Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Models meet data : Challenges and opportunities in implementing land management in Earth system models
Pongratz, Julia ; Dolman, Han ; Don, Axel ; Erb, Karl Heinz ; Fuchs, Richard ; Herold, Martin ; Jones, Chris ; Kuemmerle, Tobias ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan ; Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Naudts, Kim - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1470 - 1487.
climate - croplands - Earth observations - Earth system models - forestry - grazing - land management - land use
As the applications of Earth system models (ESMs) move from general climate projections toward questions of mitigation and adaptation, the inclusion of land management practices in these models becomes crucial. We carried out a survey among modeling groups to show an evolution from models able only to deal with land-cover change to more sophisticated approaches that allow also for the partial integration of land management changes. For the longer term a comprehensive land management representation can be anticipated for all major models. To guide the prioritization of implementation, we evaluate ten land management practices—forestry harvest, tree species selection, grazing and mowing harvest, crop harvest, crop species selection, irrigation, wetland drainage, fertilization, tillage, and fire—for (1) their importance on the Earth system, (2) the possibility of implementing them in state-of-the-art ESMs, and (3) availability of required input data. Matching these criteria, we identify “low-hanging fruits” for the inclusion in ESMs, such as basic implementations of crop and forestry harvest and fertilization. We also identify research requirements for specific communities to address the remaining land management practices. Data availability severely hampers modeling the most extensive land management practice, grazing and mowing harvest, and is a limiting factor for a comprehensive implementation of most other practices. Inadequate process understanding hampers even a basic assessment of crop species selection and tillage effects. The need for multiple advanced model structures will be the challenge for a comprehensive implementation of most practices but considerable synergy can be gained using the same structures for different practices. A continuous and closer collaboration of the modeling, Earth observation, and land system science communities is thus required to achieve the inclusion of land management in ESMs.
Evaluating the performance of land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN v1.0 on water and energy flux estimation with a single-and multi-layer energy budget scheme
Chen, Yiying ; Ryder, James ; Bastrikov, Vladislav ; McGrath, Matthew J. ; Naudts, Kim ; Otto, Juliane ; Ottlé, Catherine ; Peylin, Philippe ; Polcher, Jan ; Valade, Aude ; Black, Andrew ; Elbers, Jan A. ; Moors, Eddy ; Foken, Thomas ; Gorsel, Eva Van; Haverd, Vanessa ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Knohl, Alexander ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Loustau, Denis ; Ogeé, Jérôme ; Vessala, Timo ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan - \ 2016
Geoscientific Model Development 9 (2016)9. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 2951 - 2972.

Canopy structure is one of the most important vegetation characteristics for land-atmosphere interactions, as it determines the energy and scalar exchanges between the land surface and the overlying air mass. In this study we evaluated the performance of a newly developed multi-layer energy budget in the ORCHIDEE-CAN v1.0 land surface model (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems-CANopy), which simulates canopy structure and can be coupled to an atmospheric model using an implicit coupling procedure. We aim to provide a set of acceptable parameter values for a range of forest types. Top-canopy and sub-canopy flux observations from eight sites were collected in order to conduct this evaluation. The sites crossed climate zones from temperate to boreal and the vegetation types included deciduous, evergreen broad-leaved and evergreen needle-leaved forest with a maximum leaf area index (LAI; all-sided) ranging from 3.5 to 7.0. The parametrization approach proposed in this study was based on three selected physical processes-namely the diffusion, advection, and turbulent mixing within the canopy. Short-term sub-canopy observations and long-term surface fluxes were used to calibrate the parameters in the sub-canopy radiation, turbulence, and resistance modules with an automatic tuning process. The multi-layer model was found to capture the dynamics of sub-canopy turbulence, temperature, and energy fluxes. The performance of the new multi-layer model was further compared against the existing single-layer model. Although the multi-layer model simulation results showed few or no improvements to both the nighttime energy balance and energy partitioning during winter compared with a single-layer model simulation, the increased model complexity does provide a more detailed description of the canopy micrometeorology of various forest types. The multi-layer model links to potential future environmental and ecological studies such as the assessment of in-canopy species vulnerability to climate change, the climate effects of disturbance intensities and frequencies, and the consequences of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from the terrestrial ecosystem.

Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010
McGrath, M.J. ; Luyssaert, S. ; Meyfroidt, P. ; Kaplan, J.O. ; Bürgi, M. ; Chen, Y. ; Erb, K. ; Gimmi, U. ; McInerney, D. ; Naudts, K. ; Otto, J. ; Pasztor, F. ; Ryder, J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Valade, A. - \ 2015
Biogeosciences 12 (2015)14. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 4291 - 4316.

Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover-climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600-1828, we took a supply-demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829-2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.

Bimodular auxin response controls organogenesis in Arabidopsis.
Smet, I. de; Lau, S. ; Voss, U. ; Vanneste, S. ; Benjamins, R. ; Rademacher, E.H. ; Schlereth, A. ; Rybel, B. De; Vassileva, V. ; Grunewald, W. ; Naudts, M. ; Levesque, M.P. ; Ehrismann, J.S. ; Inze, D. ; Luschnig, C. ; Benfey, P.N. ; Weijers, D. ; Montagu, M.C.E. van; Bennett, M.J. ; Juergens, G. ; Beeckman, T. - \ 2010
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (2010)6. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 2705 - 2710.
lateral root initiation - mediated transformation - transcription factor - gene - embryo - monopteros - thaliana - expression - arf19 - differentiation
Like animals, the mature plant body develops via successive sets of instructions that determine cell fate, patterning, and organogenesis. In the coordination of various developmental programs, several plant hormones play decisive roles, among which auxin is the best-documented hormonal signal. Despite the broad range of processes influenced by auxin, how such a single signaling molecule can be translated into a multitude of distinct responses remains unclear. In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral root development is a classic example of a developmental process that is controlled by auxin at multiple stages. Therefore, we used lateral root formation as a model system to gain insight into the multifunctionality of auxin. We were able to demonstrate the complementary and sequential action of two discrete auxin response modules, the previously described SOLITARY ROOT/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (IAA)14-AUXIN REPONSE FACTOR (ARF)7-ARF19–dependent lateral root initiation module and the successive BODENLOS/IAA12-MONOPTEROS/ARF5–dependent module, both of which are required for proper organogenesis. The genetic framework in which two successive auxin response modules control early steps of a developmental process adds an extra dimension to the complexity of auxin’s action
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