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- Susan Chatwood (1)
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- N.J. Darby (2)
- K.S. Dijkema (2)
- G. Doekes (1)
- Thomas E. Creighton (3)
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- L. Frese (2)
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- Nigel J. Darby (3)
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- Maarten Koornneef (1)
- Maria Korff Von (1)
- Trevor Lantz (1)
- Bjarni Magnússon (1)
- N. Maxted (1)
- C.P.M. Mierlo van (3)
- D. Neuhaus (3)
- David Neuhaus (3)
- R. Neuhaus (2)
- René Neuhaus (1)
- G. Neuhaus (2)
- C. Neuhaus-Schroder (1)
- Carlo P.M. Mierlo van (3)
- A. Palmé (1)
- Gregory Poelzer (1)
- G. Poulsen (2)
- M. Raulf-Heimsoth (1)
- H.D. Reinke (2)
- Itty S. Neuhaus (1)
- I. Sander (1)
- G.H.E. Scott (1)
- Michael Sfraga (1)
- J.H.G. Slangen (1)
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Fulbright Arctic Initiative: An Innovative Model for Policy Relevant Research & Public Outreach
Virgina, Ross A. ; Sfraga, Michael ; Arnbom, Tom ; Chamberlain, Linda ; Chatwood, Susan ; Tepecik Dis, Asli ; Hoogensen Gjorv, Gunhild ; Harms, Tamara K. ; Hansen, Anne ; Holdmann, Gwen ; Johnson, Noor ; Lantz, Trevor ; Magnússon, Bjarni ; Neuhaus, Itty S. ; Poelzer, Gregory ; Sokka, Laura ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Varpe, Oystein ; Vestergaard, Niels - \ 2016
Arctic Yearbook 2016 (2016). - ISSN 2298-2418 - p. 212 - 224.
|On the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources in Europe: a stakeholder analysis
Frese, L. ; Palmé, A. ; Neuhaus, G. ; Bülow, L. ; Maxted, N. ; Poulsen, G. ; Kik, C. - \ 2016
In: Enhancing crop genepool use / Maxted, N., Dulloo, M.E., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., CABI - ISBN 9781780646138 - p. 388 - 400.
This chapter presents a study on the current status of conservation and use of plant genetic resources in Europe and on how this could be improved and developed towards a European plant germplasm system. The methods used, the vision of what an improved system for conservation and use of plant genetic resources should look like and the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the current system are also discussed.
Mutations in barley row type genes have pleiotropic effects on shoot branching
Liller, Corinna Brit ; Neuhaus, René ; Korff, Maria Von; Koornneef, Maarten ; Esse, Wilma Van - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 20 p.
Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants), in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions.We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a) or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b). Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b) is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2) suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.
PGR Secure: Engaging the user community
Kik, C. ; Poulsen, G. ; Neuhaus, G. ; Frese, L. - \ 2012
Crop Wild Relative 8 (2012)april. - ISSN 1742-3627 - p. 10 - 10.
|The impact of sea-level rise on coastal flora and fauna
Neuhaus, R. ; Dijkema, K.S. ; Reinke, H.D. - \ 2001
In: Climate of the 21st century: changes and risks; scientific facts / Lozán, J.L., Graßl, H., Hupfer, P., - p. 311 - 314.
|Die Gefährdung der Flora und Fauna an Küsten durch den Meeresspiegelanstieg
Neuhaus, R. ; Dijkema, K.S. ; Reinke, H.D. - \ 1998
In: Warnsignal Klima: Wissenschaftliche Fakten / Lozan, J.L., Grassl, H., Hupfer, P., - p. 313 - 317.
|Quantifizierung der inhalativen Belastung mit Alpha-Amylase in zwei Baeckereien.
Sander, I. ; Neuhaus-Schroder, C. ; Raulf-Heimsoth, M. ; Doekes, G. ; Heederik, D. ; Baur, X. - \ 1998
Pneumologie (stuttgart, germany) 52 (1998). - ISSN 0934-8387 - p. 440 - 443.
1H NMR analysis of the partly-folded non-native two-disulphide intermediates (30-51,5-14) and (30-51,5-38) in the folding pathway of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.
Mierlo, C.P.M. van; Kemmink, J. ; Neuhaus, D. ; Darby, N.J. ; Creighton, T.E. - \ 1994
Journal of Molecular Biology 235 (1994). - ISSN 0022-2836 - p. 1044 - 1061.
Partially folded conformation of the (30-51) intermediate in the disulphide folding pathway of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor : 1H and 15N resonance assignments and determination of backbone dynamics from 15N relaxation measurements
Mierlo, Carlo P.M. van; Darby, Nigel J. ; Keeler, James ; Neuhaus, David ; Creighton, Thomas E. - \ 1993
Journal of Molecular Biology 229 (1993)4. - ISSN 0022-2836 - p. 1125 - 1146.
Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) - Disulphide bonds - Folding intermediate - NMR - Protein folding
An analogue of the important folding intermediate of BPTI with only the disulphide bond between Cys30 and Cys51 has been characterized by 1H and 15N NMR techniques. In particular, the dynamics of the polypeptide backbone were characterized using (1H)-15N NOE and 15N T1 and T2 relaxation data. The intermediate is partially folded, with part of the polypeptide chain stably folded and the remainder flexible or unfolded. The folded portion consists of the major elements of native-like secondary structure interacting through the hydrophobic core of the molecule. The 15N relaxation data show that the N-terminal 15 residues are very flexible, and the (1H,1H) NOESY data show that these residues have no NOE interactions with the remainder of the molecule. The segment of residues 37 to 41 is also flexible. These observations explain why during folding this intermediate most readily forms any of the possible disulphide bonds between Cys5, Cys14 and Cys38, including the non-native 5-14 and 5-38 bonds. The native-like folded portion of the molecule limits the possible disulphide bonds that can be formed to those in the remainder of the polypeptide chain. Also, forming the non-native disulphide bonds need not involve any disruption of that folded structure, as the Cys residues involved are in flexible regions of the molecule.
|Measurement of heteronuclear NOE enhancement factors in biological macromolecules. A convenient pulse sequence for use with aqueous solutions.
Neuhaus, D. ; Mierlo, C.P.M. van - \ 1992
Journal of Magnetic Resonance 100 (1992). - ISSN 1090-7807 - p. 221 - 228.
Kinetic roles and conformational properties of the non-native two-disulphide intermediates in the refolding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.
Darby, N.J. ; Mierlo, C.P.M. van; Scott, G.H.E. ; Neuhaus, D. ; Creighton, T.E. - \ 1992
Journal of Molecular Biology 224 (1992). - ISSN 0022-2836 - p. 905 - 911.
(14-38, 30-51) Double-disulphide intermediate in folding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor : A two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance study
Mierlo, Carlo P.M. van; Darby, Nigel J. ; Neuhaus, David ; Creighton, Thomas E. - \ 1991
Journal of Molecular Biology 222 (1991)2. - ISSN 0022-2836 - p. 353 - 371.
bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) - disulphide bonds - folding intermediate - n.m.r. - protein folding
An analogue of the BPTI folding intermediate that contains only the disulphide bonds between Cys14 and Cys38 and between Cys30 and Cys51 has been prepared in Escherichia coli by protein engineering methods. The other two Cys residues of native BPTI (at positions 5 and 55) have been replaced by Ser. Essentially complete proton resonance assignments of the analogue were obtained by employing two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The intermediate has a more extended conformation in the N-terminal (residues 1 to 7) region and there are other differences in the C-terminal (residues 55 to 58) region. The remainder of the protein is substantially identical to native BPTI. The conformational properties of the analogue can explain several aspects of the kinetic role that the normal (14-38, 30-51) intermediate plays in the folding of BPTI.
Two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of the (5-55) single-disulphide folding intermediate of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor
Mierlo, Carlo P.M. van; Darby, Nigel J. ; Neuhaus, David ; Creighton, Thomas E. - \ 1991
Journal of Molecular Biology 222 (1991)2. - ISSN 0022-2836 - p. 373 - 390.
bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) - disulphide bonds - folding intermediate - n.m.r. - protein folding
An analogue of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) folding intermediate that contains only the disulphide bond between Cys5 and Cys55 has been prepared in Escherichia coli by protein engineering methods, with the other four Cys residues replaced by Ser. Two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the analogue have resulted in essentially complete resonance assignments of the folded form of the protein. The folded protein has a compact conformation that is structurally very similar to that of native BPTI, although there are subtle differences and the folded conformation is not very stable. Approximately half of the protein molecules are unfolded at 3 °C, and this proportion increases at higher temperatures. The folded and unfolded conformations are in slow exchange. The conformational properties of the analogue can explain many aspects of the kinetic role that the normal (5-55) intermediate plays in the folding of BPTI.
Intermitterende voeding bij tarwe
Slangen, J.H.G. - \ 1971
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): A.C. Schuffelen. - Wageningen : Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie - ISBN 9789022003664 - 130
plantenvoeding - kunstmeststoffen - mest - triticum aestivum - tarwe - hexaploïdie - plantkunde - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - plant nutrition - fertilizers - manures - wheat - hexaploidy - botany - yield increases - yield losses - yields
The influence of intermittent nutrition on dry-matter production, on contents (meq/kg) and amounts (meq per plant) of inorganic nutrients was studied in water and soil cultures with wheat as a test crop.
From the results of this study notably from chapters 9 and 12 it is clear that differences between the techniques of water (2.1.1) and soil cultures (2.2.1) do not lead to essential differences in growth and development of wheat plants. Supplying nutrients at a constant level (water culture) brings about a different way of ripening (4.3) and no losses of dry matter from plant parts (fig. 8). But the character of a normal seed-bearing annual is the same as in soil culture where the store of nutrients decreases during growth. This holds for main shoots and tillers (with and without ears); the number of the latter increases in water culture as long as nutrients, especially nitrogen, are supplied and conditions such as light and temperature are favourable for growth (Aspinall 1961, 1963; section 4.2).
According to Dilz (1964) data of dry matter and N uptake from pot and field trials are only comparable if based on dry matter of plants grown with these techniques and not on number of plants, weight or soil surface (per pot or per field plot). In this pot trial with soil the average of 2.5 culms per plant is in agreement with the number normally (Brouwer, 1970) found for spring wheat in the field. When inner plants of the pot bear less tillers than outer plants (light side) this is called the 'side effect' (Dilz, 1964). Water culture plants with very pronounced tillering show this effect but in soil culture with 10 plants per pot of which 6 to 7 are outer plants the effect is of none importance. New tillers with or without few and small grains only develop with low (105 mg N per pot) dressings before sowing and suppletion of nitrogen at a very late stage of development (10.2.2.1 treatments 112 and 113). This situation is normally not found in the field because of light shortage.
Values of main shoots from water and soil cultures as well as from field trials are similar. Therefore these main shoots must be to some degree independent from the tillers. Young tillers need the leaves and root system of their parents to get carbohydrates, water and nutrients. But in wheat plants at the stage of shooting Quinlan & Sagar (1962) found no transport of 14C from main shoot to tillers or in the opposite direction. This was verified by Williams (1964) with timothy. From this stage on the conclusion of independence of main shoots and tillers, seems reasonable. By comparing only main shoots the influence of treatments 0N, 0K, split application of nitrogen and potassium on numbers of tillers (Chapter 5, 10.2.2. 1, Fig. 33, Table 24) is excluded.
With the technique of water culture used in these trials it is not possible to distinguish between roots of main shoots and tillers. In soil culture a part of the older roots is lost by cleaning them (Fig. 29). Therefore the balance of uptake, assimilation and excretion of nutrients will be incomplete although the amounts of nutrients in the roots of older plants are far less than in the aerial parts.
The influence of intermittent nutrition in water cultures and split application of N, K and N + K in soil culture on chemical composition of main shoots of young wheat plants is summarized in Fig. 51 by the relationship N-org. vs. C-A (= organic anions). According to Dijkshoorn et al. (1969) with rye grass, uptake and reduction of NO, in aerial parts (leaves) results in production of organic nitrogen and an equivalent amount of organic anions (carboxylates) from which a part is translocated to the roots for maintaining the process of cation and anion uptake by decarboxylation and exchange of H +and HCO3-. The main shoots of wheat (and according to Fig. 11 the same holds for the tillers) grown under optimum conditions (as supposed for water culture) retain, in the period of 35 to 49 days after emergence (Fig. 10) nearly 1000 meq of carboxylates per kg of dry matter. This content decreases gradually in older plants (Fig. 10).
Usually for cereals excess uptake of anions, especially nitrate, results in an alkaline effect in the growth medium (in the water culture this was corrected by refreshing the solutions (Table 2) twice a week) and in a store of nitrate (and sulphate) in the plant. The difference between the N-org. and C-A relationship for water culture (Figs. 51 and 26, treatment NPK) and soil culture (Figs. 51 and 49, treatment 130, i.e. 840 mg N and 400 mg K 2 O per pot before sowing) can be explained by the difference in N source. In water culture all nitrogen was given as NO 3 , in the soil NH 4 NO 3 was used and from an incubation trial it was evident that NH 4 was available for uptake at least untill day 60 after emergence. Uptake of NH 4 ions suppresses the uptake of metallic cations and positive charge of NH4+is eliminated without production of organic anions (C-A). This results in, relative to the water culture, a high N-org. content and a low C-A content as expressed in Fig. 51. Withdrawal of nitrogen (waterculture) or low dressings of nitrogen (soil culture) lead to a relative decrease of N-org. against C-A production; the latter, according to Dijkshoorn et al. (1969), proceeds slowly in the roots by using HCO3-. In soil culture (Fig. 49) there is the same process but because of mineralisation of nitrogen the transition is smoother than in water culture (Fig. 26) from which nitrate is withdrawn and replaced by chloride (treatment 0 and 0N).
Uptake, distribution and redistribution in older (from flowering on) main shoots of wheat are also in good agreement for water and soil culture. The order of mobility K>N = P>Mg>Ca>Cl is the same for both. This mobility is, as regards translocation (redistribution), connected with uptake and dry-matter production for young plants as represented in Fig. 27 (Chapter 9) for water culture and in Fig. 50 (Chapter 12) for soil culture. Potassium is supposed to be the most mobile nutrient in this cereal because of the fast uptake of this element relative to dry-matter production in young shoots (Figs. 27 and 50) and because from the older plant part is retranslocated to the root medium. (Fig. 45). Nitrogen and phosphorus are only redistributed within the shoots; P from stalks only, N from leaves and stalks. In water culture (Fig. 13) 65 % of both nutrients are found in the ears and 15 to 20% in leaves and stalks of main wheat shoots. In soil culture (Fig. 40) these values for nitrogen were 85, 10 and 5 % for ears, leaves and stalks respectively. Dilz (1964) found in field trials with wheat and oats, 75 % of total nitrogen in the grains (for chaff (= ear minus grain) 10 % of total nitrogen can be used) The amounts of Mg, Ca and Cl increase in all parts of the plant until the end of the growth period, for these elements no net losses are found; more Mg than Ca is found in the ear (grains) so that Mg is probably more mobile. By decomposition of proteins in older plants some sulphur is stored as SO 4 in leaves. The amounts of Na in aerial parts of wheat (also in water culture with 1 meq Na per liter) are very low, especially if compared with K; in roots the contents are higher but still to low to influence (C-A) contents.
Uptake and distribution of nutrients are generally determined by the qualitative and quantitative supply in the growth medium, the selection of the uptake mechanism and the translocation from one plant part to another. An example of different N source (NH 4 or NO 3 ) was already given. But also in a system with SO 4 or Cl as anions (Marschner & Ossenberg-Neuhaus, 1970) differences in amounts taken up and mobility influence (C-A) content and the distribution in the different plant parts.
As was seen in Table 9 Na is taken up by roots in large amounts. However the small amounts found in aerial parts of wheat, points to a selectivity in the transport system for Na. As opposed to Na, K is taken up by cereals in large quantities and is transported easily.
With water culture the continuous uptake of nutrients leads to stores so that changes in supply of nutrients (e.g. K) during short intervals do not influence development and growth of plants and only have a small effect on distribution. If, as in older plants, transpiration is important changes in uptake and distribution can be found. With split application of K (Section 11.3.2, Fig. 45) in soil culture, Ca in leaves and ears (transpiring parts) was higher than in stalks. In water culture replacing K by Ca (treatment 0K, section 6.3.2, Table 16) the same is found for potassium. These results can be explained by exchange of ions in the transport system (Isermann, 1969, 1970) and translocation of the exchanged ions to transpiring parts. The amount of Ca does not seem to influence the quality of grain of cereals.
By split application of nitrogen (in this pot trial (Fig. 6) suppletion of N on day 34, 62 and 90 after emergence i.e. at tillering, earing and flowering), the effect on yielddetermining factors (Fig. 38, 10.2.2.1 till 10.2.2.4) is the same as under field conditions (Coic, 1956; de Jong, 1969). Nitrogen applied during tillering and shooting has the most important influence on the number of culms whereas nitrogen dressed at earing and their flowering gives more grains per ear and a higher (1000) grain weight. Yet none of the treatments with split application of nitrogen outyielded (10.2.2.4) the dressing of 840 mg N per pot before sowing (treatment 130). Related to this, soils with low level of available soil nitrogen give a remarkable effect on grain yield (Dilz, 1964). In field trials (de Jong, 1969) no close correlation was found between yields of the untreated plots (controls) and the effect of nitrogen (dressings in one or split application and expressed as yields of grains resp. straw) was found. To be able to forecast the effect of split application of N on different soil types as was tried by de Jong (1969), it would be better to use the uptake of nitrogen (kg/ha) either by grain or straw or both instead of dry-matter production (kg/ha of grains and straw) because in humid areas nitrogen is the most important factor for determining yield.