2-e/unit milk per parity based on milk losses per case of SCK. Results differ per parity (P <0.001) due to differences in milk yield and risk on diseases. The highest contribution came from SCK (68%). Other diseases particularly had an effect on the variation of the output. Future calculations will be extended by including reproduction and culling, and by performing sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, SCK has an effect on the environmental and economic performance of dairy farming.
Environmental and economic consequences of subclinial ketosis and related diseases in dairy farming
Mostert, P.F. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
In: Book of abstracts of the Joint Annual Meeting 2015. - - p. 875 - 875.
Abstract: Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cattle is a metabolic disease that occurs around the calving period and increases the risk on other diseases. SCK and other diseases result in, e.g., milk losses, reduced pregnancy rate, culling, and therefore have environmental and economic consequences. This study aimed to estimate the environmental and economic consequences of SCK and related diseases in dairy farming. A dynamic stochastic simulation model at cow level was developed and combined with a life cycle assessment and partial budget analysis. The model was divided into 4 parts. In part one, cows receive a parity (1–5+) and a potential milk production. Cows subsequently have a risk on getting retained placenta or milk fever (part 2), SCK (part 3), and metritis, displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, lameness or mastitis (part 4). The risk on diseases depends on parity and previous diseases. The model was parameterized using literature. Inputs are the number of dairy cows, prevalence of diseases and culling rate, outputs are the change in global warming potential (GWP) and profit per case of SCK. Outputs were divided in direct (SCK) and indirect (other diseases due to SCK) consequences, that were estimated with the attributional risk of SCK. Cows with (a combination of) diseases had: a reduced daily milk yield, discarded milk if treated, an increased calving interval, and risk of culling. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to find the variation in the output. Preliminary results showed that the costs increased from €33.0 (±31.3) to €55.2 (±58.3) and GWP increased from 1.3 (±1.3) to 1.8 (±2.0) % CO2-e/unit milk per parity based on milk losses per case of SCK. Results differ per parity (P <0.001) due to differences in milk yield and risk on diseases. The highest contribution came from SCK (68%). Other diseases particularly had an effect on the variation of the output. Future calculations will be extended by including reproduction and culling, and by performing sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, SCK has an effect on the environmental and economic performance of dairy farming.
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