Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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Otter : Lutra lutra
Lammertsma, D.R. ; Niewold, F.J.J. - \ 2016
In: Atlas van de Nederlandse zoogdieren Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Natuur van Nederland 12) - ISBN 9789050115346 - p. 247 - 250.
The last traces of indigenous Dutch otters were recorded in Friesland in 1992. Sarting in 2002, reintrodction programmes were launched in Overijssel en Friesland using otters from Central and Eastern Europe. Since then, the otter has continued to expand its range in the north of the Netherlands. It has also spread locally to the centre of the country. Otters inhabit a range of aquatic environments. Dense cover in raparian zones is required to provide safe shelter for females and juveniles. Road traffic is a major mortality cause.
Intestinal health in carnivores
Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2015
In: Intestinal Health / Niewold, Theo, Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789076998916 - p. 117 - 138.
The knowledge on the influence of gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota on the health status of humans and animals is rapidly expanding. A balanced microbiome may provide multiple benefits to the host, like triggering and stimulation of the immune system, acting as a barrier against possible pathogenic micro-organism, and providing energy and nutritional support. Both culturing methods and more modern molecular techniques have provided valuable insights in gut microbiology of the dog and cat. The major bacterial phyla seem to be similar to those found in other species, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria constituting more than 99% of all gut microbiota. However, the microbiota composition seems to differ substantially on a species/strain level, with much inter-individual variation. Also, studies with diseased and susceptible subjects showed clear alterations in gut microbiome, with a reduced richness of species and dysbiosis as the most commonly found deviations. Several nutritional studies have demonstrated that modulation of canine and feline gut microbiota may occur when the amounts of soluble fibres and macronutrients in the diet are changed. Interestingly, feeding a high protein, low carbohydrate diet to dogs and cats showed clear shifts in bacterial strains, which are normally associated with negative health effects in herbivorous and omnivorous mammals. However, no adverse effects of these bacterial shifts could be noticed in the dog and cat studies. The latter may indicate that species differences are indeed present, possibly driven by nutritional strategies during evolution. Further research is warranted to more thoroughly unravel the mystery of the gut microbiome in general, and that in the carnivorous dog and cat in particular.
Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v modulates gene expression in the ileum of pigs: prediction of crosstalk between intestinal immune cells and sub-mucosal adipocytes
Hulst, M.M. ; Gross, G. ; Liu, Yapin ; Hoekman, A.J.W. ; Niewold, T. ; Meulen, J. van der; Smits, M.A. - \ 2015
Genes & Nutrition 10 (2015)3. - ISSN 1555-8932 - 13 p.
kappa-b - functional-analysis - in-vivo - inhibition - immunoglobulins - identification - adipogenesis - macrophages - metabolism - activation
To study host–probiotic interactions in parts of the intestine only accessible in humans by surgery (jejunum, ileum and colon), pigs were used as model for humans. Groups of eight 6-week-old pigs were repeatedly orally administered with 5 × 1012 CFU Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (L. plantarum 299v) or PBS, starting with a single dose followed by three consecutive daily dosings 10 days later. Gene expression was assessed with pooled RNA samples isolated from jejunum, ileum and colon scrapings of the eight pigs per group using Affymetrix porcine microarrays. Comparison of gene expression profiles recorded from L. plantarum 299v-treated pigs with PBS-treated pigs indicated that L. plantarum 299v affected metabolic and immunological processes, particularly in the ileum. A higher expression level of several B cell-specific transcription factors/regulators was observed, suggesting that an influx of B cells from the periphery to the ileum and/or the proliferation of progenitor B cells to IgA-committed plasma cells in the Peyer’s patches of the ileum was stimulated. Genes coding for enzymes that metabolize leukotriene B4, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and steroids were regulated in the ileum. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that these metabolites may play a role in the crosstalk between intestinal immune cells and sub-mucosal adipocytes. Together with regulation of genes that repress NFKB- and PPARG-mediated transcription, this crosstalk may contribute to tempering of inflammatory reactions. Furthermore, the enzyme adenosine deaminase, responsible for the breakdown of the anti-inflammatory mediator adenosine, was strongly down-regulated in response to L. plantarum 299v. This suggested that L. plantarum 299v-regulated production of adenosine by immune cells like regulatory T cells may also be a mechanism that tempers inflammation in the ileum, and perhaps also in other parts of the pig’s body.
Fat coating of Ca butyrate results in extended butyrate release in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers
Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Buyse, J. ; Niewold, T.A. - \ 2015
Livestock Science 175 (2015). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 96 - 100.
acid breath test - c-13-octanoic acid - chickens - absorption - passage
Based on its described beneficial effects on small and large intestinal epithelium, butyrate can be a very good alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. Effective dietary application requires coating because the majority of uncoated butyrate is purportedly absorbed before reaching the proximal small intestine. Several studies using different protocols reported varying stomach passage times in chickens. In the present study, we compared feeding uncoated vs. fat coated [1-13C] labeled Ca butyrate, and compared the effect of butyrate coating with [1-13C] labeled octanoic acid which is an established indicator of stomach passage. By monitoring 13CO2 expiration continuously, we show that the majority (about 80%) of uncoated Ca butyrate is oxidized proximally of the small intestine, and that base line levels were reached after 6 h. Fat coating of Ca butyrate resulted in reduced proximal oxidation (from about 80% to about 45%), and in an extended release pattern of 13CO2 from butyrate similar to that of octanoic acid, and that the return to base line levels was extended to 12 h. This indicated that fat coating of butyrate results in absorption along the entire intestinal tract in broilers, offering an explanation for the described beneficial effects as a growth promoter.
Systems biology - applications in intestinal health
Schokker, D. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2014
In: Intestinal health, Key to maximise growth performance in livestock / Niewold, T., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic - ISBN 9789076998916 - p. 253 - 273.
Livestock production is changing worldwide. The ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift of animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing livestock producers to adapt to new husbandry, management, nutrition and healthcare techniques. Food safety is an explosive political issue - the expectations and demands of the informed consumer have altered perceptions of risk and brought food safety to the very front and centre of politics. The changes in legislation on the use of feed additives will impact livestock production, location of production and feed formulation. Veterinarians and producers look for alternatives to maintain intestinal health and maximise animal performance, whilst still complying with increasingly stringent (EU) legislation. 'Intestinal health' reviews the changes in livestock production and some of the clinical and sub-clinical disease challenges faced (mainly) in pig and poultry production. It discusses the current infectious and non-infectious challenges as well as the complex interaction between innate, cellular and humoral immunity and performance. The problems that this complexity poses concerning the identification of important factors for intestinal health are discussed, and new approaches such as the development of validated biomarkers, the application of omics techniques and systems biology are reviewed.
Sterke toename verkeerssterfte bij otters
Kuiters, A.T. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Niewold, F.J.J. - \ 2014
Zoogdier 25 (2014)4. - ISSN 0925-1006 - p. 10 - 12.
otters - lutra lutra - populatie-ecologie - verkeersongevallen - inventarisaties - natuurgebieden - noordwest-overijssel - friesland - population ecology - traffic accidents - inventories - natural areas
De afgelopen jaren heeft de Nederlandse otterpopulatie zich sterk uitgebreid. Maar zowel in de uitzetgebieden als in de nieuwe kolonies ontbreekt het vaak aan ottervoorzieningen, waardoor er jaarlijks veel verkeersslachtoffers vallen. Alterra heeft binnen het huidige verspreidingsgebied de knelpuntlocaties geïnventariseerd en een lijst samengesteld met urgente knelpunten die met voorrang zouden moeten worden aangepakt.
Transcription networks responsible for early regulation of Salmonella_induced inflammation in the jejunum of pigs
Hulst, M.M. ; Smits, M.A. ; Vastenhouw, S.A. ; Wit, A.A.C. de; Niewold, Th. ; Meulen, J. van der - \ 2013
Journal of Inflammation 10 (2013). - ISSN 1476-9255
enterica serovar typhimurium - epithelial-cells - gene-expression - in-vitro - intestinal-mucosa - bowel-disease - infection - activation - proteins - vivo
Background The aim of this study was to identify transcription factors/regulators that play a crucial role in steering the (innate) immune response shortly (within a few hours) after the first contact of the intestinal mucosa with an inflammatory mediator, and to test whether the processes regulated by these factors/regulators can be modulated by chemical substances of natural origin. Methods We experimentally induced inflammation by perfusion of surgically applied jejunal loops with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in three pigs. Segments of mock and Salmonella treated loops were dissected after 2, 4 and 8¿hours of perfusion. IL8 and IL1-beta mRNA expression levels were measured in mucosal scrapings of all segments. Furthermore, intra-animal microarray comparisons (isogenic) between Salmonella and mock treated segments after 8¿hours, and inter-animal comparisons between similar Salmonella-treated loops of each pig at 2 and 4¿hours, were performed. Results IL-1beta and IL8 mRNA levels, and intra-animal microarray comparisons at 8¿hours between Salmonella and mock treated segments showed that the response-time and type of response to Salmonella was different in all three pigs. This plasticity allowed us to extract a comprehensive set of differentially expressed genes from inter-animal comparisons at 2 and 4¿hours. Pathway analysis indicated that many of these genes play a role in induction and/or tempering the inflammatory response in the intestine. Among them a set of transcription factors/regulators known to be involved in regulation of inflammation, but also factors/regulators for which involvement was not expected. Nine out of twenty compounds of natural origin, which according to literature had the potential to modulate the activity of these factors/regulators, were able to stimulate or inhibit a Salmonella-induced mRNA response of inflammatory-reporter genes IL8 and/or nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor alpha in cultured intestinal porcine epithelial cells. Conclusions We describe a set of transcription factors/regulators possibly involved in regulation of “very early” immune mechanism which determines the inflammatory status of the intestine later on. In addition, we show that these mechanisms may be modulated by chemical substances of natural origin. Keywords: Transcription regulation; Salmonella-induced inflammation; Pig intestine
Role of heat-stable enterotoxins in the induction of early immune responses in piglets after infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Loos, M. ; Geens, M. ; Schauvliege, S. ; Gasthuys, F. ; Meulen, J. van der; Dubreuil, J.D. ; Goddeeris, B.M. ; Niewold, T.A. ; Cox, E. - \ 2012
PLoS One 7 (2012)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
toll-like-receptor - pancreatitis-associated protein - intestinal epithelial-cells - postweaning diarrhea - labile enterotoxin - gene-expression - dendritic cells - cytokine expression - human monocytes - net absorption
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-stable (ST) and/or heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins are cause of post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. However, the relative importance of the different enterotoxins in host immune responses against ETEC infection has been poorly defined. In the present study, several isogenic mutant strains of an O149:F4ac(+), LT(+) STa(+) STb(+) ETEC strain were constructed that lack the expression of LT in combination with one or both types of ST enterotoxins (STa and/or STb). The small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique and microarray analysis were used to study host early immune responses induced by these mutant strains 4 h after infection in comparison to the wild type strain and a PBS control. Simultaneously, net fluid absorption of pig small intestinal mucosa was measured 4 h after infection, allowing us to correlate enterotoxin secretion with gene regulation. Microarray analysis showed on the one hand a non-toxin related general antibacterial response comprising genes such as PAP, MMP1 and IL8. On the other hand, results suggest a dominant role for STb in small intestinal secretion early after post-weaning infection, as well as in the induced innate immune response through differential regulation of immune mediators like interleukin 1 and interleukin 17.
Improvement in pig growth and feed conversion due to knowledge transfer about disease prevention and improving immune response
Mul, M.F. ; Niewold, T.A. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2011
In: Proceedings book of SafePork : 9th International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of biological, chemical and physical hazards in pigs and pork, Maastricht, the Netherlands, 19-22 June, 2011. - - p. 351 - 353.
Meat quality assessment on grazing vs. barn fed heifers in an Alpine context
Gangnat, I.D.M. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Velik, M. - \ 2011
In: 36th Animal Nutrition Research Forum : A platform to present Animal Nutrition Research in Belgium and the Netherlands, 19 April 2011, Heverlee, Belgium. - Heverlee : Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen, K.U. Leuven - p. 29 - 30.
Assessing sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions for their efficacy to reduce in vitro rumen methane production
Chobtang, J. ; Hatew, B. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Stringano, E. ; Mueller-Harvey, I. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2011
In: 36th Animal Nutrition Research Forum - A platform to present Animal Nutrition Research in Belgium and the Netherlands, 19 April 2011, Heverlee, Belgium. - Heverlee : Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen, K.U. Leuven - p. 17 - 18.
Aktuelle Vorkommen des Fischotters Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Nordrhein-Westfalen und Hinweise auf ihre genetische Herkunft
Kriegs, J.O. ; Bauer, I. ; Bülow, B. von; Dahms, K. ; Geiger-Roswora, D. ; Eversmann, N. ; Hübner, T. ; Grömping, H. ; Kaiser, M. ; Krekemeyer, A. ; Krüger, H.H. ; Malden, K. ; Niewold, F.J.J. ; Oeding, W. ; Rehage, H.O. ; Ribbrock, N. ; Vierhaus, H. ; Koelewijn, H.P. - \ 2010
Natur und Heimat (2010). - ISSN 0028-0593
Transcriptomics of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. Individual variation in intestinal gene expression correlates with intestinal function
Niewold, T.A. ; Meulen, J. van der; Kerstens, H.H.D. ; Smits, M.A. ; Hulst, M.M. - \ 2010
Veterinary Microbiology 141 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 110 - 114.
up-regulation - epithelium - disease - pig
Acute secretory diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young animals and humans. Deaths result from excessive fluid and electrolyte losses. The disease is caused by non-invasive bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli which produce enterotoxins, however, much less is known about the role of individual host responses. Here we report the response of intact porcine small intestinal mucosa to infection with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Jejunal segments in four piglets were infused with or without ETEC, and perfused for 8 h, and net absorption measured. Microarray analysis at 8 h post-infection showed significant differential regulation of on average fifteen transcripts in mucosa, with considerable individual variation. Differential net absorption varied between animals, and correlated negatively with the number of up regulated genes, and with one individual gene (THO complex 4). This shows that quantitative differences in gene regulation can be functionally linked to the physiological response in these four animals.
The reintroduction of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) into the Netherlands: hidden life revealed by noninvasive genetic monitoring
Koelewijn, H.P. ; Pérez-Haro, M. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Boerwinkel, M.C. ; Bovenschen, J. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Niewold, F.J.J. ; Kuiters, A.T. - \ 2010
Conservation Genetics 11 (2010)2. - ISSN 1566-0621 - p. 601 - 614.
natural-populations - individual identification - conservation genetics - spatial-organization - microsatellite loci - genotyping feces - eastern germany - dna - size - biology
The last recorded presence of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in the Netherlands dates from 1989 and concerned a dead individual. In 2002 a reintroduction programme was started, and between June 2002 and April 2008 a total of 30 individuals (10 males and 20 females) were released into a lowland peat marsh in the north of the Netherlands. Noninvasive genetic monitoring based on the genetic profiles obtained from DNA extracted from otter faeces (spraints) was chosen for the post-release monitoring of the population. To this end, the founding individuals were genotyped before release and spraints were collected in the release area each winter from 2002 to 2008. From June 2002 to April 2008 we analysed the genetic profile of 1,265 spraints on the basis of 7–15 microsatellite loci, 582 of which (46%) were successfully assigned to either released or newly identified genotypes. We identified 54 offspring (23 females and 31 males): the females started to reproduce after 2 years and the males after 4 years. The mating and reproductive success among males was strongly skewed, with a few dominant males fathering two-thirds of the offspring, but the females had a more even distribution. The effective population size (Ne) was only about 30% of the observed density (N), mainly because of the large variance in reproductive success among males. Most juvenile males dispersed to surrounding areas on maturity, whereas juvenile females stayed inside the area next to the mother’s territory. The main cause of mortality was traffic accidents. Males had a higher mortality rate (22 out of 41 males (54%) vs. 9 out of 43 females (21%)). During winter 2007/08 we identified 47 individuals, 41 of which originated from mating within the release area. This study demonstrates that noninvasive molecular methods can be used efficiently in post-release monitoring studies of elusive species to reveal a comprehensive picture of the state of the population
Balance between porcine disease and welfare
Boersma, W.J.A. ; Meulen, J. van der; Niewold, T.A. - \ 2009
In: The welfare of pigs Dordrecht, the Netherlands : Springer Science (Animal Welfare 7) - ISBN 9781402089084 - p. 237 - 285.
Gut health in the EADGENE network: Transcriptional Response in the Jejunum of Pigs after Challenge with Entric Pathogens
Hulst, M.M. ; Meulen, J. van der; Niewold, Th. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2009
The in vivo early transcriptional intestinal response to rotavirus infection in germ-free piglets
Niewold, Th. ; Hulst, M.M. ; Kerstens, H.H.D. ; Wit, A.A.C. de; Smits, M.A. ; Meulen, J. van der - \ 2009
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 128 (2009)1-3. - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 262 - 263.
Rotaviruses are a major cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Most studies regarding the molecular mechanism underlying rotavirus induced disease focus on isolated enterocytes or enterocyte cell-lines. In vivo, mature enterocytes lining the intestinal epithelial layer are the primarily target cells for rotavirus replication, however, the different types of cells that compose the intestinal mucosal layer are probably also involved in anti-viral responses. The in vivo system is also much more complex for the presence of the intestinal microbiota. In order to separate rotavirus specific effects from microbiota associated effects, we used germ-free piglets. Piglets housed in sterile incubators were orally infected with virulent group A rotavirus at 3 weeks and whole mucosal gene expression vs uninfected controls was analyzed by cDNA microarray on 12 and 18 h post infection. IFN-¿ mRNA levels were 10¿50-fold higher in infected piglets. Microarray analysis identified 13 down-, and 19 up-regulated genes in infected piglets. Microarray data were validated by Northern blot analysis of nine selected genes. Regulated genes were functionally clustered in interferon-regulated genes, signal transduction and apoptosis genes, (enterocyte) metabolism and cell maintenance genes, and genes without a known function. Up-regulation was observed for several genes associated with the innate defense against viral infections, such as IFN-¿ induced guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP-2), a protein that was described earlier to effectively inhibit VSV and EMCV virus replication in vitro. Furthermore, a gene coding for an uncharacterized hypothetical protein was upregulated, carrying a phospholipase A2 inhibitor domain, suggesting involvement in (anti-) inflammatory pathways. We hypothesize that both these proteins participate in cellular mechanism(s) that provide the intestinal mucosa protection to the effects of rotavirus in the jejunum. Histological analysis showed a significant reduction of villus length due to rotavirus infection. It is concluded that differential expression reflects in part a shift in the relative contribution of certain cell types (e.g. loss of mature epithelial cells), and in another part represents induction by rotavirus itself. Finally, a most striking finding is the limited number of differentially expressed genes in intact mucosa in vivo compared to those obtained in in vitro enterocyte cultures. Dilution of expression may play a role in that, but our findings are probably also consistent with modulatory effects of the heterogenous cell population in vivo
Kansen voor de otter in de regio Nieuwkoopse Plassen - Reeuwijkse Plassen - krinpenerwaard : een haalbaarheidsstudie
Lammertsma, D.R. ; Niewold, F.J.J. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Koelewijn, H.P. ; Kuiters, A.T. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1822)
habitats - lutra lutra - waterdieren - zuid-holland - krimpenerwaard - aquatic animals
In deze haalbaarheidstudie is gekeken naar leefmogelijkheden voor de otter in de regio Nieuwkoopse Plassen/Reeuwijkse plassen/Krimpenerwaard. Deze gebieden liggen binnen de Groene Ruggengraat in het Groene Hart van Zuid-Holland. Er komt een drietal vragen aan de orde: a) wat is de kans op spontane vestiging? b) zijn de betreffende gebieden geschikt voor de otter wat betreft aspecten als rust, voedsel, veiligheid met betrekking tot verkeer en de aanwezigheid van fuiken en de milieubelasting met toxische stoffen? en c) hoe levensvatbaar is een otterpopulatie, gegeven de draagkracht van het gebied?
Recent use of telemetry for assesing home ranges, habitat use and mortality in fee ranging vertebrates. (BERISP)
Brink, N.W. van den; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Niewold, F.J.J. ; Müskens, G.J.D.M. - \ 2008
Mannose-specific interaction of Lactobacillus plantarum with porcine jejunal epithelium
Pretzer, G. ; Meulen, J. van der; Snel, J. ; Meer, R. van der; Kleerebezem, M. ; Niewold, Th. ; Hulst, M.M. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2008
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 54 (2008)2. - ISSN 0928-8244 - p. 215 - 223.
enterotoxigenic escherichia-coli - human intestinal-mucosa - acute-pancreatitis - net absorption - rat intestine - immune-system - reg-i - expression - bacteria - adhesion
Host-microorganism interactions in the intestinal tract are complex, and little is known about specific nonpathogenic microbial factors triggering host responses in the gut. In this study, mannose-specific interactions of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v with jejunal epithelium were investigated using an in situ pig Small Intestinal Segment Perfusion model. The effects of L. plantarum 299v wild-type strain were compared with those of two corresponding mutant strains either lacking the gene encoding for the mannose-specific adhesin (msa) or sortase (srtA; responsible for anchoring of cell surface proteins like Msa to the cell wall). A slight enrichment of the wild-type strain associated with the intestinal surface could be observed after 8¿h of perfusion when a mixture of wild-type and msa-mutant strain had been applied. In contrast to the mutant strains, the L. plantarum wild-type strain tended to induce a decrease in jejunal net fluid absorption compared with control conditions. Furthermore, after 8¿h of perfusion expression of the host gene encoding pancreatitis-associated protein, a protein with proposed bactericidal properties, was found to be upregulated by the wild-type strain only. These observations suggest a role of Msa in the induction of host responses in the pig intestine.
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