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Screening methods for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals: comparison of ther european union Four-Plate Test, the Nouws Antibiotic Test and the Premi Test (applied to muscle and kidney
Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Rapallini, M.L.B.A. ; Zuidema, T. ; Elferink, J.W.A. ; Oostra, S. ; Driessen, J.J.M. - \ 2011
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 28 (2011)1. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 26 - 34.
antimicrobial residues - validation - tissue
Microbial growth inhibition tests are widely used as the primary screening approach for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals. In this study we evaluated and compared the performance of the European Union Four-Plate Test (EU4pt), the Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT), and a commercial ampoule test, the Premi(R)Test (applied to both muscle and kidney), by parallel analysis of 735 slaughter animals. The EU4pt only showed significant inhibition with two muscle samples containing 305 mu g kg(-1) doxycycline and 648 mu g kg(-1) tulathromycin, while an maximum residue limit (MRL) violation of 1100 mu g kg(-1) sulfamethazine remained unnoticed. Premi(R)Test-muscle only detected the sulfamethazine containing sample, all other (1.1%) suspect samples appeared false-positive results. The same test applied to kidney yielded 4.1% suspect samples, while the NAT screening (based on analysis of renal pelvis fluid) showed 4.9% suspect results. The vast majority of these samples contained tetracycline and/or aminoglycoside residues. Premi(R)Test-kidney appeared to be more sensitive to aminoglycosides than the NAT screening, which failed to detect an MRL violation of 870 mu g kg(-1) gentamicin in kidney. Detection of less than MRL levels of tetracycline residues by the NAT proved its suitability for this residue group. Whether Premi(R)Test is sufficiently sensitive for accurate tetracycline detection in kidney remains doubtful, although changing over to kidney definitely improved the suitability of Premi(R)Test for the detection of residues in slaughter animals.
Screening for antibiotic residues in slaughter animals: comparison of the EU-four plate method, Nouws Antibiotic Test and Premi®Test
Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Rapallini, M.L.B.A. ; Zuidema, T. ; Elferink, J.W.A. ; Oostra-van Dijk, S. ; Driessen-van Lankveld, W.D.M. - \ 2011
Comparing the sensitivity of algal, cyanobacterial and bacterial bioassays to different groups of antibiotics
Grinten, E. van der; Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Brandhof, E.J. Van den; Stroomberg, G.J. ; Kraak, M.H.S. - \ 2010
Chemosphere 80 (2010)1. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 1 - 6.
tandem mass-spectrometry - environmental risk-assessment - aquatic environment - waste-water - fluoroquinolone antibiotics - antibacterial agents - antimicrobial agents - treatment plants - ecotoxicity test - vibrio-fischeri
Antibiotics may affect both primary producers and decomposers, potentially disrupting ecosystem processes. Hence, it is essential to assess the impact of antibiotics on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the potential of a recently developed test for detecting antibiotics in animal tissue, the Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT), as a sensitive bioassay to assess the effects of antibiotics in water. To this purpose, we determined the toxicity of sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, flumequine, tylosin, streptomycin, and oxytetracycline, using the NAT adapted for water exposure. The sensitivity of the NAT was compared to that of bioassays with bacteria (Microtox), cyanobacteria and green algae. In the Microtox test with Vibrio fischeri as test organism, no effects were observed for any of the test compounds. For three of the six antibiotics tested, the cyanobacteria were more vulnerable than the green algae when using photosynthetic efficiency as an endpoint. The lowest EC50 values for four out of six tested antibiotics were obtained using the NAT bacterial bioassay. The bacterial plate system responded to antibiotics at concentrations in the mu g L-1 and lower mg L-1 range and, moreover, each plate proved to be specifically sensitive to the antibiotics group it was designed for. It is concluded that the NAT bioassay adapted for water exposure is a sensitive test to determine the presence of antibiotics in water. The ability of this test to distinguish five major antibiotic groups is a very strong additional value.
Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney
Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Oostra-van Dijk, S. ; Schouten, J. ; Rapallini, M. ; Kortenhoeven, L. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2009
Food Control 20 (2009)9. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 771 - 777.
antimicrobial drugs - muscle samples - tissue - meat - identification - ciprofloxacin - enrofloxacin - animals - bovine - assay
Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized for the analysis of kidney and has been validated according to 2002/657/EC using fortified kidney samples. For each test plate activity profiles are presented, enabling a considerate choice of one or more representative component for each test plate. This information can be used to minimize validation efforts for further implementation of the test in routine field laboratories.
Comparison of three microbial screening methods for antibiotics using routine monitoring samples
Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Rapallini, M. ; Oostra, S. ; Elferink, J.W.A. - \ 2009
Analytica Chimica Acta 637 (2009)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 298 - 304.
antimicrobial residues - kidney tissue - meat - animals - poultry - muscle - drugs - assay - milk
Monitoring large numbers of slaughter animals for the presence of antimicrobial residues is preferably carried out using microbiological screening methods, because of their high cost-effectiveness. An evaluation of the Nouws antibiotic test (NAT) was performed on routine monitoring samples and the performance of the method was compared with two other microbial screening methods: Screening test for antibiotic residues (STAR) and Premi®Test. Analysis of 591 samples yielded four MRL violations. Three of them concerned tetracyclines that were only detected with the NAT and the STAR method. The fourth, 172 µg kg-1 Sulfadiazine, was detected by all three methods. Additionally, 156 µg kg-1 Tulathromycin was found in porcine meat, while for this residue no MRL in muscle has been established.
Groene balkons en voedselwoestijnen: Koplopers over de hele wereld
Nouws Keij, L. ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2009
Werkplaats voor de leefomgeving 10 (2009). - ISSN 1574-2083 - p. 10 - 12.
A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening)
Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Oostra-van Dijk, S. ; Schouten, J. ; Rapallini, M. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2008
Food Control 19 (2008)8. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 781 - 789.
presumptive identification - assay - milk - meat - poultry
An improved microbial method for the screening of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals has been developed. The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening) is based on the analysis of renal pelvis fluid and comprises five test plates enabling group specific identification. The NAT-screening combines a simple and efficient sampling and sample processing strategy with a high detection capacity; the system effectively detects the great majority of antibiotics used in veterinary medicine at or below their maximum residue level in kidney. The NAT-screening has been validated according to 2002/657/EC and replaces the New Dutch kidney test for routine analysis within the framework of the Dutch national residue monitoring plan.
|Overexpression of small polypeptide genes from the potato cyst nematode affects lateral root formation in solanum tuberosum
Bers, N.E.M. van; Nouws, J. ; Overmars, H.A. ; Qin Ling, ; Goverse, A. ; Bakker, J. ; Smant, G. - \ 2006
|Stability of antibiotics in meat during a simulated high temperature destruction process
Egmond, H.J. van; Nouws, J.F.M. ; Schilt, R. ; Lankveld-Driessen, W.D.M. van - \ 2000
In: Proceedings of the EuroResidue IV Conference, Veldhoven, The Netherlands
|The control of veterinary drugs and antibiotics in the production of veal calves
Rhijn, J.A. van; Nouws, J. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Heskamp, H.H. ; Berendsen, B.J.A. - \ 2000
In: Proceedings of the EuroResidue IV Conference, Veldhoven, The Netherlands
Immunochemical detection of aminoglycosides in milk and kidney
Haasnoot, W. ; Stouten, P. ; Cazemier, G. ; Lommen, A. ; Nouws, J.F.M. ; Keukens, H.J. - \ 1999
The Analyst 124 (1999)3. - ISSN 0003-2654 - p. 301 - 305.
In 1996, the European Union established provisional maximum residue limits (MRL) for gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in milli and tissue (0.1-5 mg kg-1). For the detection of these four aminoglycosides, three enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for applications in milk and kidney were developed. The screening of defatted and diluted milk resulted in limits of determination (LDM) of < 0.01 mg l-1. Kidney samples were deproteinized with a trichloroacetic acid solution (3%) and after filtration and the addition of buffer, aliquots were used in the ELISA. The LDM of the four aminoglycosides in kidney were < 0.05 mg kg-1. The ELISA were found suitable for the semi-quantitative screening of milk and kidney for the presence of the four aminoglycosides far below the MRL levels. In randomly taken milk samples (n = 776) and in kidneys derived from healthy pigs (n = 124), the aminoglycoside residues found were far below their established MRL. In eight out of the 94 kidney samples obtained from diseased animals after emergency slaughter, aminoglycoside residues were above the MRL.
Suitability of the charm HVS and a microbiological multiplate system for detection of residues in raw milk at EU maximum residue levels
Nouws, J.F.M. ; Egmond, H. van; Loeffen, G. ; Schouten, J. ; Keukens, H. ; Smulders, I. ; Stegeman, H. - \ 1999
Veterinary Quarterly 21 (1999)1. - ISSN 0165-2176 - p. 21 - 27.
In this paper we assessed the suitability of the Charm HVS and a newly developed microbiological multiplate system as post-screening tests to confirm the presence of residues in raw milk at or near the maximum permissible residue level (MRL). The multiplate system is composed of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis plate at pH 8.0 for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics and tylosin, Bacillus cereus plate at pH 6.0 for detection of tetracyclines, Micrococcus luteus plate at pH 8.0 for detection of macrolides, Bacillus subtilis BGA plate at pH 8.0 for detection of aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-containing plate seeded with B. subtilis BGA at pH 7.0 for detection of sulphonamides, Escherichia coli plate at pH 6.0 for detection of quinolone and polymyxin, and Staphylococcus epidermidis plate at pH 6.0 for detection of novobiocin. For each test plate an action level is proposed in such a way that residues can be detected in raw bulk tank milk at levels near or below the established EU MRLs of beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulphonamides, colistin, and quinolones. The Charm HVS test used to confirm the presence of tetracycline and macrolide residues gave false-positive results near the EU MRLs. The multiplate system gave valid results. Based on data for raw bulk tank milk samples and the proposed action level for each test plate for suspected samples, we demonstrated that the multiplate system is a reliable post- screening method that can be performed easily and cheaply in microbiological laboratories.
A microbiological assay system for assessment of raw milk exceeding eu maximum residue levels
Nouws, J. ; Egmond, H. van; Smulders, I. ; Loeffen, G. ; Schouten, J. ; Stegeman, H. - \ 1999
International Dairy Journal 9 (1999). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 85 - 90.
Testing of raw milk for tetracycline residues
Nouws, J.F.M. ; Loeffen, G. ; Schouten, J. ; Egmond, H. van; Keukens, H. ; Stegeman, H. - \ 1998
Journal of Dairy Science 81 (1998). - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2341 - 2345.
|Bacterial inhibition tests used to screen for antimicrobial veterinary drug residues in slaughtered animals
Korsrud, G.O. ; Boison, J.E. ; Nouws, J.F.M. ; MacNeil, J.D. - \ 1998
Journal AOAC Intern 81 (1998). - p. 21 - 24.
|Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in pigs following oral administration in feed
Bousquet, E. ; Nouws, J.F.M. ; Terlouw, P. ; Kleyne, S. de - \ 1998
Veterinary Research 29 (1998). - ISSN 0928-4249 - p. 475 - 485.
|Plasma pharmokinetics and respiratory tract diffusion of doxycycline in pigs administered via feed
Bousquet, E. ; Nouws, J.F.M. ; Kleyne, J.A.L.M. de - \ 1997
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 20 (1997)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0140-7783 - p. 134 - 135.
|Application of an enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulphamethazine (sulphadimidine) residues in swine urine and plasma and their use as predictors of the level in edible tissue
Haasnoot, W. ; Korsrud, G.O. ; Cazemier, G. ; Maneval, F. ; Keukens, H. ; Nouws, J. - \ 1996
Food Additives and Contaminants 13 (1996)7. - ISSN 0265-203X - p. 811 - 822.
|Improvement of the tube diffusion test with respect to detection of antibiotic residues and sulphonamides in raw milk
Nouws, J.F.M. ; Loeffen, G. ; Schouten, J. ; Egmond, H. van; Keukens, H. ; Stegeman, H. - \ 1995
Archiv für Lebensmittelhygiene 46 (1995)6. - ISSN 0003-925X - p. 140 - 141.
Improvements in detection of tetracycline, sulphonamide, macrolide, rifamycin, trimethoprim and aminoglycoside residues in milk were achieved by addition of either chloramphenicol or trimethoprim, and phenylbutazone to tube diffusion tests utilising Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis as bacterial test strain. If the modified tube diffusion tests are performed at pH 7 and 8.0 residues of beta-lactams, and of the forementioned groups can be detected below or near their maximum residue levels established for milk.
Plasma disposition, metabolism and residue aspects of flumequine and sodium salicylate in broilers after water medication
Moutafchieva, R. ; Nouws, J.F.M. ; Keukens, H.J. ; Kan, C.A. ; Beek, W.M.J. ; Streutjens, E. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Holthuijzen, Y.A. - \ 1993
Wageningen : State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (Report / RIKILT-DLO 93.22) - 38 p.
bactericiden - natriumsalicylaat - vleeskuikens - farmacologie - metabolisme - metabolieten - bactericides - sodium salicylate - broilers - pharmacology - metabolism - metabolites