Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Habitats impacts by beam and pulse trawling in the Southern North Sea
Depestele, Jochen ; Degrendele, Koen ; Esmaeili, Moosa ; Ivanovic, Ana ; Kroger, Silke ; O'Neill, Finbarr G. ; Parker, Ruth ; Polet, Hans ; Roche, Marc ; Summerbell, Keith ; Teal, L.R. ; Vanelslander, Bart ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2018
- 17 p.
Mechanical seabed disturbance by flatfish-directed tickler-chain trawls and pulse trawls
Depestele, Jochen ; Degrendele, Koen ; Esmaeili, Moosa ; Ivanovic, Ana ; Kroger, Silke ; O'Neill, Finbarr G. ; Parker, Ruth ; Polet, Hans ; Roche, Marc ; Summerbell, Keith ; Teal, L.R. ; Vanelslander, Bart ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2018
Species Distribution Modelling: Contrasting presence-only models with plot abundance data
Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Ijff, Stéphanie D. ; Raes, Niels ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Coelho, Luiz De Souza ; Matos, Francisca Dionízia De Almeida ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Filho, Diogenes De Andrade Lima ; López, Dairon Cárdenas ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Magnusson, William E. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Carim, Marcelo De Jesus Veiga ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Guimarães, José Renan Da Silva ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; de Leão Novo, E.M.M. ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Terborgh, John ; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Andrade, Ana ; Laurance, William F. ; Camargo, José Luís ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Farias, Emanuelle De Sousa ; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Quaresma, Adriano ; Costa, Flavia R.C. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Brienen, Roel ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Comiskey, James A. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Lopes, Aline ; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Levis, Carolina ; Levis, Carolina ; Schietti, Juliana ; Souza, Priscila ; Emilio, Thaise ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Neill, David ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Praia, Daniel ; Amaral, Dário Dantas Do; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho De - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used in ecology and conservation. Presence-only SDMs such as MaxEnt frequently use natural history collections (NHCs) as occurrence data, given their huge numbers and accessibility. NHCs are often spatially biased which may generate inaccuracies in SDMs. Here, we test how the distribution of NHCs and MaxEnt predictions relates to a spatial abundance model, based on a large plot dataset for Amazonian tree species, using inverse distance weighting (IDW). We also propose a new pipeline to deal with inconsistencies in NHCs and to limit the area of occupancy of the species. We found a significant but weak positive relationship between the distribution of NHCs and IDW for 66% of the species. The relationship between SDMs and IDW was also significant but weakly positive for 95% of the species, and sensitivity for both analyses was high. Furthermore, the pipeline removed half of the NHCs records. Presence-only SDM applications should consider this limitation, especially for large biodiversity assessments projects, when they are automatically generated without subsequent checking. Our pipeline provides a conservative estimate of a species' area of occupancy, within an area slightly larger than its extent of occurrence, compatible to e.g. IUCN red list assessments.
Can pulse trawling reduce the mechanical impact on the benthic ecosystem in the bottom trawl fishery for sole?
Polet, H. ; Depestele, J. ; Vanelslander, B. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Ivanovich, A. ; O'Neill, F. ; Poos, J.J. ; Teal, L.R. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2017
In: Abstract book - 10th International Symposium Flatfish. - - p. 81 - 81.
In the beam trawl fishery for sole in t he North Sea, the twin beam trawl has dominated the fishery since the 1960s. Beam trawlers used heavy gear with tickler chains to chase sole out of the sea bed. The fishery is criticised for the mortality imposed on benthic invertebrates, the adverse effects on the sediment structure and on the high energy consumption. Since 2010, a number of vessels has switched to the economic more profitable pulse trawling technique which uses electrical stimuli to immobilise the target species. Because electric fishing is illegal in the EU, the pulse trawlers operate under a temporary derogation. In this paper we present the results of the recent studies to the effects of pulse trawl and tickler chain beam trawls on the benthic ecosystem carried out in the FP7-project BENTHIS. We compared changes in infauna in two controlled fishing experiments with a commercial tickler chain and pulse trawl, measured the penetration depth of the gear using multibeam and sediment profile imaging. The empirical results are compared to model estimates of the penetration and sediment re-suspension. Finally, the results are integrated in a recently developed quantitative framework to assess the impact of bottom trawls on the benthic ecosystem.
The roads ahead : Narratives for shared socioeconomic pathways describing world futures in the 21st century
O'Neill, Brian C. ; Kriegler, Elmar ; Ebi, Kristie L. ; Kemp-Benedict, Eric ; Riahi, Keywan ; Rothman, Dale S. ; Ruijven, Bas J. van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Birkmann, Joern ; Kok, Kasper - \ 2017
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 42 (2017). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 169 - 180.
Adaptation - Climate change - Mitigation - Narratives - Scenarios - Shared socioeconomic pathways

Long-term scenarios play an important role in research on global environmental change. The climate change research community is developing new scenarios integrating future changes in climate and society to investigate climate impacts as well as options for mitigation and adaptation. One component of these new scenarios is a set of alternative futures of societal development known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The conceptual framework for the design and use of the SSPs calls for the development of global pathways describing the future evolution of key aspects of society that would together imply a range of challenges for mitigating and adapting to climate change. Here we present one component of these pathways: the SSP narratives, a set of five qualitative descriptions of future changes in demographics, human development, economy and lifestyle, policies and institutions, technology, and environment and natural resources. We describe the methods used to develop the narratives as well as how these pathways are hypothesized to produce particular combinations of challenges to mitigation and adaptation. Development of the narratives drew on expert opinion to (1) identify key determinants of these challenges that were essential to incorporate in the narratives and (2) combine these elements in the narratives in a manner consistent with scholarship on their inter-relationships. The narratives are intended as a description of plausible future conditions at the level of large world regions that can serve as a basis for integrated scenarios of emissions and land use, as well as climate impact, adaptation and vulnerability analyses.

Erratum: Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range
Henderson, Gemma ; Cox, Faith ; Ganesh, Siva ; Jonker, Arjan ; Young, Wayne ; Abecia, Leticia ; Angarita, Erika ; Aravena, Paula ; Nora Arenas, Graciela ; Ariza, Claudia ; Attwood, Graeme T. ; Mauricio Avila, Jose ; Avila-stagno, Jorge ; Bannink, André ; Barahona, Rolando ; Batistotti, Mariano ; Bertelsen, Mads F. ; Brown-Kav, Aya ; Carvajal, Andres M. ; Cersosimo, Laura ; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre ; Church, John ; Clipson, Nicholas ; Cobos-peralta, Mario A. ; Cookson, Adrian L. ; Cravero, Silvio ; Cristobal Carballo, Omar ; Crosley, Katie ; Cruz, Gustavo ; Cerón Cucchi, María ; Barra, Rodrigo de la; Menezes, Alexandre B. de; Detmann, Edenio ; Dieho, Kasper ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Reis, William L.S. Dos; Dugan, Mike E.R. ; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed ; Eythórsdóttir, Emma ; Nde Fon, Fabian ; Fraga, Martín ; Franco, Francisco ; Friedeman, Chris ; Fukuma, Naoki ; Gagić, Dragana ; Gangnat, Isabelle ; Javier Grilli, Diego ; Guan, Le Luo ; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh ; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma ; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra ; Isah, Olubukola A. ; Ishaq, Suzanne ; Jami, Elie ; Jelincic, Juan ; Kantanen, Juha ; Kelly, William J. ; Kim, Seon-Ho ; Klieve, Athol ; Kobayashi, Yasuo ; Koike, Satoshi ; Kopecny, Jan ; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten ; Julie Krizsan, Sophie ; Lachance, Hannah ; Lachman, Medora ; Lamberson, William R. ; Lambie, Suzanne ; Lassen, Jan ; Leahy, Sinead C. ; Lee, Sang-Suk ; Leiber, Florian ; Lewis, Eva ; Lin, Bo ; Lira, Raúl ; Lund, Peter ; Macipe, Edgar ; Mamuad, Lovelia L. ; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário ; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana ; Márquez, Cristian ; Martin, Cécile ; Martinez, Gonzalo ; Eugenia Martinez, Maria ; Lucía Mayorga, Olga ; McAllister, Tim A. ; McSweeney, Chris ; Mestre, Lorena ; Minnee, Elena ; Mitsumori, Makoto ; Mizrahi, Itzhak ; Molina, Isabel ; Muenger, Andreas ; Muñoz, Camila ; Murovec, Bostjan ; Newbold, John ; Nsereko, Victor ; O’donovan, Michael ; Okunade, Sunday ; O’neill, Brendan ; Ospina, Sonia ; Ouwerkerk, Diane ; Parra, Diana ; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro ; Pinares-patiño, Cesar ; Pope, Phil B. ; Poulsen, Morten ; Rodehutscord, Markus ; Rodriguez, Tatiana ; Saito, Kunihiko ; Sales, Francisco ; Sauer, Catherine ; Shingfield, Kevin ; Shoji, Noriaki ; Simunek, Jiri ; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica ; Stres, Blaz ; Sun, Xuezhao ; Swartz, Jeffery ; Liang Tan, Zhi ; Tapio, Ilma ; Taxis, Tasia M. ; Tomkins, Nigel ; Ungerfeld, Emilio ; Valizadeh, Reza ; Adrichem, Peter van; Hamme, Jonathan van; Hoven, Woulter van; Waghorn, Garry ; Wallace, John R. ; Wang, Min ; Waters, Sinéad M. ; Keogh, Kate ; Witzig, Maren ; Wright, Andre-Denis G. ; Yamano, Hidehisa ; Yan, Tianhai ; Yáñez-ruiz, David R. ; Yeoman, Carl J. ; Zambrano, Ricardo ; Zeitz, Johanna ; Zhou, Mi ; Wei Zhou, Hua ; Xia Zou, Cai ; Zunino, Pablo ; Janssen, Peter H. - \ 2016
Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 2 p.
The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and their energy, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions implications: An overview
Riahi, Keywan ; Vuuren, Detlef P. Van; Kriegler, Elmar ; Edmonds, Jae ; O’neill, Brian C. ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Bauer, Nico ; Calvin, Katherine ; Dellink, Rob ; Fricko, Oliver ; Lutz, Wolfgang ; Popp, Alexander ; Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo ; KC, Samir ; Leimbach, Marian ; Jiang, Leiwen ; Kram, Tom ; Rao, Shilpa ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Ebi, Kristie ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Havlik, Petr ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Silva, Lara Aleluia Da; Smith, Steve ; Stehfest, Elke ; Bosetti, Valentina ; Eom, Jiyong ; Gernaat, David ; Masui, Toshihiko ; Rogelj, Joeri ; Strefler, Jessica ; Drouet, Laurent ; Krey, Volker ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Baumstark, Lavinia ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Kainuma, Mikiko ; Klimont, Zbigniew ; Marangoni, Giacomo ; Lotze-campen, Hermann ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Tavoni, Massimo - \ 2016
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 42 (2016). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 153 - 168.
This paper presents the overview of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and their energy, land use, and emissions implications. The SSPs are part of a new scenario framework, established by the climate change research community in order to facilitate the integrated analysis of future climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation. The pathways were developed over the last years as a joint community effort and describe plausible major global developments that together would lead in the future to different challenges for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. The SSPs are based on five narratives describing alternative socio-economic developments, including sustainable development, regional rivalry, inequality, fossil-fueled development, and middle-of-the-road development. The long-term demographic and economic projections of the SSPs depict a wide uncertainty range consistent with the scenario literature. A multi-model approach was used for the elaboration of the energy, land-use and the emissions trajectories of SSP-based scenarios. The baseline scenarios lead to global energy consumption of 400–1200 EJ in 2100, and feature vastly different land-use dynamics, ranging from a possible reduction in cropland area up to a massive expansion by more than 700 million hectares by 2100. The associated annual CO2 emissions of the baseline scenarios range from about 25 GtCO2 to more than 120 GtCO2 per year by 2100. With respect to mitigation, we find that associated costs strongly depend on three factors: (1) the policy assumptions, (2) the socio-economic narrative, and (3) the stringency of the target. The carbon price for reaching the target of 2.6 W/m2 that is consistent with a temperature change limit of 2 °C, differs in our analysis thus by about a factor of three across the SSP marker scenarios. Moreover, many models could not reach this target from the SSPs with high mitigation challenges. While the SSPs were designed to represent different mitigation and adaptation challenges, the resulting narratives and quantifications span a wide range of different futures broadly representative of the current literature. This allows their subsequent use and development in new assessments and research projects. Critical next steps for the community scenario process will, among others, involve regional and sectoral extensions, further elaboration of the adaptation and impacts dimension, as well as employing the SSP scenarios with the new generation of earth system models as part of the 6th climate model intercomparison project (CMIP6).
Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models
Johnson, Michelle O. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Deurwaerder, Hannes De; Guimberteau, Matthieu ; Rammig, Anja ; Thonicke, Kirsten ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Randow, Celso Von; Monteagudo, Abel ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Fauset, Sophie ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Christoffersen, Bradley ; Ciais, Philippe ; Sampaio, Gilvan ; Kruijt, Bart ; Meir, Patrick ; Moorcroft, Paul ; Zhang, Ke ; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban ; Alves De Oliveira, Atila ; Amaral, Ieda ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aymard, Gerardo A. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Barroso, Jocely ; Bonal, Damien ; Boot, Rene ; Camargo, Jose ; Chave, Jerome ; Cogollo, Alvaro ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Lola Da Costa, Antonio C. ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Ferreira, Leandro ; Higuchi, Niro ; Honorio, Euridice N. ; Killeen, Tim J. ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Licona, Juan ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Bia ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Matos, Darley C.L. ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Neill, David A. ; Pardo, Guido ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Prieto, Adriana ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustin ; Salomao, Rafael P. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stropp, Juliana ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Heijden, Geertje M.F. van der; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Vos, Vincent A. ; Baker, Timothy R. - \ 2016
Global Change Biology 22 (2016)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3996 - 4013.
Understanding the processes that determine aboveground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity (woody NPP) and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biomass loss and the rate of stem mortality) and/or woody NPP, control variation in AGB among 167 plots in intact forest across Amazonia. We then compare these relationships and the observed variation in AGB and woody NPP with the predictions of four DGVMs. The observations show that stem mortality rates, rather than absolute rates of woody biomass loss, are the most important predictor of AGB, which is consistent with the importance of stand size-structure for determining spatial variation in AGB. The relationship between stem mortality rates and AGB varies among different regions of Amazonia, indicating that variation in wood density and height/diameter relationships also influence AGB. In contrast to previous findings, we find that woody NPP is not correlated with stem mortality rates, and is weakly positively correlated with AGB. Across the four models, basin-wide average AGB is similar to the mean of the observations. However, the models consistently overestimate woody NPP, and poorly represent the spatial patterns of both AGB and woody NPP estimated using plot data. In marked contrast to the observations, DGVMs typically show strong positive relationships between woody NPP and AGB. Resolving these differences will require incorporating forest size structure, mechanistic models of stem mortality and variation in functional composition in DGVMs
Multifunctional floodplain management and biodiversity effects : a knowledge synthesis for six European countries
Schindler, Stefan ; O’Neill, Fionnuala H. ; Biró, Marianna ; Damm, Christian ; Gasso, Viktor ; Kanka, Robert ; Sluis, Theo van der; Krug, Andreas ; Lauwaars, Sophie G. ; Sebesvari, Zita ; Pusch, Martin ; Baranovsky, Boris ; Ehlert, Thomas ; Neukirchen, Bernd ; Martin, James R. ; Euller, Katrin ; Mauerhofer, Volker ; Wrbka, Thomas - \ 2016
Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1349 - 1382.
Ecosystem services - Flood protection - Green infrastructure - River Regulation - River restoration - Water framework directive

Floodplain ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots and supply multiple ecosystem services. At the same time they are often prone to human pressures that increasingly impact their intactness. Multifunctional floodplain management can be defined as a management approach aimed at a balanced supply of multiple ecosystem services that serve the needs of the local residents, but also those of off-site populations that are directly or indirectly impacted by floodplain management and policies. Multifunctional floodplain management has been recently proposed as a key concept to reconcile biodiversity and ecosystem services with the various human pressures and their driving forces. In this paper we present biophysics and management history of floodplains and review recent multifunctional management approaches and evidence for their biodiversity effects for the six European countries Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Slovakia, Hungary and the Ukraine. Multifunctional use of floodplains is an increasingly important strategy in some countries, for instance in the Netherlands and Hungary, and management of floodplains goes hand in hand with sustainable economic activities resulting in flood safety and biodiversity conservation. As a result, biodiversity is increasing in some of the areas where multifunctional floodplain management approaches are implemented. We conclude that for efficient use of management resources and ecosystem services, consensual solutions need to be realized and biodiversity needs to be mainstreamed into management activities to maximize ecosystem service provision and potential human benefits. Multifunctionality is more successful where a broad range of stakeholders with diverse expertise and interests are involved in all stages of planning and implementation.

Measuring and assessing the physical impact of beam trawling
Depestele, J. ; Ivanovic, A. ; Esmaelli, M. ; Polet, H. ; Roche, M. ; Summerbell, K. ; Teal, L.R. ; Vanelslander, B. ; O'Neill, F.G. - \ 2016
ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)S1. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. i15 - i26.
Beam trawling causes physical disruption of the seabed through contact of the gear components with the sediment and the resuspension of sediment into the water column in the turbulent wake of the gear. To be able to measure and quantify these impacts is important so that gears of reduced impact can be developed. Here we assess the physical impact of both a conventional 4 m tickler-chain beam trawl and a “Delmeco” electric pulse beam trawl. We measure the changes in seabed bathymetry following the passage of these gears using a Kongsberg EM2040 multi-beam echosounder and use a LISST 100X particle size analyser to measure the concentration and particle size distribution of the sediment mobilized into the water column. We also estimate the penetration of the gears into the seabed using numerical models for the mechanical interaction between gears and seabed. Our results indicate that the seabed bathymetry changes between ~1 and 2 cm and that it is further increased by higher trawling frequencies. Furthermore, our results suggest that the alteration following the passage of the conventional trawl is greater than that following the pulse trawl passage. There was no difference in the quantity of sediment mobilized in the wake of these two gears; however, the numerical model introduced in this study predicted that the tickler-chain trawl penetrates the seabed more deeply than the pulse gear. Hence, greater alteration to the seabed bathymetry by the tickler-chain beam trawling is likely to be a result of its greater penetration. The complimentary insights of the different techniques highlight the advantage of investigating multiple effects such as sediment penetration and resuspension simultaneously and using both field trials and numerical modelling approaches.
Exploring different food security futures, what might be in store for the poor?
Kuiper, M.H. ; Shutes, L.J. ; Dijk, M. van - \ 2015
SSP scenarios developed by the IPCC to explore different futures (Kriegler et al. 2012; O’Neill et al. 2012) are often used in explorative studies. These scenarios, however, are geared towards climate change analysis. Stakeholders participating in the FoodSecure project ( felt that these SSP scenarios do not adequately account for aspects relevant to food and nutrition security (van Dijk et al., 2014). To address these concerns four scenarios focussing on food security developments up to 2050 are developed in the FoodSecure project. These scenarios coincide with quantification of the SSP scenarios where possible, while diverging where needed to capture developments deemed critical for analysing food and nutrition security.
Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth) : A 12-wk, randomized, parallel-controlled, double-blinded, diet intervention study
Bohl, Mette ; Bjørnshave, Ann ; Rasmussen, Kia V. ; Schioldan, Anne Grethe ; Amer, Bashar ; Larsen, Mette K. ; Dalsgaard, Trine K. ; Holst, Jens J. ; Herrmann, Annkatrin ; O'Neill, Sadhbh ; O'Driscoll, Lorraine ; Afman, Lydia ; Jensen, Erik ; Christensen, Merete M. ; Gregersen, Søren ; Hermansen, Kjeld - \ 2015
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101 (2015)4. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 870 - 878.
Abdominal obesity - Adipose tissue gene expression - ApoB-48 - Casein - Dairy - Incretin - Mediumchain saturated fatty acid - Milk fat - Milk protein - Postprandial lipemia - Whey

Background: Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. Objective: We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. Design: We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 3 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (with high or low MCSFA content) daily. Before and after the intervention, a high-fat meal test was performed. We measured changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48; reflecting chylomicrons of intestinal origin), free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Furthermore, changes in the expression of adipose tissue genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the difference between protein types and fatty acid compositions, as well as any interaction between the two. Results: Fifty-two participants completed the study. We found that the postprandial apoB-48 response decreased significantly after whey compared with casein (P = 0.025) independently of fatty acid composition. Furthermore, supplementation with casein resulted in a significant increase in the postprandial GLP-1 response compared with whey (P = 0.003). We found no difference in postprandial triacylglycerol, FFA, insulin, glucose, glucagon, or GIP related to protein type or MC-SFA content. We observed no interaction between milk protein and milk fat on postprandial lipemia. Conclusion: We found that a whey protein supplement decreased the postprandial chylomicron response compared with casein in persons with abdominal obesity, thereby indicating a beneficial impact on CVD risk.

Wolbachia infection does not alter attraction of the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti to human odours
Turley, A.P. ; Smallegange, R.C. ; Takken, W. ; Zalucki, M.P. ; O'Neill, S.L. ; McGraw, E.A. - \ 2014
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 28 (2014)4. - ISSN 0269-283X - p. 457 - 460.
life-shortening wolbachia - diptera-culicidae - dengue - populations - strain
The insect endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is undergoing field trials around the world to determine if it can reduce transmission of dengue virus from the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti to humans. Two different Wolbachia strains have been released to date. The primary effect of the wMel strain is pathogen protection whereby infection with the symbiont limits replication of dengue virus inside the mosquito. A second strain, wMelPop, induces pathogen protection, reduces the adult mosquito lifespan and decreases blood feeding success in mosquitoes after 15 days of age. Here we test whether Wolbachia infection affects mosquito attraction to host odours in adults aged 5 and 15 days. We found no evidence of reduced odour attraction of mosquitoes, even for those infected with the more virulent wMelPop. This bodes well for fitness and competitiveness in the field given that the mosquitoes must find hosts to reproduce for the biocontrol method to succeed.
Effects of beam and pulse trawling on the benthic ecosystem
Teal, L.R. ; Depestele, J. ; O'Neill, B. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Parker, R. ; Perdon, K.J. ; Polet, H. ; Rasenberg, M.M.M. ; Vanelslander, B. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C098/14) - 53
visserij - pulsvisserij - vismethoden - nadelige gevolgen - bodemfauna - noordzee - voordelta - fisheries - pulse trawling - fishing methods - adverse effects - soil fauna - north sea
In dit rapport worden de effecten van visserij met sleepnetten op de zeebodem en bodemdieren bestudeerd. Een BACI - ontwerp experiment werd gebruikt om de effecten van een traditionele boomkor en een pulskor te onderzoeken. In de afgelopen jaren is als gevolg van lagere brandstofkosten en goede tong vangsten het gebruik van de pulskor techniek onder Nederlandse vissers toegenomen.
A comprehensive view on climate change: coupling of Earth system and integrated assessment models
Vuuren, D.P. van; Batlle Bayer, L. ; Chuwah, C. ; Ganzeveld, L.N. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Hurk, B. van den; Noije, T. van; O'Neill, B. ; Strengers, B.J. - \ 2012
Environmental Research Letters 7 (2012)2. - ISSN 1748-9326
carbon-cycle models - land-cover change - environmental-change - atmosphere-ocean - simpler model - scenarios - emissions - impact - feedbacks - dynamics
There are several reasons to strengthen the cooperation between the integrated assessment (IA) and earth system (ES) modeling teams in order to better understand the joint development of environmental and human systems. This cooperation can take many different forms, ranging from information exchange between research communities to fully coupled modeling approaches. Here, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and try to establish some guidelines for their applicability, based mainly on the type of interaction between the model components (including the role of feedback), possibilities for simplification and the importance of uncertainty. We also discuss several important areas of joint IA–ES research, such as land use/land cover dynamics and the interaction between climate change and air pollution, and indicate the type of collaboration that seems to be most appropriate in each case. We find that full coupling of IA–ES models might not always be the most desirable form of cooperation, since in some cases the direct feedbacks between IA and ES may be too weak or subject to considerable process or scenario uncertainty. However, when local processes are important, it could be important to consider full integration. By encouraging cooperation between the IA and ES communities in the future more consistent insights can be developed.
Fingerprinting of fatty acid composition for the verification of the identity of organic eggs
Tres, A. ; O'Neill, R. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2011
Lipid Technology 23 (2011)2. - ISSN 0956-666X - p. 40 - 42.
Organic products (such as organic eggs) usually have a higher price than the corresponding conventional products. This makes organic products susceptible to fraud. Administrative controls are conducted to detect this type of frauds. However, an analytical verification of the organic identity of food products would be very useful in this respect. It is unlikely that there is a single compound, or a few compounds, that differ sufficiently between organic and conventional eggs to be used as a marker of organic identity. Instead, fingerprinting of the organic products (that is to say, analyzing a wide range of compounds instead of only a few) might be used as a tool for their verification. Here, we have used the fatty acid composition of egg yolks as a fingerprint to verify the organic identity of eggs. From the fingerprints, chemometric models were built which predict the identity of eggs (organic or conventional) with high success rates
Physical control and carbon budget of an ice-edge phytoplankton bloom in the eastern Weddell Gyre in austral summer 2007/08
Strass, V. ; Leach, H. ; Neill, C. ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2010
During Polarstern Cruise ANT-XXIV/2, a contribution to the IPY project SCACE, we were able to observe biogeochemical changes that were associated with a phytoplankton bloom which developed in the eastern (8°W to 14°E) Weddell Gyre from December 2007 to January 2008 during the seasonal sea ice melt. At its culmination in January the bloom, as revealed by satellite imagery, covered an area of more than half a million square kilometres, the size of the North Sea. The bloom appeared to be triggered by the release of melt water and its subsequent warming, which lead to the formation of shallow, less than 30 m deep, mixed layers which help to keep phytoplankton cells closer to the well-illuminated surface. Within the bloom the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl) exceeded 2.5 mg m-3, five times the background concentration. Concomitant with the increase of Chl in the mixed layer there was an increase in the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and of particulate organic carbon (POC), while at the same time dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations decreased – changes that can be used for tentatively estimating carbon budgets. Changes in DIC were strong enough to reverse the air-sea difference in CO2 partial pressures from an ocean source to a sink. Although the quantitative uncertainties associated with the assessment of the carbon budgets are rather large, primarily due to assumptions that have to be made with regard to the integration depths, the results confirm that ice edge blooms, which form in the Antarctic Divergence, play an important role in the global carbon cycle by taking up dissolved inorganic carbon that is upwelled together with the deep water masses and that otherwise would be released in part to the atmosphere.
Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans
Haas, B.J. ; Kamoun, S. ; Zody, M.C. ; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Handsaker, R.E. ; Cano, L.M. ; Grabherr, M. ; Kodira, C.D. ; Raffaele, S. ; Torto-Alalibo, T. ; Bozkurt, T.O. ; Ah-Fong, A.M.V. ; Alvarado, L. ; Anderson, V.L. ; Armstrong, M.R. ; Avrova, A. ; Baxter, L. ; Beynon, J. ; Boevink, P.C. ; Bollmann, S.R. ; Bos, J.I.B. ; Bulone, V. ; Cai, G. ; Cakir, C. ; Carrington, J.C. ; Chawner, M. ; Conti, L. ; Costanzo, S. ; Ewan, R. ; Fahlgren, N. ; Fischbach, M.A. ; Fugelstad, J. ; Gilroy, E.M. ; Gnerre, S. ; Green, P.J. ; Grenville-Briggs, L.J. ; Griffith, J. ; Grunwald, N.J. ; Horn, K. ; Horner, N.R. ; Hu, C.H. ; Huitema, E. ; Jeong, D.H. ; Jones, A.M.E. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Jones, R.W. ; Karlsson, E.K. ; Kunjeti, S.G. ; Lamour, K. ; Liu, Z. ; Ma, L. ; Maclean, D. ; Chibucos, M.C. ; McDonald, H. ; McWalters, J. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Morgan, W. ; Morris, P.F. ; Munro, C.A. ; O'Neill, K. ; Ospina-Giraldo, M. ; Pinzon, A. ; Pritchard, L. ; Ramsahoye, B. ; Ren, Q. ; Restrepo, S. ; Roy, S. ; Sadanandom, A. ; Savidor, A. ; Schornack, S. ; Schwartz, D.C. ; Schumann, U.D. ; Schwessinger, B. ; Seyer, L. ; Sharpe, T. ; Silvar, C. ; Song, J. ; Studholme, D.J. ; Sykes, S. ; Thines, M. ; Vondervoort, P.J.I. van de; Phuntumart, V. ; Wawra, S. ; Weide, R. ; Win, J. ; Young, C. ; Zhou, S. ; Fry, W. ; Meyers, B.C. ; West, P. van; Ristaino, J. ; Govers, F. ; Birch, P.R.J. ; Whisson, S.C. ; Judelson, H.S. ; Nusbaum, C. - \ 2009
Nature 461 (2009). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 393 - 398.
effector proteins - rxlr effectors - cell-death - plant - avirulence - avr3a - resistance - infection - genes
Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in famine and population displacement(1). To this day, it affects world agriculture by causing the most destructive disease of potato, the fourth largest food crop and a critical alternative to the major cereal crops for feeding the world's population(1). Current annual worldwide potato crop losses due to late blight are conservatively estimated at $6.7 billion(2). Management of this devastating pathogen is challenged by its remarkable speed of adaptation to control strategies such as genetically resistant cultivars(3,4). Here we report the sequence of the P. infestans genome, which at similar to 240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates. Its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA accounting for similar to 74% of the genome. Comparison with two other Phytophthora genomes showed rapid turnover and extensive expansion of specific families of secreted disease effector proteins, including many genes that are induced during infection or are predicted to have activities that alter host physiology. These fast-evolving effector genes are localized to highly dynamic and expanded regions of the P. infestans genome. This probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.
FIOH-sponsored newsletter misrepresents asbestos hazards in Zimbabwe
Bailar, J.C. ; Ballal, S.G. ; Boback, M. ; Castleman, B. ; Chee, H.L. ; Cherniack, M. ; Christiani, D. ; Cicolella, A. ; Pool, J.F. D'; Egilman, D. ; Frank, A.L. ; Garcia, M.A. ; Giannasi, F. ; Greenberg, M. ; Harrison, R.J. ; Huff, J. ; Souza, E.J. ; Joshi, T.K. ; Kamuzora, P. ; Kazan-Allen, L. ; Kern, D.G. ; Kromhout, H. ; Kuswadji, S. ; Ladou, J. ; Lemen, R.A. ; Levenstein, C. ; Luethje, B. ; Mancini, F. ; Meel, B.L. ; Mekonnen, Y. ; Mendes, R. ; Murie, D. ; Myers, J.E. ; O'Neill, R. ; Cisaro, E. ; Paek, D. ; Richter, E. ; Robertson, H. ; Rosskam, E. ; Samuels, S.W. ; Soskolne, C.L. ; Stuckey, R. ; Teitelbaum, D.T. ; Terracini, B. ; Thebaud-Mony, A. ; Vanhoorne, M. ; Wang, X.R. ; Watterson, A. ; Wedeen, R. - \ 2006
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 12 (2006)3. - ISSN 1077-3525 - p. 254 - 258.
The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) has received support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Office (ILO) to publish the African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety. The African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety should not be a medium for industry propaganda, or the source of misinformation among the workers of Africa. Instead, FIOH should provide the same level of scientific information in Africa that it does in Finland and other developed countries.
Sequencing the Phytophthora infestans genome: preliminary studies
Zody, M.C. ; O'Neill, K. ; Handsaker, B. ; Karlsson, E. ; Govers, F. ; Vondervoort, P. van de; Weide, R. ; Whisson, S. ; Birch, P. ; Ma LiJun, ; Birren, B. ; Ristaino, J. ; Fry, W. ; Judelson, H. ; Kamoun, S. ; Nusbaum, C. - \ 2005
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