Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Dynamics of archaeal community in soil with application of composted tannery sludge
Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima ; Mendes, Lucas William ; Lemos, Leandro Nascimento ; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes ; Amorim, Marineide Rodrigues ; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel ; Melo, Wanderley Jose de; Brink, Paul J. van den; Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

Application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) could promote a shift in the structure of soil microbial communities. Although the effect of CTS on bacterial community has been studied, it is unclear how the composition and diversity of archaeal community respond to CTS amendment and which environmental factors drive the community over time. Here, we hypothesize that the Archaea structure and composition respond to CTS amendment over the time. CTS had been previously applied annually along 6 years and this assessment occurred for 180 days following the application in the 7 th year by using different rates (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 ton ha −1 ). We used amplicon 16S rRNA sequencing to assess the changes in the structure of the archaeal community. Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant phyla found in soils with application of CTS, with Thaumarchaeota dominating the sequences in all samples with relative abundances of >98%. We observed a decreasing trend on the archaeal diversity over the time with increasing CTS application rate, together with an increase in the community similarity. The redundancy analyses (RDA) explained 43% of the total variation in operational taxonomic units and identified Na, pH, Cr and P as the main drivers of the archaeal community over time after application of highest CTS rates. CTS application changes the structure of Archaea community, with significant increase of Thaumarchaeota and Aenigmarchaeota groups, which can be further explored for its biotechnological use in contaminated soils.

Podzolisation preserves ichnofossils constructed by ghost shrimp
Martinez, Pedro ; Buurman, Peter ; Lopes-Mazzetto, Josiane Millani ; Nascimento, Diego Luciano do; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo - \ 2019
Catena 180 (2019). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 110 - 119.
Callichirus major - Dissolved organic matter - Fossilization - Podzol - Sea level record

Ichnofossils of ghost shrimps (e.g., Ophiomorpha nodosa and Callichirus major) are interpreted worldwide as records of sea level fluctuations and provide reliable evidence of sedimentation rate, salinity, and substrate type. The preservation of these ichnofossils was previously ascribed to the polysaccharide mucus produced by ghost shrimps when burrows were built. We found evidence that these ichnofossils were preserved due to the impregnation of the burrow walls by dissolved organic matter (DOM) during podzolisation that took place after the galleries had been abandoned. Our study was conducted on a tropical barrier island in southeastern Brazil with a spatial gradient of podzolisation intensity. We made a detailed macromorphological description of the ichnofossils at the soil profile scale. Then, we used thin sections of undisturbed soils to identify sand grain arrangements and organic matter (OM) accumulation. We detected three macromorphological structures, (i) tubular gallery wall, (ii) sandy infilling of the gallery, and (iii) soil matrix outside the gallery. In the micromorphology analysis, we identified that the tubular wall is impregnated with monomorphic OM also found outside the burrow but in lower concentration. Sand grains in the wall of the gallery are tightly packed, causing a lower porosity than inside and outside the trace fossil. The precipitation of monomorphic OM is due to stagnation of DOM that percolated through the soil. Water with DOM is trapped in the wall of the tubule because of its smaller pores. The ghost shrimps constructed their burrows in marine sediments without podzolisation. Then, with the progradation of the shoreline, the sediments were colonized by restinga forest adding DOM to the soil and podzolisation started. The extent to which DOM is produced depends on vegetation development, therefore, the accumulation of DOM in the B horizon that enables the preservation of the ichnofossils is constrained by vegetation development and progradation of the shoreline.

Performance of laser-based electronic devices for structural analysis of Amazonian terra-firme forests
Pereira, Iokanam Sales ; Mendonça do Nascimento, Henrique E. ; Vicari, Matheus Boni ; Disney, Mathias ; DeLucia, Evan H. ; Domingues, Tomas ; Kruijt, Bart ; Lapola, David ; Meir, Patrick ; Norby, Richard J. ; Ometto, Jean P.H.B. ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Rammig, Anja ; Hofhansl, Florian - \ 2019
Remote Sensing 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 2072-4292
Carbon storage - Central-eastern Amazonia - Forest structure - Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) - Terra-firme forest - Terrestrial laser scanning

Tropical vegetation biomass represents a key component of the carbon stored in global forest ecosystems. Estimates of aboveground biomass commonly rely on measurements of tree size (diameter and height) and then indirectly relate, via allometric relationships and wood density, to biomass sampled from a relatively small number of harvested and weighed trees. Recently, however, novel in situ remote sensing techniques have been proposed, which may provide nondestructive alternative approaches to derive biomass estimates. Nonetheless, we still lack knowledge of the measurement uncertainties, as both the calibration and validation of estimates using different techniques and instruments requires consistent assessment of the underlying errors. To that end, we investigate different approaches estimating the tropical aboveground biomass in situ. We quantify the total and systematic errors among measurements obtained from terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR), hypsometer-based trigonometry, and traditional forest inventory. We show that laser-based estimates of aboveground biomass are in good agreement (< 10% measurement uncertainty) with traditional measurements. However, relative uncertainties vary among the allometric equations based on the vegetation parameters used for parameterization. We report the error metrics for measurements of tree diameter and tree height and discuss the consequences for estimated biomass. Despite methodological differences detected in this study, we conclude that laser-based electronic devices could complement conventional measurement techniques, thereby potentially improving estimates of tropical vegetation biomass.

Dietary supplementation with tannin and soybean oil on intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, ruminal protozoa and methane emission in sheep
Lima, P.R. ; Apdini, T. ; Freire, A.S. ; Santana, A.S. ; Moura, L.M.L. ; Nascimento, J.C.S. ; Rodrigues, R.T.S. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Garcez Neto, A.F. ; Queiroz, M.A.Á. ; Menezes, D.R. - \ 2019
Animal Feed Science and Technology 249 (2019). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 10 - 17.
Feeding behavior - Fibre digestibility - Methane mitigation - Sheep - Soybean oil - Tannins

Tannins and soybean oil are supplements used in diets that depending on concentration may promote beneficial or negative effects on animal productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with tannins extract or soybean oil, as well as their combination, on intake, digestibility, methane production, feeding behavior and rumen parameters in Santa Inês crossbred uncastrated male sheep. Eight sheep were assigned to a double 4 × 4 Latin square (4 treatments and 4 periods), and 4 sheep to a simple 4 × 4 Latin square (for ruminal fluid collection) and fed a basal diet of 60% elephant grass and 40% concentrate (dry matter (DM) basis). The treatments were: control (no tannins or soybean oil); tannins (30 g/kg DM); soybean oil (50 g/kg DM); and tannins plus soybean oil (30 g/kg DM of tannin and 50 g/kg DM of soybean oil). Intake did not differ between treatments. Tannins supplementation increased eating time (ET) (P < 0.01) and decreased DM intake rate (DMIR) (P = 0.02) and rumen fluid pH (P = 0.04), but did not affect digestibility. Supplementation with soybean oil decreased acid detergent fibre (P = 0.04) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (P = 0.02) digestibility, and increased number (P < 0.05) and time (P = 0.04) of chewing per ruminal bolus. The combination of tannins and soybean oil decreased digestibility of organic matter (DOM) (P = 0.04) and NDF (P = 0.01), increased ET (P < 0.01) and decreased DMIR (P < 0.01) and NDF intake rate (P = 0.02). The inclusion of tannins did not decrease methane production. However, the inclusion of soybean oil or soybean oil plus tannins reduced methane production (absolute value and per unit of ingested DM and digestible organic matter) (P < 0.01). The number of rumen protozoa decreased in the treatments with tannins, soybean oil and soybean oil plus tannins compared to control treatment (P < 0.01), and a greater proportion of reduction was obtained using only soybean oil. The inclusion of soybean oil alone is sufficient to reduce methane production, without affecting DM intake and DOM, although reducing fibre digestion.

Short communication: detection and molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus in domestic animals of São Tomé and Príncipe
Mesquita, João Rodrigo ; Istrate, Claudia ; Santos-Ferreira, Nânci L. ; Ferreira, Ana S. ; Abreu-Silva, Joana ; Veiga, José ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Nascimento, Maria S.J. - \ 2019
Tropical Animal Health and Production 51 (2019). - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 481 - 485.
Domestic animals - Hepatitis E virus - São Tomé e Príncipe - Zoonoses

As in most of the African continent, the status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in domestic animals in São Tomé and Príncipe, an archipelago off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa, is also completely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEV among domestic animals in São Tomé and Príncipe. A total of 93 stool samples from different animal species (goat, cow, pig, chicken, duck, and monkey) were tested for HEV RNA using two real-time RT-PCR assays, followed by a nested RT-PCR assay for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of six samples (1 cow stool and 5 pig stools) were found to be positive for HEV RNA of which one pig stool was positive by broad spectrum nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the retrieved sequence clustered within HEV subgenotype 3f, similar to zoonotic strains of European countries and posing interesting questions on past introduction of European HEV into São Tomé and Príncipe archipelago. This is the first report describing the presence and molecular characterization of HEV in São Tomé and Príncipe.

Suppression of Plant Immunity by Fungal Chitinase-like Effectors
Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini ; Sanchéz-Vallet, Andrea ; Toledo Thomazella, Daniela Paula de; Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital do; Nascimento, Leandro Costa do; Oliveira Figueira, Antonio Vargas de; Thomma, Bart P.H.J. ; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães ; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima - \ 2018
Current Biology 28 (2018)18. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3023 - 3030.e5.
cacao - chitin - effector - frosty pod rot - GH18 - LysM - MAMP-triggered immunity - Moniliophthora - neofunctionalization - witches’ broom disease

Crop diseases caused by fungi constitute one of the most important problems in agriculture, posing a serious threat to food security [1]. To establish infection, phytopathogens interfere with plant immune responses [2, 3]. However, strategies to promote virulence employed by fungal pathogens, especially non-model organisms, remain elusive [4], mainly because fungi are more complex and difficult to study when compared to the better-characterized bacterial pathogens. Equally incomplete is our understanding of the birth of microbial virulence effectors. Here, we show that the cacao pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa evolved an enzymatically inactive chitinase (MpChi) that functions as a putative pathogenicity factor. MpChi is among the most highly expressed fungal genes during the biotrophic interaction with cacao and encodes a chitinase with mutations that abolish its enzymatic activity. Despite the lack of chitinolytic activity, MpChi retains substrate binding specificity and prevents chitin-triggered immunity by sequestering immunogenic chitin fragments. Remarkably, its sister species M. roreri encodes a second non-orthologous catalytically impaired chitinase with equivalent function. Thus, a class of conserved enzymes independently evolved as putative virulence factors in these fungi. In addition to unveiling a strategy of host immune suppression by fungal pathogens, our results demonstrate that the neofunctionalization of enzymes may be an evolutionary pathway for the rise of new virulence factors in fungi. We anticipate that analogous strategies are likely employed by other pathogens. Fiorin et al. demonstrate that two fungal pathogens of cacao independently evolved catalytically dead chitinases that bind to chitin and prevent elicitation of plant immunity. The study exemplifies how pathogens may evolve effectors by repurposing the functions of enzymes that are conserved throughout evolution.

Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming
García-Palacios, Pablo ; Gattinger, Andreas ; Bracht-Jørgensen, Helene ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Carvalho, Filipe ; Castro, Helena ; Clément, Jean Christophe ; Deyn, Gerlinde De; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Foulquier, Arnaud ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Lavorel, Sandra ; Legay, Nicolas ; Lori, Martina ; Mäder, Paul ; Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Martins da Silva, Pedro ; Muller, Adrian ; Nascimento, Eduardo ; Reis, Filipa ; Symanczik, Sarah ; Paulo Sousa, José ; Milla, Rubén - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2496 - 2505.
climate change mitigation - crop residue - ecological intensification - leaf nitrogen - meta-analysis - organic farming - resource economics traits - soil carbon stocks

Organic farming (OF) enhances top soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in croplands compared with conventional farming (CF), which can contribute to sequester C. As farming system differences in the amount of C inputs to soil (e.g. fertilization and crop residues) are not enough to explain such increase, shifts in crop residue traits important for soil C losses such as litter decomposition may also play a role. To assess whether crop residue (leaf and root) traits determined SOC sequestration responses to OF, we coupled a global meta-analysis with field measurements across a European-wide network of sites. In the meta-analysis, we related crop species averages of leaf N, leaf-dry matter content, fine-root C and N, with SOC stocks and sequestration responses in OF vs. CF. Across six European sites, we measured the management-induced changes in SOC stocks and leaf litter traits after long-term ecological intensive (e.g. OF) vs. CF comparisons. Our global meta-analysis showed that the positive OF-effects on soil respiration, SOC stocks, and SOC sequestration rates were significant even in organic farms with low manure application rates. Although fertilization intensity was the main driver of OF-effects on SOC, leaf and root N concentrations also played a significant role. Across the six European sites, changes towards higher leaf litter N in CF also promoted lower SOC stocks. Our results highlight that crop species displaying traits indicative of resource-acquisitive strategies (e.g. high leaf and root N) increase the difference in SOC between OF and CF. Indeed, changes towards higher crop residue decomposability was related with decreased SOC stocks under CF across European sites. Synthesis and applications. Our study emphasizes that, with management, changes in crop residue traits contribute to the positive effects of organic farming (OF) on soil carbon sequestration. These results provide a clear message to land managers: the choice of crop species, and more importantly their functional traits (e.g. leave and root nitrogen), should be considered in addition to management practices and climate, when evaluating the potential of OF for climate change mitigation.

The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α is dispensable for cold-induced adipose tissue browning in mice
Defour, M. ; Dijk, W. ; Ruppert, P.M.M. ; Nascimento, Emmani B.M. ; Schrauwen, Patrick ; Kersten, A.H. - \ 2018
Mus musculus - GSE110420 - PRJNA433669
Chronic cold exposure causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to adopt features of brown adipose tissue, a process known as browning. Previous studies have hinted at a possible role for the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) in cold-induced browning. Here we aimed to investigate the importance of PPARα in driving transcriptional changes during cold-induced browning in mice. Male wildtype and PPARα−/− mice were housed at thermoneutrality (28 °C) or cold (5 °C) for 10 days. Whole genome expression analysis was performed on inguinal WAT. In addition, other analyses were carried out. Whole genome expression data of livers of wildtype and PPARα−/− mice fasted for 24 h served as positive control for PPARα-dependent gene regulation.Cold exposure increased food intake and decreased weight of BAT and WAT to a similar extent in wildtype and PPARα−/− mice. Except for plasma non-esterified fatty acids, none of the cold-induced changes in plasma metabolites were dependent on PPARα genotype. Histological analysis of inguinal WAT showed clear browning upon cold exposure but did not reveal any morphological differences between wildtype and PPARα−/− mice. Transcriptomics analysis of inguinal WAT showed a marked effect of cold on overall gene expression, as revealed by principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering. However, wildtype and PPARα−/− mice clustered together, even after cold exposure, indicating a similar overall gene expression profile in the two genotypes. Pathway analysis revealed that cold upregulated pathways involved in energy usage, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid β-oxidation to a similar extent in wildtype and PPARα−/− mice. Furthermore, cold-mediated induction of genes related to thermogenesis such as Ucp1, Elovl3, Cox7a1, Cox8, and Cidea, as well as many PPAR target genes, was similar in wildtype and PPARα−/− mice. Finally, pharmacological PPARα activation had a minimal effect on expression of cold-induced genes in murine WAT.Cold-induced changes in gene expression in inguinal WAT are unaltered in mice lacking PPARα, indicating that PPARα is dispensable for cold-induced browning.
The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α is dispensable for cold-induced adipose tissue browning in mice
Defour, Merel ; Dijk, Wieneke ; Ruppert, Philip ; Nascimento, Emmani B.M. ; Schrauwen, Patrick ; Kersten, Sander - \ 2018
Molecular Metabolism 10 (2018). - ISSN 2212-8778 - p. 39 - 54.
Adipose tissue browning - Cold - PPARα - Transcriptomics
Objective: Chronic cold exposure causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to adopt features of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a process known as browning. Previous studies have hinted at a possible role for the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) in cold-induced browning. Here we aimed to investigate the importance of PPARα in driving transcriptional changes during cold-induced browning in mice. Methods: Male wildtype and PPARα-/- mice were housed at thermoneutrality (28 °C) or cold (5 °C) for 10 days. Whole genome expression analysis was performed on inguinal WAT. In addition, other analyses were carried out. Whole genome expression data of livers of wildtype and PPARα-/- mice fasted for 24 h served as positive control for PPARα-dependent gene regulation. Results: Cold exposure increased food intake and decreased weight of BAT and WAT to a similar extent in wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Except for plasma non-esterified fatty acids, none of the cold-induced changes in plasma metabolites were dependent on PPARα genotype. Histological analysis of inguinal WAT showed clear browning upon cold exposure but did not reveal any morphological differences between wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Transcriptomics analysis of inguinal WAT showed a marked effect of cold on overall gene expression, as revealed by principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering. However, wildtype and PPARα-/- mice clustered together, even after cold exposure, indicating a similar overall gene expression profile in the two genotypes. Pathway analysis revealed that cold upregulated pathways involved in energy usage, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid β-oxidation to a similar extent in wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Furthermore, cold-mediated induction of genes related to thermogenesis such as Ucp1, Elovl3, Cox7a1, Cox8, and Cidea, as well as many PPAR target genes, was similar in wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Finally, pharmacological PPARα activation had a minimal effect on expression of cold-induced genes in murine WAT. Conclusion: Cold-induced changes in gene expression in inguinal WAT are unaltered in mice lacking PPARα, indicating that PPARα is dispensable for cold-induced browning.
Species Distribution Modelling: Contrasting presence-only models with plot abundance data
Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Ijff, Stéphanie D. ; Raes, Niels ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Coelho, Luiz De Souza ; Matos, Francisca Dionízia De Almeida ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Filho, Diogenes De Andrade Lima ; López, Dairon Cárdenas ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Magnusson, William E. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Carim, Marcelo De Jesus Veiga ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Guimarães, José Renan Da Silva ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; de Leão Novo, E.M.M. ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Terborgh, John ; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Andrade, Ana ; Laurance, William F. ; Camargo, José Luís ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Farias, Emanuelle De Sousa ; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Quaresma, Adriano ; Costa, Flavia R.C. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Brienen, Roel ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Comiskey, James A. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Lopes, Aline ; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Levis, Carolina ; Levis, Carolina ; Schietti, Juliana ; Souza, Priscila ; Emilio, Thaise ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Neill, David ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Praia, Daniel ; Amaral, Dário Dantas Do; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho De - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used in ecology and conservation. Presence-only SDMs such as MaxEnt frequently use natural history collections (NHCs) as occurrence data, given their huge numbers and accessibility. NHCs are often spatially biased which may generate inaccuracies in SDMs. Here, we test how the distribution of NHCs and MaxEnt predictions relates to a spatial abundance model, based on a large plot dataset for Amazonian tree species, using inverse distance weighting (IDW). We also propose a new pipeline to deal with inconsistencies in NHCs and to limit the area of occupancy of the species. We found a significant but weak positive relationship between the distribution of NHCs and IDW for 66% of the species. The relationship between SDMs and IDW was also significant but weakly positive for 95% of the species, and sensitivity for both analyses was high. Furthermore, the pipeline removed half of the NHCs records. Presence-only SDM applications should consider this limitation, especially for large biodiversity assessments projects, when they are automatically generated without subsequent checking. Our pipeline provides a conservative estimate of a species' area of occupancy, within an area slightly larger than its extent of occurrence, compatible to e.g. IUCN red list assessments.
Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia
Saldanha, Aline Aparecida ; Carmo, Lucas Fernandes Do; Nascimento, Sara Batista Do; Matos, Natália Alves de; Carvalho Veloso, Clarice de; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca ; Vos, Ric C.H. de; Klein, André ; Siqueira, João Máximo de; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre ; Nascimento, Thalita Vieira Do; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina ; Soares, Adriana Cristina - \ 2016
Journal of Natural Medicines 70 (2016)4. - ISSN 1340-3443 - p. 760 - 768.
Anti-inflammation - Byrsonima verbascifolia leaves - Flavonoids - Mass spectrometry - Nitric oxide

An ethnopharmacological survey indicates that the genus Byrsonima has some medicinal species that are commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado and has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for gastroduodenal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity along with qualitative chemical characterization of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia (BvME) obtained by exhaustive percolation. The data from the chemical analyses by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry led to tentative identification of 42 compounds belonging to proanthocyanidins, galloyl quinic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and triterpene glycoside derivatives. BvME contain flavonoids and show an antioxidative activity. The methanolic extract administered intraperitoneally at doses of 50, 100, or 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in paw edema and modulated the neutrophil influx in a mouse model. Furthermore, the anti-edematogenic activity of the extract provided in smaller doses (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) was also demonstrated in a mouse paw edema model. The extract inhibited NO production by macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide. We presume that the anti-inflammatory effects of BvME are due to a combination of compounds present in B. verbascifolia, including catechins (procyanidins), flavonoids, and triterpene glycosides and that these anti-inflammatory actions should be mediated, at least partly, through the inhibition of NO production. This study supports and validates the ethnopharmacological uses of B. verbascifolia as an anti-inflammatory.

Serological Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Sheep of Portugal 2014
Esteves, Fernando ; Mesquita, João R. ; Vala, Helena ; Abreu-Silva, Joana ; Poel, W.H.M. Van Der; Nascimento, Maria S.J. - \ 2016
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 16 (2016)1. - ISSN 1530-3667 - p. 63 - 65.
Arbovirus - ELISA. - Schmallenberg virus - Seroprevalence - Sheep

Between November and December of 2014, a serosurvey was set up to evaluate the presence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibodies in sheep of Portugal. Sera (n = 1068) were tested using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ID Screen® Schmallenberg virus indirect, IDvet Innovative Diagnostics Montpellier, France). The estimated occurrence of immunogobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SBV in sheep of Portugal was 12.8% (95% confidence interval 11.0-15.0%). This is the first study reporting the presence of SBV antibodies in sheep of Portugal.

Outbreak of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Portugal, 2015
Mesquita, J.R. ; Hakze-van der Honing, R. ; Almeida, A. ; Lourenço, M. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Nascimento, M.S.J. - \ 2015
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 62 (2015)6. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 586 - 588.
Coronavirus - Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the South of Portugal in January 2015 and the spread of PEDV northwards in the territory are described. Comparative analysis of the amplified sequences showed a very high (99.0%) identity with the PEDV variant most recently reported in the United States and also show complete (100%) identity to the strains recently reported in Germany, supporting the hypothesis that a unique strain is currently circulating in Europe. The origin of this PEDV variant still needs to be elucidated and further studies in the remaining European countries may contribute to the knowledge.

Botryococcus, what to do with it? Effect of nutrient concentration on biorefinery potential
Dominguez Teles, I. ; Santa Isabel Marques, S. ; Oliveira de Souza, C. ; Druzian, J.I. ; Andrade Nascimento, I. - \ 2015
Algal Research 11 (2015). - ISSN 2211-9264 - p. 43 - 49.
Botryococcus is a microalgae genus with high potential for bioenergy, but studies on Botryococcus are frequently between slow growth and high oil content. To answer questions about the energetic applications of Botryococcus we analyzed the biomass gross composition (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) of three Botryococcus strains at different media concentrations at laboratory scale. Kinetic parameters were also considered for the biorefinery scenario estimates. Botryococcus terribilis (IBL-C117) showed the highest lipid productivities among all three strains, ranging from42 to 52 mg L-1 d-1. Botryococcus braunii UTEX LB 572 showed simultaneously the highest biomass productivity and the highest content of protein and carbohydrates when compared to the other strains. B. terribilis showed a mixed biomass composition depending on the applied treatment. Estimation based on correlative models, applied to the fatty-acid profiles, showed, for all cases, biodiesel compliance to international quality standards (EU, USA and Brazil). The best cases were for B. braunii (UTEX) and B. terribilis with biomass productivities respectively reaching 272 and 244 kg per year. To refine the biomass of Botryococcus into several products/by-products could increase commercial gains.
Detection of quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1,2,3,12,14,15, X in pigs: performance characteristics
Paixao, D.M. ; Carneiro, P.L.S. ; Paiva, S.R. ; Sousa, K.R.S. ; Verardo, L.L. ; Braccini Neto, J. ; Pinto, A.P.G. ; Marubayashi Hidalgo, A. ; Nascimento, C. ; Périssé, I.V. ; Lopes, P.S. ; Guimaraes, S.E.F. - \ 2013
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 65 (2013)1. - ISSN 0102-0935 - p. 213 - 220.
The accomplishment of the present study had the objective of mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) related to performance traits in a F2 pig population developed by mating two Brazilian Piau breed sires with 18 dams from a commercial line (Landrace × Large White × Pietrain). The linkage map for this population was constructed after genotyping the animals for 35 microsatellite markers. Estimates of polymorphic information content indicated that the microsatellite markers were appropriate for QTL analyses. The genotypes were analyzed by interval mapping using the GridQTL program. A total of six QTL were found, of which the QTL for slaughter age (days) was significant at the 5% genome-wise level. The information of the significant QTL detected in this study is useful for future fine-mapping studies for the identification of genes. Such information can be used together with traditional methods in breeding programs or even for a better understanding of the phenotypes of swine production.
Mapping of QTL on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 12, 14, 15 and X in pigs: characteristics carcass and quality of meat
Paixao, D.M. ; Carneiro, P.L.S. ; Paiva, S.R. ; Sousa, K.R.S. ; Verardo, L.L. ; Braccini Neto, J. ; Pinto, A.P.G. ; Marubayashi Hidalgo, A. ; Nascimento, C. ; Périssé, I.V. ; Lopes, P.S. ; Guimaraes, S.E.F. - \ 2012
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 64 (2012)4. - ISSN 0102-0935 - p. 974 - 982.
The accomplishment of the present study had as objective to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated to carcass and quality traits in a F2 pig population developed by mating two Brazilian Piau breed sires with 18 dams from a commercial line (Landrace × Large White × Pietrain). The linkage map for this population was constructed after genotyping the 684 animals for 35 microsatellite markers. Data were analyzed by interval mapping using sex, batch and halothane genotype as fixed effects and carcass weight at slaughter, direct carcass weight and slaugher age as covariables. A total of 18 QTL were identified, the QTL for higher backfat thickness on the shoulder region and cooking loss was significant at 5% genome-wise level. The backfat thickness trait was mainly associated with the Piau breed allele, known as a fat pig. The information of the significant QTL detected in this study is useful for future fine-mapping studies for identification of genes and might be used together with traditional selection methods to improve the efficiency of breeding programs, moreover, this information can also provide new insights to the understanding of the physiology of the quantatiative traits in pigs.
Calibration and validation of models for short-term decomposition and N mineralization of plant residues in the tropics
Nascimento, A.F. do; Mendona, E.D. ; Leite, L.F.C. ; Scholberg, J.M.S. ; Neves, J.C.L. - \ 2012
Scientia agricola 69 (2012)6. - ISSN 0103-9016 - p. 393 - 401.
soil organic-matter - nitrogen mineralization - nutrient release - simulation - lignin - litter - polyphenol - quality - systems - forest
Insight of nutrient release patterns associated with the decomposition of plant residues is important for their effective use as a green manure in food production systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of the Century, APSIM and NDICEA simulation models for predicting the decomposition and N mineralization of crop residues in the tropical Atlantic forest biome, Brazil. The simulation models were calibrated based on actual decomposition and N mineralization rates of three types of crop residues with different chemical and biochemical composition. The models were also validated for different pedo-climatic conditions and crop residues conditions. In general, the accuracy of decomposition and N mineralization improved after calibration. Overall RMSE values for the decomposition and N mineralization of the crop materials varied from 7.4 to 64.6 % before models calibration compared to 3.7 to 16.3 % after calibration. Therefore, adequate calibration of the models is indispensable for use them under humid tropical conditions. The NDICEA model generally outperformed the other models. However, the decomposition and N mineralization was not very accurate during the first 30 days of incubation, especially for easily decomposable crop residues. An additional model variable may be required to capture initial microbiological growth as affected by the moisture dynamics of the residues, as is the case in surface residues decomposition models.
Prevalence and transmission of hepatitis E virus in domestic swine populations in different European countries
Berto, A. ; Backer, J.A. ; Mesquita, J.R. ; Nascimento, M.S. ; Banks, M. ; Martelli, F. ; Ostanello, F. ; Angeloni, G. ; Ruggeri, F.M. ; Bartolo, I. de; Vasickova, P. ; Diez-Valcarce, M. ; Hernandez, M. ; Rodriguez-Lazaro, D. - \ 2012
BMC Research Notes 5 (2012). - ISSN 1756-0500
Background

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 and 4 can cause liver disease in human and has its main reservoir in pigs. HEV investigations in pigs worldwide have been performed but there is still a lack of information on the infection dynamics in pig populations.

Findings

The HEV transmission dynamics in commercial pig farms in six different European countries was studied. The data collected show prevalence in weaners ranging from 8% to 30%. The average HEV prevalence in growers was between 20% and 44%. The fatteners prevalence ranged between 8% and 73%. Sows prevalence was similar in all countries. Boar faeces were tested for HEV only in Spain and Czech Republic, and the prevalence was 4.3% and 3.5% respectively. The collected data sets were analyzed using a recently developed model to estimate the transmission dynamics of HEV in the different countries confirming that HEV is endemic in pig farms.

Conclusions

This study has been performed using similar detection methods (real time RT-PCR) for all samples and the same model (SIR model) to analyse the data. Furthermore, it describes HEV prevalence and within-herd transmission dynamics in European Countries (EU): Czech Republic, Italy, Portugal, Spain, The Netherlands and United Kingdom, confirming that HEV is circulating in pig farms from weaners to fatteners and that the reproductive number mathematical defined as R0 is in the same range for all countries studied.
Virus hazards from food, water and other contaminated environments
Rodriguez-Lázaro, D. ; Cook, N. ; Ruggeri, F.M. ; Sellwood, J. ; Nasser, A. ; Nascimento, M.S. ; Agostino, M. D'; Santos, R. ; Saiz, J.C. ; Rzezutka, A. ; Bosch, A. ; Girones, R. ; Carducci, A. ; Muscullo, M. ; Kovac, K. ; Diez-Valcarce, M. ; Vantarakis, A. ; Bonsdorff, C.H. ; Roda Husman, A.M. de; Hernández, M. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2012
FEMS Microbiology Reviews 36 (2012)4. - ISSN 0168-6445 - p. 786 - 814.
hepatitis-e-virus - reverse transcription-pcr - human enteric viruses - polymerase-chain-reaction - norwalk-like virus - cell-culture-pcr - time rt-pcr - sequence-based amplification - human pathogenic viruses - treated drinking-water
Numerous viruses of human or animal origin can spread in the environment and infect people via water and food, mostly through ingestion and occasionally through skin contact. These viruses are released into the environment by various routes including water run-offs and aerosols. Furthermore, zoonotic viruses may infect humans exposed to contaminated surface waters. Foodstuffs of animal origin can be contaminated, and their consumption may cause human infection if the viruses are not inactivated during food processing. Molecular epidemiology and surveillance of environmental samples are necessary to elucidate the public health hazards associated with exposure to environmental viruses. Whereas monitoring of viral nucleic acids by PCR methods is relatively straightforward and well documented, detection of infectious virus particles is technically more demanding and not always possible (e.g. human norovirus or hepatitis E virus). The human pathogenic viruses that are most relevant in this context are nonenveloped and belong to the families of the Caliciviridae, Adenoviridae, Hepeviridae, Picornaviridae and Reoviridae. Sampling methods and strategies, first-choice detection methods and evaluation criteria are reviewed.
Detection and Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs of Different Ages in Portugal
Berto, A. ; Mesquita, J.R. ; Hakze-van der Honing, R.W. van der; Nascimento, R.S. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2012
Zoonoses and Public Health 59 (2012)7. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 477 - 481.
united-kingdom - swine - infection - england - transmission - prevalence - antibodies - countries - wales - herds
This study represents the primary hepatitis E virus (HEV) surveillance in domestic pigs in Portugal, five pig farms were investigated in 5 different Portuguese regions, ten faecal samples were collected at four different stages of the production. All faecal samples were tested for hepatitis E virus by real-time RT-PCR. At least one sample from each farms of all age groups tested positive for HEV. The prevalence in the pig herds varied from 10% to 30% and the mean prevalence was 32% in weaners, 20% in growers, 32% in fatteners and 4% in adult dry sows. Phylogenetic analysis of the detected HEV sequences indicated that the circulating virus strains belong under the genotype 3.
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