Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Field methods for sampling tree height for tropical forest biomass estimation
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Qie, Lan ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Chave, Jerôme ; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Arets, Eric ; Ashton, Peter ; Bastin, Jean François ; Berry, Nicholas J. ; Bogaert, Jan ; Boot, Rene ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brienen, Roel ; Burslem, David F.R.P. ; Canniere, Charles de; Chudomelová, Markéta ; Dančák, Martin ; Ewango, Corneille ; Hédl, Radim ; Lloyd, Jon ; Makana, Jean Remy ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon ; Metali, Faizah ; Moore, Sam ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Pendry, Colin A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Salim, Kamariah Abu ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Sukri, Rahayu S. ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Umunay, Peter M. ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vernimmen, Ronald R.E. ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2018
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (2018)5. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 1179 - 1189.
Above-ground biomass estimation - Allometry - Carbon stocks - Forest inventory - Forest structure - Sample size
Quantifying the relationship between tree diameter and height is a key component of efforts to estimate biomass and carbon stocks in tropical forests. Although substantial site-to-site variation in height-diameter allometries has been documented, the time consuming nature of measuring all tree heights in an inventory plot means that most studies do not include height, or else use generic pan-tropical or regional allometric equations to estimate height. Using a pan-tropical dataset of 73 plots where at least 150 trees had in-field ground-based height measurements, we examined how the number of trees sampled affects the performance of locally derived height-diameter allometries, and evaluated the performance of different methods for sampling trees for height measurement. Using cross-validation, we found that allometries constructed with just 20 locally measured values could often predict tree height with lower error than regional or climate-based allometries (mean reduction in prediction error = 0.46 m). The predictive performance of locally derived allometries improved with sample size, but with diminishing returns in performance gains when more than 40 trees were sampled. Estimates of stand-level biomass produced using local allometries to estimate tree height show no over- or under-estimation bias when compared with biomass estimates using field measured heights. We evaluated five strategies to sample trees for height measurement, and found that sampling strategies that included measuring the heights of the ten largest diameter trees in a plot outperformed (in terms of resulting in local height-diameter models with low height prediction error) entirely random or diameter size-class stratified approaches. Our results indicate that even limited sampling of heights can be used to refine height-diameter allometries. We recommend aiming for a conservative threshold of sampling 50 trees per location for height measurement, and including the ten trees with the largest diameter in this sample.
MAB2.0 project: Integrating algae production into wastewater treatment
Nagy, B.J. ; Mako, Magdolna ; Erdelyi, Istvan ; Abiusi, Fabian ; Reith, J.H. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den - \ 2018
The EurBiotech Journal 2 (2018)1. - ISSN 2564-615X - p. 10 - 23.
Different species of microalgae are highly efficient in removing nutrients from wastewater streams and are able to grow using flue gas as a CO2 source. These features indicate that application of microalgae has a promising outlook in wastewater treatment. However, practical aspects and process of integration of algae cultivation into an existing wastewater treatment line have not been investigated. The Climate-KIC co-funded Microalgae Biorefinery 2.0 project developed and demonstrated this integration process through a case study. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this process by phases and protocols, as well as report on the challenges and bottlenecks identified in the case study. These standardized technical protocols detailed in the paper help to assess different aspects of integration including biological aspects such as strain selection, as well as economic and environmental impacts. This process is necessary to guide wastewater treatment plants through the integration of algae cultivation, as unfavourable parameters of the different wastewater related feedstock streams need specific attention and management. In order to obtain compelling designs, more emphasis needs to be put on the engineering aspects of integration. Well-designed integration can lead to operational cost saving and proper feedstock treatment enabling algae growth.
Arabidopsis RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED directly regulates DNA damage responses through functions beyond cell cycle control
Horvath, Beatrix M. ; Kourova, Hana ; Nagy, Szilvia ; Nemeth, Edit ; Magyar, Zoltan ; Papdi, Csaba ; Ahmad, Zaki ; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino F. ; Perilli, Serena ; Blilou, Ikram ; Scheres, Ben - \ 2017
The EMBO Journal 36 (2017). - ISSN 0261-4189 - p. 1261 - 1278.
RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED - Arabidopsis - BRCA1 - DNA damage response - E2FA
The rapidly proliferating cells in plant meristems must be protected from genome damage. Here, we show that the regulatory role of the Arabidopsis RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR) in cell proliferation can be separated from a novel function in safeguarding genome integrity. Upon DNA damage, RBR and its binding partner E2FA are recruited to heterochromatic γH2AX-labelled DNA damage foci in an ATM- and ATR-dependent manner. These γH2AX-labelled DNA lesions are more dispersedly occupied by the conserved repair protein, AtBRCA1, which can also co-localise with RBR foci. RBR and AtBRCA1 physically interact in vitro and in planta. Genetic interaction between the RBR-silenced amiRBR and Atbrca1 mutants suggests that RBR and AtBRCA1 may function together in maintaining genome integrity. Together with E2FA, RBR is directly involved in the transcriptional DNA damage response as well as in the cell death pathway that is independent of SOG1, the plant functional analogue of p53. Thus, plant homologs and analogues of major mammalian tumour suppressor proteins form a regulatory network that coordinates cell proliferation with cell and genome integrity.
Remotely-sensed detection of effects of extreme droughts on gross primary production
Vicca, Sara ; Balzarolo, Manuela ; Filella, Iolanda ; Granier, André ; Herbst, Mathias ; Knohl, Alexander ; Longdoz, Bernard ; Mund, Martina ; Nagy, Zoltan ; Pintér, Krisztina ; Rambal, Serge ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Verger, Aleixandre ; Zeileis, Achim ; Zhang, Chao ; Peñuelas, Josep - \ 2016
Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322
Severe droughts strongly impact photosynthesis (GPP), and satellite imagery has yet to demonstrate its ability to detect drought effects. Especially changes in vegetation functioning when vegetation state remains unaltered (no browning or defoliation) pose a challenge to satellite-derived indicators. We evaluated the performance of different satellite indicators to detect strong drought effects on GPP in a beech forest in France (Hesse), where vegetation state remained largely unaffected while GPP decreased substantially. We compared the results with three additional sites: a Mediterranean holm oak forest (Puéchabon), a temperate beech forest (Hainich), and a semi-arid grassland (Bugacpuszta). In Hesse, a three-year reduction in GPP following drought was detected only by the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) also detected this drought effect, but only after normalization for absorbed light. In Puéchabon normalized PRI outperformed the other indicators, while the short-term drought effect in Hainich was not detected by any tested indicator. In contrast, most indicators, but not PRI, captured the drought effects in Bugacpuszta. Hence, PRI improved detection of drought effects on GPP in forests and we propose that PRI normalized for absorbed light is considered in future algorithms to estimate GPP from space.
An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets
Avitabile, V. ; Herold, M. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Phillips, O.L. ; Asner, G.P. ; Armston, J. ; Asthon, P. ; Banin, L.F. ; Bayol, N. ; Berry, N. ; Boeckx, P. ; Jong, B. De; Devries, B. ; Girardin, C. ; Kearsley, E. ; Lindsell, J.A. ; Lopez-gonzalez, G. ; Lucas, R. ; Malhi, Y. ; Morel, A. ; Mitchard, E. ; Nagy, L. ; Qie, L. ; Quinones, M. ; Ryan, C.M. ; Slik, F. ; Sunderland, T. ; Vaglio Laurin, G. ; Valentini, R. ; Verbeeck, H. ; Wijaya, A. ; Willcock, S. - \ 2016
Global Change Biology 22 (2016)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1406 - 1420.
We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging that incorporates and spatializes the biomass patterns indicated by the reference data. The method was applied independently in areas (strata) with homogeneous error patterns of the input (Saatchi and Baccini) maps, which were estimated from the reference data and additional covariates. Based on the fused map, we estimated AGB stock for the tropics (23.4 N–23.4 S) of 375 Pg dry mass, 9–18% lower than the Saatchi and Baccini estimates. The fused map also showed differing spatial patterns of AGB over large areas, with higher AGB density in the dense forest areas in the Congo basin, Eastern Amazon and South-East Asia, and lower values in Central America and in most dry vegetation areas of Africa than either of the input maps. The validation exercise, based on 2118 estimates from the reference dataset not used in the fusion process, showed that the fused map had a RMSE 15–21% lower than that of the input maps and, most importantly, nearly unbiased estimates (mean bias 5 Mg dry mass ha−1 vs. 21 and 28 Mg ha−1 for the input maps). The fusion method can be applied at any scale including the policy-relevant national level, where it can provide improved biomass estimates by integrating existing regional biomass maps as input maps and additional, country-specific reference datasets.
Expression data from Arabidopsis root tips rRBr mutant
Horvath, Beatrix M. ; Kourova, Hana ; Nagy, Szilvia ; Nemeth, Edit ; Magyar, Zoltan ; Papdi, Csaba ; Ahmad, Zaki ; Sanchez Perez, Gabino ; Perilli, Serena ; Blilou, Ikram ; Pettkó-Szandtner, Aladár ; Darula, Zsuzsanna ; Meszaros, Tamas ; Binarova, Pavla ; Bogre, Laszlo ; Scheres, Ben - \ 2015
Arabidopsis thaliana - GSE47715 - PRJNA207350
The RETINOBLASTOMA–RELATED (RBR) is a key regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation in plants, and plays an important role in maintenance of the stem cell niche in the root.
Biocatalytic synthesis of delta-gluconolactone and epsilon-caprolactone copolymers
Todea, Anamaria ; Badea, V. ; Nagy, L. ; Keki, S. ; Boeriu, C.G. ; Peter, F. - \ 2014
Acta Biochimica Polonica 61 (2014)2. - ISSN 0001-527X - p. 205 - 210.
The biodegradability and biocompatibility properties of ε-caprolactone homopolymers place it as a valuable raw material, particularly for controlled drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. However, the usefulness of such materials is limited by their low hydrophilicity and slow biodegradation rate. In order to improve polycaprolactone properties and functionalities, copolymerization of ε-caprolactone with δ-gluconolactone was investigated. Since enzymatic reactions involving sugars are usually hindered by the low solubility of these compounds in common organic solvents, finding the best reaction medium was a major objective of this research. The optimal copolymerization conditions were set up by using different organic media (solvent and solvents mixtures), as well as solvent free systems that are able to dissolve (completely or partially) sugars, and are nontoxic for enzymes. Native and immobilized lipases by different immobilization techniques from Candida antarctica B and Thermomyces lanuginosus have been used as biocatalyst at 80°C. Although the main copolymer amount was synthesized in DMSO:t-BuOH (20:80) medium, the highest polymerization degrees, up to 16 for the copolymer product, were achieved in solventless conditions. The products, cyclic and linear polyesters, have been characterized by FT-IR and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The reaction product analysis revealed the formation of cyclic products that could be the major impediment of further increase of the chain length.
Optimization of enzymatic ring-opening copolymerizations involving -gluconolactone as monomer by experimental design
Todea, Anamaria ; Biro, E. ; Badea, V. ; Paul, C. ; Cimporescu, A. ; Nagy, L. ; Keki, S. ; Bandur, G. ; Boeriu, C.G. ; Peter, F. - \ 2014
Pure and Applied Chemistry 86 (2014)11. - ISSN 0033-4545 - p. 1781 - 1792.
Enzymatic incorporation of carbohydrate-derived monomer units into hydrophobic polyester backbones represents a promising alternative to obtain new biodegradable oligomers and polymers. Immobilized lipases are efficient biocatalysts for copolymerization of β-butyrolactone and δ-gluconolactone, but only a systematic optimization study was able to highlight the influence of the main reaction parameters on the polymerization degree and on the relative copolymer content of the product. Therefore, experimental design was employed for determination of the optimal ring-opening copolymerization conditions in solventless reaction systems, at temperatures up to 80 °C. The obtained products, cyclic and linear polyesters, have been characterized by FT-IR, MALDI-TOF MS, NMR, and TG analysis, demonstrating the incorporation of gluconolactone unit(s) into the hydrophobic backbone of the polyester and the formation of new bio-based products.
Pedigree analysis of the Hungarian Thoroughbred population
Bokor, A. ; Jonas, D. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Nagy, I. ; Bokor, J. ; Szabari, M. - \ 2013
Livestock Science 151 (2013)1. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 1 - 10.
genetic-variability - horse - information - breed - coefficients - diversity
The aim of the study was to analyse the pedigree information of Thoroughbred horses which were participating in gallop races between 1998 and 2010 in Hungary. Among the 3043 individuals of the reference population there were imported animals from foreign countries (e.g. Germany, England or Ireland) and horses that were born in Hungary. The number of complete generations was 15.64 (varied between 0 for the founders and 25.20), the mean number of full generations was 6.69, and the mean maximum generations were 28.96. The number of founders was 1062, and the effective number of founders was 42. Two hundred and thirty-two founders were born before 1793 (when the stud book of the Thoroughbred breed was closed), therefore these founders are considered as true founders of the breed. These 232 founders were responsible for 88.58% of the gene pool in the reference genome. The significant difference between the number of founders and effective number of founders indicate that the genetic diversity decreased greatly from the founders to the reference population. The number of ancestors was 908 and only 6 of them were responsible for 50% of the genetic diversity in the examined population. The effective number of ancestors was 15.32. From the ratio of the effective number of founders and effective number of ancestors we concluded to a bottleneck effect that characterizes the pedigree under study. Generation interval was more than a year longer for stallions (12.17) than it was for mares (10.64). More than 94% of the individuals in the pedigree were inbred, and the average inbreeding of the population was 9.58%. Considering the changes of the inbreeding status of the examined population 4 large time periods were appointed. The first lasted until 1780, the second period was from 1780 until 1952, the third period was between 1946 and 1998 and the last one was from 1998 until 2008. Rate of inbreeding in the last generation was 0.3%, which forecasts further increase in inbreeding. The effective population size was above 100 in the last 30 generations, proving the genetic diversity did not decrease by a level that would make long-term selection impossible.
Modeling latent curves for genotype by environment interaction
Schnabel, S.K. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Eilers, P.H.C. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 27th International Workshop on Statistical Modellin Prague. - Prague, Czech Republic : TRIBUN EU, Charles University Place - ISBN 9788026302506 - p. 309 - 313.
Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche
Morin, E. ; Kohler, A. ; Baker, A.R. ; Foulongne-Oriol, M. ; Lombard, V. ; Nagy, L.G. ; Ohm, R.A. ; Patyshakuliyeva, A. ; Brun, A. ; Aerts, A.L. ; Bailey, A.M. ; Billette, C. ; Coutinho, P.M. ; Deakin, G. ; Doddapaneni, H. ; Floudas, D. ; Grimwood, J. ; Hildén, K. ; Kües, U. ; LaButti, K.M. ; Lapidus, A. ; Lindquist, E.A. ; Lucas, S.M. ; Murat, C. ; Riley, R.W. ; Salamov, A.A. ; Schmutz, J. ; Subramanian, V. ; Wösten, H.A.B. ; Xu, J. ; Eastwood, D.C. ; Foster, G.D. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Cullen, D. ; Vries, R.P. de; Lundell, T. ; Hibbett, D.S. ; Henrissat, B. ; Burton, K.S. ; Kerrigan, R.W. ; Challen, M.P. ; Grigorievf, I.V. ; Martin, M. - \ 2012
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (2012)43. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 17501 - 17506.
cultivated mushroom - coprinus-cinereus - schizophyllum-commune - coprinopsis-cinerea - fungi - gene - decomposition - chromosomes - degradation - substances
Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and ß-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.
Ecosystem services in landscape planning – overview of Hungarian and international case studies (in Hungarian)
Petz, K. ; Nagy, G.G. ; Kiss, M. - \ 2011
Biocatalytic synthesis of new copolymers from 3-hydroxybutyric acid and a carbohydrate lactone
Kakasi-Zsurka, S. ; Todea, A. ; But, A. ; Paul, C. ; Boeriu, C.G. ; Davidescu, C. ; Nagy, L. ; Kuki, A. ; Keki, S. ; Peter, F. - \ 2011
Journal of Molecular Catalysis. B, Enzymatic 71 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 1381-1177 - p. 22 - 28.
ring-opening polymerization - lipase-catalyzed synthesis - enzymatic-synthesis - ionic liquids - polyesters
Lipase-catalyzed reaction of 3-hydroxybutyric acid with d-glucono-d-lactone at 5:1 molar ratio and 80 °C yielded a mixture of moderate molecular weight linear and cyclic oligomers. The most efficient biocatalyst, Candida antarctica B lipase (Novozyme 435), allowed the synthesis of new oligomeric compounds with ring-opened gluconolactone units included in the oligomeric chain, without previous derivatization of the sugar, or activation of the acid monomer. The reaction medium nature had an important influence on the product composition. Although the main copolymer amount was synthesized in tert-butanol/dimethylsulfoxide medium, the highest polymerization degrees, up to 9 for the copolymer, and 10 for the 3-hydroxybutyric acid homopolymer co-product, were achieved in solventless conditions.
African winter population trends of European waterbirds : the identification of critical sites and the effectiveness of Ramsar and IBA site designation for the conservation of migratory waterbirds
Kleijn, D. ; Nagy, S. ; Delany, S. ; Nasirwa, O. ; Dodman, T. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2148) - 30
watervogels - winter - vogeltrek - wildbescherming - populatiedynamica - afrika - europa - vogels - monitoring - waterfowl - bird migration - wildlife conservation - population dynamics - africa - europe - birds
IBA = important bird area
BioScore - Cost-effective assessment of policy impact on biodiversity using species sensitivity scores
Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Hagemeijer, W. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tsiaousi, V. ; Tol, S. van; Delbaere, B. - \ 2010
Journal for Nature Conservation 18 (2010)2. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 142 - 148.
land-use change - climate-change - species sensitivity - improve prediction - indicator values - taxonomic groups - habitat - scenarios - europe - diversity
Human-induced pressures are known to be one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. In order to readily assess policy impacts on biodiversity, a cost-effective evaluation tool is developed, using species sensitivity scores. We demonstrate the potential effects of a selected policy option, being woody bioenergy crop production, on a wide range of species groups in Europe. Large-scale expansions of woody biofuel plantations would have a net negative effect on the species set covered in our study, with little variation among biogeographical regions, but with considerable differences among species groups. The evaluation tool enables policy makers to assess the potential impact of decisions on future biodiversity.
BioScore: A tool to assess the impacts of European Community policies on Europe's biodiversity
Delbaere, B. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Snethlage, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Heer, M. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kemitzoglou, D. ; Knegt, B. de; Knijf, G. de; Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tol, S. van; Tröltzsch, K. - \ 2009
Tilburg : ECNC - ISBN 9789076762289 - 92
biodiversiteit - flora - fauna - impact - beleid - beoordeling - europa - menselijke invloed - ecologische beoordeling - biodiversity - policy - assessment - european union countries - human impact - ecological assessment
BioScore offers a European biodiversity impact assessment tool. The tool contains indicator values on the ecological preferences of more than 1000 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, butterflies, dragonflies, aquatic macro-invertebrates and vascular plants. These values are linked to policy-related pressures and environmental variables.
Molecular epidemiology of salmonella genomic island I (SGI1)
Mevius, D.J. ; Threlfall, J. ; Liebana, E. ; Guerra, B. ; Nagy, B. - \ 2008
Development of two RT PCRs for the detection and characterization of SGI-1 AMAR.
Hopkins, K.L. ; Batchelor, M. ; Guerra, B. ; Liebana, E. ; Nagy, B. ; Mevius, D.J. - \ 2007
Molecular Epidemioogy of Salmonella genomic Island I (SGI1). E. coli and Salmonella workshop
Amar, C.F. ; Hopkins, K.L. ; Liebana, E. ; Guerra, B. ; Batchelor, M. ; Nagy, B. ; Threlfall, J. ; Mevius, D.J. - \ 2007
Full accounting of the greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, CH4) budget of nine European grassland sites
Soussana, J.F. ; Allard, V. ; Pilegaard, K. ; Ambus, P. ; Amman, C. ; Campbell, C. ; Ceschia, E. ; Clifton-Brown, J. ; Czobel, S. ; Domingues, R. ; Flechard, C. ; Fuhrer, J. ; Hensen, A. ; Horvath, L. ; Jones, M. ; Kasper, G.J. ; Martin, C. ; Nagy, Z. ; Neftel, A. ; Raschi, A. ; Baronti, S. - \ 2007
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121 (2007)39479. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 121 - 134.
native tallgrass prairie - nitrous-oxide emissions - net ecosystem exchange - soil carbon - agricultural soils - primary productivity - land management - respiration - sequestration - dioxide
The full greenhouse gas balance of nine contrasted grassland sites covering a major climatic gradient over Europe was measured during two complete years. The sites include a wide range of management regimes (rotational grazing, continuous grazing and mowing), the three main types of managed grasslands across Europe (sown, intensive permanent and semi-natural grassland) and contrasted nitrogen fertilizer supplies. At all sites, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 was assessed using the eddy covariance technique. N2O emissions were monitored using various techniques (GC-cuvette systems, automated chambers and tunable diode laser) and CH4 emissions resulting from enteric fermentation of the grazing cattle were measured in situ at four sites using the SF6 tracer method. Averaged over the two measurement years, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) results show that the nine grassland plots displayed a net sink for atmospheric CO2 of -240 +/- 70 g C m(-2) year(-1) (mean confidence interval at p > 0.95). Because of organic C exports (from cut and removed herbage) being usually greater than C imports (from manure spreading), the average C storage (net biome productivity, NBP) in the grassland plots was estimated at -104 +/- 73 g cm(-2) year(-1) that is 43% of the atmospheric CO2 sink. On average of the 2 years, the grassland plots displayed annual N2O and CH4 (from enteric fermentation by grazing cattle) emissions, in CO2-C equivalents, of 14 +/- 4.7 and 32 +/- 6.8 g CO2-C equiv. m(-2) year(-1), respectively. Hence, when expressed in CO2-C equivalents, emissions of N2O and CH4 resulted in a 19% offset of the NEE sink activity. An attributed GHG balance has been calculated by subtracting from the NBP: (i) N2O and CH4 emissions occurring within the grassland plot and (ii) off-site emissions of CO2 and CH4 as a result of the digestion and enteric fermentation by cattle of the cut herbage. On average of the nine sites, the attributed GHG balance was not significantly different from zero (-85 +/- 77 g CO2-C equiv. m(-2) year(-1)).
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