Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Erratum to : The sponge microbiome project
Moitinho-Silva, Lucas ; Nielsen, Shaun ; Amir, Amnon ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Ackermann, Gail L. ; Cerrano, Carlo ; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen ; Easson, Cole ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Liu, Fang ; Steinert, Georg ; Kotoulas, Giorgos ; McCormack, Grace P. ; Feng, Guofang ; Bell, James J. ; Vicente, Jan ; Björk, Johannes R. ; Montoya, Jose M. ; Olson, Julie B. ; Reveillaud, Julie ; Steindler, Laura ; Pineda, Mari Carmen ; Marra, Maria V. ; Ilan, Micha ; Taylor, Michael W. ; Polymenakou, Paraskevi ; Erwin, Patrick M. ; Schupp, Peter J. ; Simister, Rachel L. ; Knight, Rob ; Thacker, Robert W. ; Costa, Rodrigo ; Hill, Russell T. ; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna ; Dailianis, Thanos ; Ravasi, Timothy ; Hentschel, Ute ; Li, Zhiyong ; Webster, Nicole S. ; Thomas, Torsten - \ 2018
GigaScience 7 (2018)12. - ISSN 2047-217X
Fungicide evaluation to rate the efficacy to control early blight for the EuroBlight table
Evenhuis, A. ; Hausladen, H. ; Nielsen, B.J. ; Berg, W. van den; Schepers, H.T.A.M. - \ 2018
Lelystad : (Confidential Wageningen Plant Research Report 3750328100) - 28 p.
Host genetics and the rumen microbiome jointly associate with methane emissions in dairy cows
Difford, Gareth Frank ; Plichta, Damian Rafal ; Løvendahl, Peter ; Lassen, Jan ; Noel, Samantha Joan ; Højberg, Ole ; Wright, André Denis G. ; Zhu, Zhigang ; Kristensen, Lise ; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn ; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt ; Sahana, Goutam - \ 2018
Plos Genetics 14 (2018)10. - ISSN 1553-7404 - p. e1007580 - e1007580.

Cattle and other ruminants produce large quantities of methane (~110 million metric tonnes per annum), which is a potent greenhouse gas affecting global climate change. Methane (CH4) is a natural by-product of gastro-enteric microbial fermentation of feedstuffs in the rumen and contributes to 6% of total CH4 emissions from anthropogenic-related sources. The extent to which the host genome and rumen microbiome influence CH4 emission is not yet well known. This study confirms individual variation in CH4 production was influenced by individual host (cow) genotype, as well as the host's rumen microbiome composition. Abundance of a small proportion of bacteria and archaea taxa were influenced to a limited extent by the host's genotype and certain taxa were associated with CH4 emissions. However, the cumulative effect of all bacteria and archaea on CH4 production was 13%, the host genetics (heritability) was 21% and the two are largely independent. This study demonstrates variation in CH4 emission is likely not modulated through cow genetic effects on the rumen microbiome. Therefore, the rumen microbiome and cow genome could be targeted independently, by breeding low methane-emitting cows and in parallel, by investigating possible strategies that target changes in the rumen microbiome to reduce CH4 emissions in the cattle industry.

Modelling smart energy systems in tropical regions
Dominković, D.F. ; Dobravec, V. ; Jiang, Y. ; Nielsen, P.S. ; Krajačić, G. - \ 2018
Energy 155 (2018). - ISSN 0360-5442 - p. 592 - 609.
Air pollution - District cooling - Energy storage modelling - Smart cities - Smart energy system - Tropical climate

A large majority of energy systems models of smart urban energy systems are modelling moderate climate with seasonal variations, such as the European ones. The climate in the tropical region is dominated by very high stable temperatures and high humidity and lacks the moderate climate's seasonality. Furthermore, the smart energy system models tend to focus on CO2 emissions only and lack integrated air pollution modelling of other air pollutants. In this study, an integrated urban energy system for a tropical climate was modelled, including modelling the interactions between power, cooling, gas, mobility and water desalination sectors. Five different large scale storages were modelled, too. The developed linear optimization model further included endogenous decisions about the share of district versus individual cooling, implementation of energy efficiency solutions and implementation of demand response measures in buildings and industry. Six scenarios for the year 2030 were developed in order to present a stepwise increase in energy system integration in a transition to a smart urban energy system in Singapore. The economically best performing scenario had 48% lower socio-economic costs, 68% lower CO2e emissions, 15% higher particulate matter emissions and 2% larger primary energy consumption compared to a business-as-usual case.

Bee conservation : Inclusive solutions
Kleijn, David ; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Dupont, Yoko L. ; Nielsen, Anders ; Potts, Simon G. ; Settele, Josef - \ 2018
Science 360 (2018)6387. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 389 - 390.
Stakeholder perceptions in fisheries management - Sectors with benthic impacts
Soma, K. ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Papadopoulou, N. ; Polet, H. ; Zengin, M. ; Smith, C.J. ; Eigaard, O.R. ; Sala, A. ; Bonanomi, S. ; Burg, S.W.K. Van Den; Piet, G.J. ; Buisman, E. ; Gümüş, A. - \ 2018
Marine Policy 92 (2018). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 73 - 85.
The capture fishing sector causes direct and indirect impacts on benthic habitats and associated fauna and flora. Effectiveness of new mitigation measures depends on fishermen's perceptions; their acceptance of, and compliance to, those measures. Accordingly, by means of Advisory Councils (ACs), fisheries stakeholders are encouraged by the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform to contribute to policy formulations. Still, the CFP reform remains unclear about how to possibly incorporate perceptions of specific conservation measures and objectives in practice. Against this background, this article aims at exploring a systematic multi-criteria approach that provides information about stakeholder preferences for objectives reflecting on what is more important to aim for (‘what’), mitigation measures as strategies for reaching their objectives (‘how’), and accountability options that can enhance trust in the people who carry out management (‘who'). The approach applies a pairwise comparison approach to elucidate the stakeholder preferences, and to estimate the relative importance of the different options. It is conducted in the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea. The outcomes of the questionnaire survey succeed in transparently reflecting a diversity of preferences. It is advised that in order to inform the CFP, the ACs develop a user-friendly attractive online version of this approach that can reach multiple stakeholders across Europe and facilitate updates on a continuous basis. In this way the ACs could better facilitate bottom-up participation in fisheries management by representing a wide range of stakeholder perceptions.
Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults : Observational data from the DiOGenes study
Andriessen, Charlotte ; Christensen, Pia ; Vestergaard Nielsen, Lone ; Ritz, Christian ; Astrup, Arne ; Meinert Larsen, Thomas ; Martinez, J.A. ; Saris, Wim H.M. ; Baak, Marleen A. van; Papadaki, Angeliki ; Kunesova, Marie ; Jebb, Susan ; Blundell, John ; Lawton, Clare ; Raben, Anne - \ 2018
Appetite 125 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 314 - 322.
Body weight maintenance - Hunger - LCD - Leeds food choice questionnaire - Visual analogue scale - Weight loss
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD). Subjective appetite and food preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p < 0.05), decreased desire to eat (p < 0.05) and decreased prospective consumption (p < 0.05) after consuming the test meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p < 0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption was decreased by 18.1%, 20.2% and 21.1% respectively whereas AUC for fullness increased by 13.9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p < 0.05). High-carbohydrate and high-fat preference decreased by 11.4% and 16.2% before the test meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p < 0.05). No other effects were observed. These results suggest that LCD induced weight loss decreases the appetite perceptions of overweight volunteers whilst decreasing their preference for high-fat-, high-carbohydrate-, and low-energy products.
Knowledge gaps that hamper prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection
Barkema, H.W. ; Orsel, K. ; Nielsen, S. ; Koets, Ad ; Rutten, V.P.M.G. ; Bannantine, J.P. ; Keefe, G.P. ; Kelton, D.F. ; Wells, S.J. ; Whittington, R.J. ; Mackintosh, C.G. ; Manning, E.J. ; Weber, M.F. ; Heuer, C. ; Forde, T.L. ; Ritter, C. ; Roche, S. ; Corbett, C.S. ; Wolf, R. ; Griebel, P.J. ; Kastelic, J.P. ; Buck, J. De - \ 2018
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2018)S1. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 125 - 148.
In the last decades, many regional and country-wide control programmes for Johne's disease (JD) were developed due to associated economic losses, or because of a possible association with Crohn's disease. These control programmes were often not successful, partly because management protocols were not followed, including the introduction of infected replacement cattle, because tests to identify infected animals were unreliable, and uptake by farmers was not high enough because of a perceived low return on investment. In the absence of a cure or effective commercial vaccines, control of JD is currently primarily based on herd management strategies to avoid infection of cattle and restrict within-farm and farm-to-farm transmission. Although JD control programmes have been implemented in most developed countries, lessons learned from JD prevention and control programmes are underreported. Also, JD control programmes are typically evaluated in a limited number of herds and the duration of the study is less than 5 year, making it difficult to adequately assess the efficacy of control programmes. In this manuscript, we identify the most important gaps in knowledge hampering JD prevention and control programmes, including vaccination and diagnostics. Secondly, we discuss directions that research should take to address those knowledge gaps
Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models-Evaluation, review and challenges for implementation
Nielsen, J.R. ; Thunberg, Eric ; Holland, Daniel S. ; Schmidt, Jorn O. ; Fulton, Elizabeth A. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Punt, Andre E. ; Allen, Icarus ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Bertignac, Michel ; Groeneveld, Rolf A. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Dijk, Diana van - \ 2018
Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 1 - 29.
Bio-economic models - Comparative model evaluation - Fisheries management advice - Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models - Marine spatial planning and cross-sector management - Performance criteria and scales and risks - Use and acceptance and implementation and communication and flexibility and complexity

Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. To fulfil society's intensifying and diversifying needs while ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources is necessary. Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models (IEEFMs) of marine systems are needed to evaluate impacts and sustainability of potential management actions and understand, and anticipate ecological, economic and social dynamics at a range of scales from local to national and regional. To make these models most effective, it is important to determine how model characteristics and methods of communicating results influence the model implementation, the nature of the advice that can be provided and the impact on decisions taken by managers. This article presents a global review and comparative evaluation of 35 IEEFMs applied to marine fisheries and marine ecosystem resources to identify the characteristics that determine their usefulness, effectiveness and implementation. The focus is on fully integrated models that allow for feedbacks between ecological and human processes although not all the models reviewed achieve that. Modellers must invest more time to make models user friendly and to participate in management fora where models and model results can be explained and discussed. Such involvement is beneficial to all parties, leading to improvement of mo-dels and more effective implementation of advice, but demands substantial resources which must be built into the governance process. It takes time to develop effective processes for using IEEFMs requiring a long-term commitment to integrating multidisciplinary modelling advice into management decision-making.

Integration of fisheries into marine spatial planning: Quo vadis?
Janßen, Holger ; Bastardie, Francois ; Eero, Margit ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Hinrichsen, Hans Harald ; Marchal, Paul ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Pape, Olivier Le; Schulze, Torsten ; Simons, Sarah ; Teal, Lorna R. ; Tidd, Alex - \ 2018
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 201 (2018). - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 105 - 113.
Fisheries - Marine space - Maritime spatial planning - MSP - Marine governance - EBM
The relationship between fisheries and marine spatial planning (MSP) is still widely unsettled. While several scientific studies highlight the strong relation between fisheries and MSP, as well as ways in which fisheries could be included in MSP, the actual integration of fisheries into MSP often fails. In this article, we review the state of the art and latest progress in research on various challenges in the integration of fisheries into MSP. The reviewed studies address a wide range of integration challenges, starting with techniques to analyse where fishermen actually fish, assessing the drivers for fishermen's behaviour, seasonal dynamics and long-term spatial changes of commercial fish species under various anthropogenic pressures along their successive life stages, the effects of spatial competition on fisheries and projections on those spaces that might become important fishing areas in the future, and finally, examining how fisheries could benefit from MSP. This paper gives an overview of the latest developments on concepts, tools, and methods. It becomes apparent that the spatial and temporal dynamics of fish and fisheries, as well as the definition of spatial preferences, remain major challenges, but that an integration of fisheries is already possible today.
Fungicide evaluation to rate efficacy to control leaf late blight for the EuroBlight table
Evenhuis, A. ; Bain, R. ; Hausladen, H. ; Nielsen, B. ; Berg, W. van den; Schepers, H.T.A.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research - 50 p.
Territorial cohesion through cross-border landscape policy? The European case of the Three Countries park (BE-NL-DE)
Brüll, A. ; Wirth, T.M. ; Lohrberg, F. ; Kempenaar, Annet ; Brinkhuijsen, M. ; Godart, M.F. ; Coppens, A. ; Nielsen, M. - \ 2017
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems 3 (2017)1. - ISSN 2300-3669 - p. 68 - 92.
Landscapes can be understood as socialecological systems under constant change. In Europe various territorial dynamics pose persistent challenges to maintaining diverse landscapes both as European heritage and in their capacity to provide vital functions and services. Concurrently, under the competence of cohesion policy, the EU is attempting to improve policy making by better policy coordination and respecting regional specifics. This paper explores the question how a policy dedicated to landscape can help to handle territorial change and support territorial cohesion. It presents results and performances of the ESPON applied research study LP3LP: (1) a common landscape policy for the Three Countries Park, across the Dutch, German and Belgium borders, including a spatial landscape vision, a governance proposal of adaptive landscape management, and thematic strategies dealing with green infrastructure, cultural heritage, complementary biomass and quality production; (2) recommendations at the EU level. In discussing the significance of a landscape approach for EU policy,three dimensions of landscape are linked withimportant aspects of territorial cohesion: ‘landscape as asset’ addressing natural-cultural territorial capital as an indigenous base forsmart, sustainable, and inclusivedevelopment;‘landscape as place’ stressing the relevance of landscape for place-based policies; and ‘landscape as common ground’ highlighting its potential for horizontal, vertical, and territorial integration.
The sponge microbiome project
Moitinho-Silva, Lucas ; Nielsen, Shaun ; Amir, Amnon ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Ackermann, Gail L. ; Cerrano, Carlo ; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen ; Easson, Cole ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Liu, Fang ; Steinert, Georg ; Kotoulas, Giorgos ; McCormack, Grace P. ; Feng, Guofang ; Bell, James J. ; Vicente, Jan ; Björk, Johannes R. ; Montoya, Jose M. ; Olson, Julie B. ; Reveillaud, Julie ; Steindler, Laura ; Pineda, Mari Carmen ; Marra, Maria V. ; Ilan, Micha ; Taylor, Michael W. ; Polymenakou, Paraskevi ; Erwin, Patrick M. ; Schupp, Peter J. ; Simister, Rachel L. ; Knight, Rob ; Thacker, Robert W. ; Costa, Rodrigo ; Hill, Russell T. ; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna ; Dailianis, Thanos ; Ravasi, Timothy ; Hentschel, Ute ; Li, Zhiyong ; Webster, Nicole S. ; Thomas, Torsten - \ 2017
GigaScience 6 (2017)10. - ISSN 2047-217X
16S rRNA gene - Archaea - Bacteria - Marine sponges - Microbial diversity - Microbiome - Symbiosis
Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere.
Differential effects of elevated air humidity on stomatal closing ability of Kalanchoë blossfeldiana between the C3 and CAM states
Fanourakis, Dimitrios ; Hyldgaard, Benita ; Gebraegziabher, Habtamu ; Bouranis, Dimitris ; Körner, Oliver ; Nielsen, Kai Lønne ; Ottosen, Carl-Otto - \ 2017
Environmental and Experimental Botany 143 (2017). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 115 - 124.
Air humidity - Evaporative demand - Facultative CAM species - Stomata - Stomatal conductance - Transpiration

High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) impairs stomatal functionality, attenuating plant capacity to cope with abiotic stress. Previous studies were limited to C3 species, so the RH effect on stomatal physiology of CAM plants remains unexplored. We addressed the topic through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in a facultative CAM species. These states were validated by diel measurements of net assimilation rate and malate level. In the first two experiments, three Kalanchoë interspecific hybrid cultivars were exposed to moderate (60%) or high (90%) RH. Both leaves that expanded at high RH and leaves that had expanded at moderate RH and were subsequently exposed to high RH (for nine days) showed increased stomatal conductance. In the third experiment, both C3 and CAM state plants of one K. blossfeldiana cultivar were exposed to low (40%), moderate (60%) or high (90%) RH. Plant transpiration during night-time was inversely related to ambient RH in either state, whereas during day-time a significant effect was only noted at 90% RH. Kalanchoë leaves showed a very effective control of water loss upon water deprivation, especially in the CAM state. Following a single week exposure to 90% RH, detached leaves showed increased rates of water loss during desiccation in C3 state plants. No effect of high RH on stomatal response to desiccation was noted in leaves detached from plants in CAM-state. It is concluded that the negative effect of either growth or one-week exposure to high RH is restricted to the C3 state in Kalanchoë.

Olfactory Behaviour in Farm Animals
Clouard, C.M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2017
In: Olfaction in Animal Behaviour and Welfare / Nielsen, Birte L., CAB International - ISBN 9781786391599 - p. 161 - 175.
This chapter presents several examples of how olfactory information and farming conditions affects the behaviour of farm animals and presents opportunities to improve the welfare and production of farm animals by making use of odours and olfaction.
Predicting the HMA-LMA status in marine sponges by machine learning
Moitinho-Silva, Lucas ; Steinert, Georg ; Nielsen, Shaun ; Hardoim, Cristiane C.P. ; Wu, Yu Chen ; McCormack, Grace P. ; López-Legentil, Susanna ; Marchant, Roman ; Webster, Nicole ; Thomas, Torsten ; Hentschel, Ute - \ 2017
Frontiers in Microbiology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-302X - 14 p.
16S rRNA gene - Marine sponges - Microbial diversity - Microbiome - Random forest - Symbiosis

The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been observed in sponge-microbe symbiosis, although the extent of this pattern remains poorly unknown. We characterized the differences between the microbiomes of HMA (n = 19) and LMA (n = 17) sponges (575 specimens) present in the Sponge Microbiome Project. HMA sponges were associated with richer and more diverse microbiomes than LMA sponges, as indicated by the comparison of alpha diversity metrics. Microbial community structures differed between HMA and LMA sponges considering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) abundances and across microbial taxonomic levels, from phylum to species. The largest proportion of microbiome variation was explained by the host identity. Several phyla, classes, and OTUs were found differentially abundant in either group, which were considered "HMA indicators" and "LMA indicators." Machine learning algorithms (classifiers) were trained to predict the HMA-LMA status of sponges. Among nine different classifiers, higher performances were achieved by Random Forest trained with phylum and class abundances. Random Forest with optimized parameters predicted the HMA-LMA status of additional 135 sponge species (1,232 specimens) without a priori knowledge. These sponges were grouped in four clusters, from which the largest two were composed of species consistently predicted as HMA (n = 44) and LMA (n = 74). In summary, our analyses shown distinct features of the microbial communities associated with HMA and LMA sponges. The prediction of the HMA-LMA status based on the microbiome profiles of sponges demonstrates the application of machine learning to explore patterns of host-associated microbial communities.

The footprint of bottom trawling in European waters : Distribution, intensity, and seabed integrity
Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål ; Catarino, Rui ; Dinesen, Grete E. ; Egekvist, Josefine ; Fock, Heino O. ; Geitner, Kerstin ; Gerritsen, Hans D. ; González, Manuel Marín ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Laffargue, Pascal ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Pulcinella, Jacopo ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Silva, Cristina ; Smith, Christopher J. ; Vanelslander, Bart ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 847 - 865.
benthic impact - bottom trawl - fishing pressure - indicators - Mediterranean Sea - Northeast Atlantic - seabed habitat - seabed integrity - trawling footprint - trawling intensity
Mapping trawling pressure on the benthic habitats is needed as background to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. The extent and intensity of bottom trawling on the European continental shelf (0-1000 m) was analysed from logbook statistics and vessel monitoring system data for 2010-2012 at a grid cell resolution of 1 1 min longitude and latitude. Trawling intensity profiles with seabed impact at the surface and subsurface level are presented for 14 management areas in the North-east Atlantic, Baltic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. The footprint of the management areas ranged between 53-99% and 6-94% for the depth zone from 0 to 200 m (Shallow) and from 201 to 1000 m (Deep), respectively. The footprint was estimated as the total area of all grid cells that were trawled fully or partially. Excluding the untrawled proportions reduced the footprint estimates to 28-85% and 2-77%. Largest footprints per unit landings were observed off Portugal and in the Mediterranean Sea. Mean trawling intensity ranged between 0.5 and 8.5 times per year, but was less in the Deep zone with a maximum intensity of 6.4. Highest intensities were recorded in the Skagerrak-Kattegat, Iberian Portuguese area, Tyrrhenian Sea and Adriatic Sea. Bottom trawling was highly aggregated. For the Shallow zone the seabed area where 90% of the effort occurred comprised between 17% and 63% (median 36%) of the management area. Footprints were high over a broad range of soft sediment habitats. Using the longevity distribution of the untrawled infaunal community, the seabed integrity was estimated as the proportion of the biomass of benthic taxa where the trawling interval at the subsurface level exceeds their life span. Seabed integrity was low (>0.1) in large parts of the European continental shelfs, although smaller pockets of seabed with higher integrity values occur. The methods developed here integrate official fishing effort statistics and industry-based gear information to provide high-resolution pressure maps and indicators, which greatly improve the basis for assessing and managing benthic pressure from bottom trawling. Further they provide quantitative estimates of trawling impact on a continuous scale by which managers can steer.
Methyl isonicotinate - A non-pheromone thrips semiochemical - And its potential for pest management
Teulon, D.A.J. ; Davidson, M.M. ; Perry, N.B. ; Nielsen, M.C. ; Castañé, C. ; Bosch, D. ; Riudavets, J. ; Tol, R.W.H.M. Van; Kogel, W.J. de - \ 2017
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 37 (2017)2. - ISSN 1742-7584 - p. 50 - 56.
kairomone - pest management strategies - semiochemical - synomone - Thrips

Methyl isonicotinate is one of several patented 4-pyridyl carbonyl compounds being investigated for a variety of uses in thrips pest management. It is probably the most extensively studied thrips non-pheromone semiochemical, with field and glasshouse trapping experiments, and wind tunnel and Y-tube olfactometer studies in several countries demonstrating a behavioural response that results in increased trap capture of at least 12 thrips species, including the cosmopolitan virus vectors such as western flower thrips and onion thrips. Methyl isonicotinate has several of the characteristics that are required for an effective semiochemical tool and is being mainly used as a lure in combination with coloured sticky traps for enhanced monitoring of thrips in greenhouses. Research indicates that this non-pheromone semiochemical has the potential to be used for other thrips management strategies such as mass trapping, lure and kill, lure and infect, and as a behavioural synergist in conjunction with insecticides, in a range of indoor and outdoor crops.

Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans
Bohn, Torsten ; Desmarchelier, Charles ; Dragsted, Lars O. ; Nielsen, Charlotte S. ; Stahl, Wilhelm ; Rühl, Ralph ; Keijer, Jaap ; Borel, Patrick - \ 2017
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 61 (2017)6. - ISSN 1613-4125
Absorption - Biodistribution - Genetic polymorphisms - Intestine - Macula lutea
Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life-style habits (e.g. smoking), gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms that govern carotenoid metabolism. These are expected to explain interindividual differences that contribute to carotenoid uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and therefore possibly also their association with disease risk. For instance, digestion enzymes fostering micellization (PNLIP, CES), expression of uptake/efflux transporters (SR-BI, CD36, NPC1L1), cleavage enzymes (BCO1/2), intracellular transporters (FABP2), secretion into chylomicrons (APOB, MTTP), carotenoid metabolism in the blood and liver (LPL, APO C/E, LDLR), and distribution to target tissues such as adipose tissue or macula (GSTP1, StARD3) depend on the activity of these proteins. In addition, human microbiota, e.g. via altering bile-acid concentrations, may play a role in carotenoid bioavailability. In order to comprehend individual, variable responses to these compounds, an improved knowledge on intra-/interindividual factors determining carotenoid bioavailability, including tissue distribution, is required. Here, we highlight the current knowledge on factors that may explain such intra-/interindividual differences.
Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation
Redl, Stephanie ; Diender, Martijn ; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj ; Machado de Sousa, Diana ; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard - \ 2017
Industrial Crops and Products 106 (2017). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 21 - 30.
Acetogens - Biomass gasification - Co-cultures - Mixotrophy - Syngas fermentation - Thermophiles
The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Together with the gasification of biomass and different waste streams, these gases have the potential for being utilized for production of chemicals through fermentation processes. Acetogens are among the most studied organisms capable of utilizing waste gases. Although engineering of heterologous production of higher value compounds has been successful for a number of acetogens, the processes are challenging due to the redox balance and the lack of efficient engineering tools. In this review, we address the availability of different gaseous feedstock and gasification processes, and we focus on the advantages of alternative fermentation scenarios, including thermophilic production strains, multi-stage fermentations, mixed cultures, as well as mixotrophy. Such processes have the potential to significantly broaden the product portfolio, increase the product concentrations and yields, while enabling the exploitation of alternative and mixed feedstocks. The reviewed processes also have the potential to address challenges associated with product inhibition and may contribute to reducing the costs of downstream processing. Given the widespread availability of gases, such processes will likely significantly impact the transition towards a more sustainable society.
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