Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Memory effects of climate and vegetation affecting net ecosystem CO2 fluxes in global forests
Besnard, Simon ; Carvalhais, Nuno ; Arain, M.A. ; Black, Andrew ; Brede, Benjamin ; Buchmann, Nina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Clevers, Jan G.P.W. ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. ; Gans, Fabian ; Herold, Martin ; Jung, Martin ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Knohl, Alexander ; Law, Beverly E. ; Paul-Limoges, Eugénie ; Lohila, Annalea ; Merbold, Lutz ; Roupsard, Olivier ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Zhang, Xudong ; Reichstein, Markus - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 22 p.
Forests play a crucial role in the global carbon (C) cycle by storing and sequestering a substantial amount of C in the terrestrial biosphere. Due to temporal dynamics in climate and vegetation activity, there are significant regional variations in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere in forests that are affecting the global C cycle. Current forest CO2 flux dynamics are controlled by instantaneous climate, soil, and vegetation conditions, which carry legacy effects from disturbances and extreme climate events. Our level of understanding from the legacies of these processes on net CO2 fluxes is still limited due to their complexities and their long-term effects. Here, we combined remote sensing, climate, and eddy-covariance flux data to study net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) at 185 forest sites globally. Instead of commonly used non-dynamic statistical methods, we employed a type of recurrent neural network (RNN), called Long Short-Term Memory network (LSTM) that captures information from the vegetation and climate’s temporal dynamics. The resulting data-driven model integrates interannual and seasonal variations of climate and vegetation by using Landsat and climate data at each site. The presented LSTM algorithm was able to effectively describe the overall seasonal variability (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, NSE = 0.66) and across-site (NSE = 0.42) variations in NEE, while it had less success in predicting specific seasonal and interannual anomalies (NSE = 0.07). This analysis demonstrated that an LSTM approach with embedded climate and vegetation memory effects outperformed a non-dynamic statistical model (i.e. Random Forest) for estimating NEE. Additionally, it is shown that the vegetation mean seasonal cycle embeds most of the information content to realistically explain the spatial and seasonal variations in NEE. These findings show the relevance of capturing memory effects from both climate and vegetation in quantifying spatio-temporal variations in forest NEE.
Benefits of Condensed Tannins in Forage Legumes Fed to Ruminants: Importance of Structure, Concentration, and Diet Composition
Mueller-Harvey, Irene ; Bee, Guiseppe ; Dohme-Meier, Frigga ; Hoste, Hervé ; Karonen, Maarit ; Kölliker, Roland ; Lüscher, Andreas ; Niderkorn, Vincent ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Salminen, Juha-Pekka ; Skøt, L. ; Smith, Lydia M.J. ; Thamsborg, Stig M. ; Totterdell, Paul ; Wilkinson, Ian ; Williams, Andrew R. ; Azuhnwi, Blasius N. ; Baert, Nicolas ; Grosse Brinkhaus, Anja ; Copani, Giuseppe ; Desrues, Olivier ; Drake, Chris ; Engström, Marica ; Fryganas, Christos ; Girard, Marion ; Huyen, Nguyen Thi ; Kempf, Katharina ; Malisch, Carsten ; Ortiz, Marina Mora ; Quijada, Jessica N. ; Ramsay, Aina ; Ropiak, Honorate ; Waghorn, Garry C. - \ 2019
Crop Science 59 (2019). - ISSN 0011-183X - p. 1 - 25.
Condensed tannins (CTs) account for up to 20% of the dry matter in forage legumes used as ruminant feeds. Beneficial animal responses to CTs have included improved growth, milk and wool production, fertility, and reduced methane emissions and ammonia volatilization from dung or urine. Most important is the ability of such forages to combat the effects of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes. Inconsistent animal responses to CTs were initially attributed to concentration in the diet, but recent research has highlighted the importance of their molecular structures, as well as concentration, and also the composition of the diet containing the CTs. The importance of CT structural traits cannot be underestimated. Interdisciplinary research is the key to unraveling the relationships between CT traits and bioactivities and will enable future on-farm exploitation of these natural plant compounds. Research is also needed to provide plant breeders with guidelines and screening tools to optimize CT traits, in both the forage and the whole diet. In addition, improvements are needed in the competitiveness and agronomic traits of CT-containing legumes and our understanding of options for their inclusion in ruminant diets. Farmers need varieties that are competitive in mixed swards and have predictable bioactivities. This review covers recent results from multidisciplinary research on sainfoin (Onobrychis Mill. spp.) and provides an overview of current developments with several other tanniniferous forages. Tannin chemistry is now being linked with agronomy, plant breeding, animal nutrition, and parasitology. The past decade has yielded considerable progress but also generated more questions—an enviable consequence of new knowledge!
Multispectral camera as spatio-spectrophotometer under uncontrolled illumination
Khan, Haris Ahmad ; Thomas, Jean Baptiste ; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve ; Laligant, Olivier - \ 2019
Optics Express 27 (2019)2. - ISSN 1094-4087 - p. 1051 - 1070.

Multispectral constancy enables the illuminant invariant representation of multispectral data. This article proposes an experimental investigation of multispectral constancy through the use of multispectral camera as a spectrophotometer for the reconstruction of surface reflectance. Three images with varying illuminations are captured and the spectra of material surfaces is reconstructed. The acquired images are transformed into canonical representation through the use of diagonal transform and spectral adaptation transform. Experimental results show that use of multispectral constancy is beneficial for both filter-wheel and snapshot multispectral cameras. The proposed concept is robust to errors in illuminant estimation and is able to perform well with linear spectral reconstruction method. This work makes us one step closer to the use of multispectral imaging for computer vision.

A brief history of mangrove distribution and coastline development in soc Trang Province, Vietnam, to address coastal management strategies
Joffre, Olivier M. ; Schmitt, Klaus - \ 2019
In: Advances in Global Change Research Springer International Publishing (Advances in Global Change Research ) - p. 67 - 85.
Coastal erosion - Coastline change - Land cover change - Mangrove - Mangrove rehabilitation - Mekong delta - Shrimp farming - Vietnam

Coastlines and their mangrove forests change over time under the influence of human and natural drivers. To design appropriate mangrove reforestation interventions, we use the Vietnamese province of Soc Trang, at the Bassac River mouth, as a case study to understand coastal zone changes. Our research, covering 1904–2007, is based on historical material from the French colonial period (topographic maps, reports), satellite images, and onsite interviews with key informants. Since 1904, the coastline and mangrove forests have changed significantly, including a sequence of deforestation and reforestation in some areas, changes in tree species composition, transformation of the coastline landscape from sand dunes to mangrove forests, and large-scale accretion at the river mouth. The natural processes of accretion and erosion have changed over time for the same area in Vin Chau District, thus influencing mangrove cover and reforestation programs. Damage to the mangrove forest during the Vietnam War due to defoliants was localised to specific areas along the coastline, and damaged trees were later cut for local use. Deforestation for fuelwood, expansion of farming areas, access rights, and usage of the mud flats during the French colonial period, followed by reforestation that modified the original species composition, are the main drivers of coastline changes. These drivers influence the coastline and mangrove cover dynamics in different ways. The knowledge of historical processes and coastal dynamics is important in developing climate change adaptation strategies, which combine such site-specific measures as effective mangrove protection and management, mangrove rehabilitation, and engineering measures.

Conflation of expert and crowd reference data to validate global binary thematic maps
Waldner, François ; Schucknecht, Anne ; Lesiv, Myroslava ; Gallego, Javier ; See, Linda ; Pérez-Hoyos, Ana ; andrimont, Raphaël D'; Maet, Thomas De; Bayas, Juan Carlos Laso ; Fritz, Steffen ; Leo, Olivier ; Kerdiles, Hervé ; Díez, Mónica ; Tricht, Kristof Van; Gilliams, Sven ; Shelestov, Andrii ; Lavreniuk, Mykola ; Simões, Margareth ; Ferraz, Rodrigo ; Bellón, Beatriz ; Bégué, Agnès ; Hazeu, Gerard ; Stonacek, Vaclav ; Kolomaznik, Jan ; Misurec, Jan ; Verón, Santiago R. ; Abelleyra, Diego De; Plotnikov, Dmitry ; Mingyong, Li ; Singha, Mrinal ; Patil, Prashant ; Zhang, Miao ; Defourny, Pierre - \ 2019
Remote Sensing of Environment 221 (2019). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 235 - 246.
With the unprecedented availability of satellite data and the rise of global binary maps, the collection of shared reference data sets should be fostered to allow systematic product benchmarking and validation. Authoritative global reference data are generally collected by experts with regional knowledge through photo-interpretation. During the last decade, crowdsourcing has emerged as an attractive alternative for rapid and relatively cheap data collection, beckoning the increasingly relevant question: can these two data sources be combined to validate thematic maps? In this article, we compared expert and crowd data and assessed their relative agreement for cropland identification, a land cover class often reported as difficult to map. Results indicate that observations from experts and volunteers could be partially conflated provided that several consistency checks are performed. We propose that conflation, i.e., replacement and augmentation of expert observations by crowdsourced observations, should be carried out both at the sampling and data analytics levels. The latter allows to evaluate the reliability of crowdsourced observations and to decide whether they should be conflated or discarded. We demonstrate that the standard deviation of crowdsourced contributions is a simple yet robust indicator of reliability which can effectively inform conflation. Following this criterion, we found that 70% of the expert observations could be crowdsourced with little to no effect on accuracy estimates, allowing a strategic reallocation of the spared expert effort to increase the reliability of the remaining 30% at no additional cost. Finally, we provide a collection of evidence-based recommendations for future hybrid reference data collection campaigns.
Quantifying the effect of forest age in annual net forest carbon balance
Besnard, Simon ; Carvalhais, Nuno ; Arain, M.A. ; Black, Andrew ; Bruin, Sytze de; Buchmann, Nina ; Cescatti, Alessandro ; Chen, Jiquan ; Clevers, Jan G.P.W. ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Havrankova, Katerina ; Herold, Martin ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Jung, Martin ; Knohl, Alexander ; Kruijt, Bart ; Krupkova, Lenka ; Law, Beverly E. ; Lindroth, Anders ; Noormets, Asko ; Roupsard, Olivier ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Varlagin, Andrej ; Vincke, Caroline ; Reichstein, Markus - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)12. - ISSN 1748-9326
Forests dominate carbon (C) exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere on land. In the long term, the net carbon flux between forests and the atmosphere has been significantly impacted by changes in forest cover area and structure due to ecological disturbances and management activities. Current empirical approaches for estimating net ecosystem productivity (NEP) rarely consider forest age as a predictor, which represents variation in physiological processes that can respond differently to environmental drivers, and regrowth following disturbance. Here, we conduct an observational synthesis to empirically determine to what extent climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, forest age and management influence the spatial and interannual variability of forest NEP across 126 forest eddy-covariance flux sites worldwide. The empirical models explained up to 62% and 71% of spatio-temporal and across-site variability of annual NEP, respectively. An investigation of model structures revealed that forest age was a dominant factor of NEP spatio-temporal variability in both space and time at the global scale as compared to abiotic factors, such as nutrient availability, soil characteristics and climate. These findings emphasize the importance of forest age in quantifying spatio-temporal variation in NEP using empirical approaches.
Corrigendum: Fecal microbial composition associated with variation in feed efficiency in pigs depends on diet and sex
Verschuren, Lisanne M.G. ; Calus, Mario P.L. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Bergsma, Rob ; Knol, Egbert F. ; Gilbert, Hélène ; Zemb, Olivier - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Science 96 (2018)9. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 4013 - 4013.
The role of local adaptation in sustainable production of village chickens
Bettridge, Judy M. ; Psifidi, Androniki ; Terfa, Zelalem G. ; Desta, Takele T. ; Lozano-Jaramillo, Maria ; Dessie, Tadelle ; Kaiser, Pete ; Wigley, Paul ; Hanotte, Olivier ; Christley, Robert M. - \ 2018
Nature Sustainability 1 (2018)10. - ISSN 2398-9629 - p. 574 - 582.

Village chickens are ubiquitous in smallholder farming systems, contributing to household, local and national economies under diverse environmental, economic and cultural settings. However, they are raised in challenging environments where productivity is low while mortality is high. There is much interest in utilizing indigenous genetic resources to produce a chicken that is resilient to its environment, while at the same time providing the basis of an economically sustainable enterprise. Globally, however, a wide variety of interventions have so far proved unable to deliver sustainable improvements. Here we show that regional differences in trait preferences and parasite burden are associated with distinct chicken gene pools, probably in response to interactions between natural and human-driven (economic and social) selection pressures. Drivers of regional differences include marketing opportunities, cultural preferences, agro-ecologies and parasite populations, and are evident in system adaptations, such as management practices, population dynamics and bird genotypes. Our results provide sound multidisciplinary evidence to support previous observations that sustainable poultry development interventions for smallholder farmers, including breeding programmes, should be locally tailored and designed for flexible implementation.

Conflicts in the coastal zone : Human impacts on commercially important fish species utilizing coastal habitat
Brown, Elliot J. ; Vasconcelos, Rita P. ; Wennhage, Håkan ; Bergström, Ulf ; Stottrup, Josianne G. ; Wolfshaar, Karen van de; Millisenda, Giacomo ; Colloca, Francesco ; Pape, Olivier Le - \ 2018
ICES Journal of Marine Science 75 (2018)4. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1203 - 1213.
Anthropogenic pressure - coastal - ecosystem-based management - fisheries - habitat degradation - habitat loss - human activity

Coastal ecosystems are ecologically, culturally, and economically important, and hence are under pressure from diverse human activities. We reviewed the literature for existing evidence of effects of human-induced habitat changes on exploited fish utilizing coastal habitats. We focused on fish species of the Northeast Atlantic for which fisheries advice is provided by International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and which utilize coastal habitats for at least one life-history stage (LHS). We found that 92% of these species are impacted by human activity in at least one LHS while utilizing coastal habitat and 38% in multiple stages. Anthropogenic pressures most commonly shown to impact these fish species were toxicants and pollutants (75% of species). Eutrophication and anoxia, invasive species, and physical coastal development affected about half of the species (58, 54, and 42% of species, respectively), while indirect fishing impacts affected a minority (17% of species). Moreover, 71% of the ICES advice species that utilize coastal habitats face impacts from more than one pressure, implying cumulative effects. Given that three-fourths of the commercial landings come from fish species utilizing coastal habitats, there is an obvious need for a better understanding of the impacts that human activities cause in these habitats for the development of ecosystem-based fisheries management.

Are shrimp farmers actual gamblers? An analysis of risk perception and risk management behaviors among shrimp farmers in the Mekong Delta
Joffre, Olivier M. ; Poortvliet, Marijn ; Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2018
Aquaculture 495 (2018). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 528 - 537.
Shrimp farming is considered a “risky business” and often compared to gambling for farmers. It is associated with a diverse range of risks and uncertainties, including volatile markets, climate variability, and production risks. In order to mitigate the effects of unpredictability farmers may decide on a particular stocking density and adopt different risk management strategies. Aquaculture research has paid little attention to the influence played by the evaluation and selection of different farming practices, risk perceptions associated with shrimp farming, and the farmers' confidence in their own ability to mitigate risk. The objective of this paper is to analyze the case of shrimp farming in Vietnam's Mekong Delta, where different types of shrimp farms (extensive, semi-intensive and intensive) co-exist within the same landscape, to identify the underlying factors driving stocking behavior and the adoption of different risk management strategies. A survey of 250 farms showed that perceptions toward different stocking behaviors (from extensive to intensive) varied according to the species raised (Penaeus monodon or P. vannamei) and the type of farm. At low density, farmers consider P. monodon as more productive and easier to adopt than P. vannamei. Adoption of intensive farming practices for both species is negatively associated with risk of disease emergence. However, expected productivity is not a predictor of adoption of intensive shrimp farming practices. Mediation analysis indicates that risk management strategies are significantly influenced by perceived market risk. The perception of this type of risk is a key predictor of risk management strategies. The farmers' lack of access to efficient market risk mitigation measures reflects inadequate or missing regulations or lack of specific value chain organization to mitigate this type of risk. Using a behavioral approach provides new insight on how farmers manage their farms, address risk and implement risk management strategies. It showed that farmers, unlike actual gamblers, adopt diverse management strategies after carefully evaluating species and stocking density as well as critically assessing different sources of risk.
Aquaculture innovation system analysis of transition to sustainable intensification in shrimp farming
Joffre, Olivier M. ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Khoa, Tran N.D. - \ 2018
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 38 (2018)3. - ISSN 1774-0746
Aquaculture innovation systems - Socio-ecological systems - Sustainability transitions - Sustainable intensification

The shrimp sector has been one of the fastest growing agri-food systems in the last decades, but its growth has entailed negative social and environmental impacts. Sustainable intensification will require innovation in multiple elements of the shrimp production system and its value chain. We use the case of the shrimp sector in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam to explore the constraints in the transition to sustainable intensification in shrimp farming, using an analytical framework based on innovation systems thinking, i.e., an aquaculture innovation systems framework. Using this framework, we conduct a systemic diagnostic of blocking mechanisms, interrelated sets of constraints within the aquaculture sector that hinder a transition toward sustainable intensification. Our findings show that the major constraints are institutional, with limited enforcement of the regulatory framework for input quality control, disease control, and wastewater management, and a lack of coordination between government bodies to design and enforce this framework. At farm level, limited access to capital favors pond mismanagement and the use of low-quality inputs. The absence of multi-stakeholder initiatives to foster dialog between actors in the value chain constrains the response to new regulations dictated by international market demand. Because of shrimp farming’s connectivity with the wider ecosystem, sustainable intensification in shrimp farming will require collective management of water resources at the landscape level for disease and water pollution control. Ecological principles for pond management need to be promoted to farmers in order to reduce farmers’ inefficient practices and build their capacity to understand new techniques and inputs available in the Vietnamese market. Our paper demonstrates for the utility of a multi-level, multi-dimension, and multi-stakeholder aquaculture innovation systems approach to analyze and address these blocking mechanisms in the transition to sustainable intensification in shrimp farming and aquaculture more broadly.

Fecal microbial composition associated with variation in feed efficiency in pigs depends on diet and sex
Verschuren, Lisanne M.G. ; Calus, Mario P.L. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Bergsma, Rob ; Knol, Egbert F. ; Gilbert, Hélène ; Zemb, Olivier - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Science 96 (2018)4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1405 - 1418.
Diet - Fecal microbiome - Feed efficiency - Pig - Sex
Dietary fiber content and composition affect microbial composition and activity in the gut, which in turn influence energetic contribution of fermentation products to the metabolic energy supply in pigs. This may affect feed efficiency (FE) in pigs. The present study investigated the relationship between the fecal microbial composition and FE in individual growing-finishing pigs. In addition, the effects of diet composition and sex on the fecal microbiome were studied. Fecal samples were collected of 154 grower-finisher pigs (3-way crossbreeds) the day before slaughter. Pigs were either fed a diet based on corn/soybean meal (CS) or a diet based on wheat/barley/by-products (WB). Fecal microbiome was characterized by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, clustered by operational taxonomic unit (OTU), and results were subjected to a discriminant approach combined with principal component analysis to discriminate diets, sexes, and FE extreme groups (10 high and 10 low FE pigs for each diet by sex-combination). Pigs on different diets and males vs. females had a very distinct fecal microbiome, needing only 2 OTU for diet (P = 0.020) and 18 OTU for sex (P = 0.040) to separate the groups. The 2 most important OTU for diet, and the most important OTU for sex, were taxonomically classified as the same bacterium. In pigs fed the CS diet, there was no significant association between FE and fecal microbiota composition based on OTU (P > 0.05), but in pigs fed the WB diet differences in FE were associated with 17 OTU in males (P = 0.018) and to 7 OTU in females (P = 0.010), with 3 OTU in common for both sexes. In conclusion, our results showed a diet and sex-dependent relationship between FE and the fecal microbial composition at slaughter weight in grower-finisher pigs.
Development and application of a duplex PCR assay for detection of Crangon crangon bacilliform virus in populations of European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon)
Eynde, Benigna Van; Christiaens, Olivier ; Delbare, Daan ; Cooreman, Kris ; Bateman, Kelly S. ; Stentiford, Grant D. ; Dullemans, Annette M. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Smagghe, Guy - \ 2018
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 153 (2018). - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 195 - 202.
Aquaculture - CcBV - Crustacean - Diagnostic - Disease - Nudiviridae
Crangon crangon bacilliform virus (CcBV) was first discovered in 2004 in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) caught along the English coast. This study describes a duplex PCR assay developed for the detection of CcBV, based on amplification of the lef-8 gene (211 bp) of CcBV and the E75 gene (105 bp) of C. crangon as an internal amplification control. The lef-8 and E75 primer pairs were designed based on preliminary genome sequencing information of the virus and transcriptomic data available for C. crangon, respectively. Sequencing of the resulting amplicons confirmed the specificity of this PCR assay and sequence analysis of the lef-8 fragment revealed amino acid identity percentages ranging between 31 and 42% with members of the Nudiviridae, proposing that CcBV may reside within this family.Finally, the duplex PCR assay was applied to samples of C. crangon hepatopancreas tissue collected along the Belgian coast to screen for the presence of CcBV. The prevalence of CcBV averaged 87%, which is comparable to previous reports of high prevalence, based upon histological analysis, in shrimp collected along the English coast. Development of a specific and sensitive PCR assay to detect CcBV will provide a useful tool for future aquaculture and research programs involving C. crangon.
Adapting forest management to climate change in Europe : Linking perceptions to adaptive responses
Sousa-Silva, Rita ; Verbist, Bruno ; Lomba, Ângela ; Valent, Peter ; Suškevičs, Monika ; Picard, Olivier ; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke A. ; Cosofret, Vasile Cosmin ; Bouriaud, Laura ; Ponette, Quentin ; Verheyen, Kris ; Muys, Bart - \ 2018
Forest Policy and Economics 90 (2018). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 22 - 30.
Adaptive capacity - Awareness - Climate change - Europe - Forest management - Regional differences
Climate change will impact forests and may impair their ability to provide essential ecosystem services in the decades to come. Addressing this challenge requires adjustments to forest management strategies as of now, but it is still unclear to what extent this is already in progress. Using data from surveys of 1131 forest owners and managers from seven European countries, we assessed how they perceive their role in adapting forest management to climate change. The surveys focused on foresters' observations of climate change impacts, the degree to which climate change is a part of their operational and strategic management, and their ability to address related risks and opportunities. We found evidence of a strong continent-wide climate change awareness among respondents, with 73% foresters convinced that climate change will impact their forest. However, only about one-third (36%) reported having modified their management practices, though figures vary widely between countries, from 14% in Portugal to 57% in Slovakia. Among the constraints limiting their actions, lack of knowledge and information emerged as a major barrier towards forest adaptation. Differences between countries could be linked to their socio-economic and political contexts. Our results further suggest that severely damaging events, such as windstorms, fires and pest outbreaks, present relevant opportunities to engage people with climate change and encourage action. Further work needs to be done in strengthening the relationship between scientific research and practice, working out context dependent measures to foster adaptation to changing climate and disturbance regimes in forest management.
Declines in moth populations stress the need for conserving dark nights
Langevelde, Frank van; Braamburg-Annegarn, Marijke ; Huigens, Martinus E. ; Groendijk, Rob ; Poitevin, Olivier ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Ellis, Willem N. ; Grunsven, Roy H.A. van; Vos, Rob de; Vos, Rutger A. ; Franzén, Markus ; WallisDeVries, Michiel F. - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 925 - 932.
artificial light at night - ecological traits - ecology of the night - Lepidoptera - light pollution - phototaxis
Given the global continuous rise, artificial light at night is often considered a driving force behind moth population declines. Although negative effects on individuals have been shown, there is no evidence for effects on population sizes to date. Therefore, we compared population trends of Dutch macromoth fauna over the period 1985–2015 between moth species that differ in phototaxis and adult circadian rhythm. We found that moth species that show positive phototaxis or are nocturnally active have stronger negative population trends than species that are not attracted to light or are diurnal species. Our results indicate that artificial light at night is an important factor in explaining declines in moth populations in regions with high artificial night sky brightness. Our study supports efforts to reduce the impacts of artificial light at night by promoting lamps that do not attract insects and reduce overall levels of illumination in rural areas to reverse declines of moth populations.
Tropical forest canopies and their relationships with climate and disturbance: results from a global dataset of consistent field-based measurements
Pfeifer, Marion ; Gonsamo, Alemu ; Woodgate, William ; Cayuela, Luis ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Ledo, Alicia ; Paine, Timothy C.E. ; Marchant, Rob ; Burt, Andrew ; Calders, Kim ; Courtney-mustaphi, Colin ; Cuni-sanchez, Aida ; Deere, Nicolas J. ; Denu, Dereje ; Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Hayward, Robin ; Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Macía, Manuel J. ; Olivier, Pieter I. ; Pellikka, Petri ; Seki, Hamidu ; Shirima, Deo ; Trevithick, Rebecca ; Wedeux, Beatrice ; Wheeler, Charlotte ; Munishi, Pantaleo K.T. ; Martin, Thomas ; Mustari, Abdul ; Platts, Philip J. - \ 2018
Forest Ecosystems 5 (2018). - ISSN 2095-6355 - 14 p.
Background: Canopy structure, defined by leaf area index (LAI), fractional vegetation cover (FCover) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), regulates a wide range of forest functions and ecosystem services. Spatially consistent field-measurements of canopy structure are however lacking, particularly for the tropics. Methods: Here, we introduce the Global LAI database: a global dataset of field-based canopy structure measurements spanning tropical forests in four continents (Africa, Asia, Australia and the Americas). We use these measurements to test for climate dependencies within and across continents, and to test for the potential of anthropogenic disturbance and forest protection to modulate those dependences. Results: Using data collected from 887 tropical forest plots, we show that maximum water deficit, defined across the most arid months of the year, is an important predictor of canopy structure, with all three canopy attributes declining significantly with increasing water deficit. Canopy attributes also increase with minimum temperature, and with the protection of forests according to both active (within protected areas) and passive measures (through topography). Once protection and continent effects are accounted for, other anthropogenic measures (e.g. human population) do not improve the model. Conclusions: We conclude that canopy structure in the tropics is primarily a consequence of forest adaptation to the maximum water deficits historically experienced within a given region. Climate change, and in particular changes in drought regimes may thus affect forest structure and function, but forest protection may offer some resilience against this effect.
Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems : A modelling study from semi-arid Zimbabwe
Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Zijlstra, Mink ; Masikati, Patricia ; Crespo, Olivier ; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 159 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 282 - 295.
Crop-livestock interactions - Crude protein - Forage - Metabolizable energy - Resilience - Soil fertility - Vulnerability

Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a dynamic modelling framework integrating climate, crop, pasture and livestock models. The framework was applied to a population of 91 farms located in semi-arid Zimbabwe to assess effects on livestock production resulting from climate change and management interventions. Climate scenarios representing relative "cool-wet", "hot-dry" and "middle" conditions by mid-century (2040-2070) for two representative concentration pathways were compared with the baseline climate. On-farm fodder resources and rangeland grass production were simulated with the crop model APSIM and the pasture model GRASP respectively. The simulated fodder availability was used in the livestock model LIVSIM to generate various production indicators including milk, offtake, mortality, manure, and net revenue. We investigated the effects of two adaptation packages targeting soil fertility management and crop diversification and quantified the sensitivity to climate change of both current and improved systems. Livestock productivity was constrained by dry-season feed gaps, which were particularly severe for crude protein and caused by the reliance on rangeland grazing and crop residues, both of low quality in the dry season. Effects on grass and stover production depended on the climate scenario and the crop, but year-to-year variation generally increased. Relative changes in livestock net revenue compared to the baseline climate varied from a 6% increase to a 43% decrease, and the proportion of farmers negatively affected varied from 20% to 100%, depending on the climate scenario. Adverse effects of climate change on average livestock production usually coincided with increased year-to-year variability and risk. Farms with larger stocking density faced more severe feed gaps and were more sensitive to climate change than less densely stocked farms. The first adaptation package resulted in increased stover production and a small increase in livestock productivity. The inclusion of grain and forage legumes with the second package increased milk productivity and net revenues more profoundly by 30%. This was attributed to the alleviation of dry-season feed gaps, which also reduced the sensitivity to climate change compared to the current system. Clearly, individual farms were affected differently by climate change and by improved farm management, illustrating that disaggregated impact assessments are needed to effectively inform decision making towards climate change adaptation.

Integration of fisheries into marine spatial planning: Quo vadis?
Janßen, Holger ; Bastardie, Francois ; Eero, Margit ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Hinrichsen, Hans Harald ; Marchal, Paul ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Pape, Olivier Le; Schulze, Torsten ; Simons, Sarah ; Teal, Lorna R. ; Tidd, Alex - \ 2018
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 201 (2018). - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 105 - 113.
Fisheries - Marine space - Maritime spatial planning - MSP - Marine governance - EBM
The relationship between fisheries and marine spatial planning (MSP) is still widely unsettled. While several scientific studies highlight the strong relation between fisheries and MSP, as well as ways in which fisheries could be included in MSP, the actual integration of fisheries into MSP often fails. In this article, we review the state of the art and latest progress in research on various challenges in the integration of fisheries into MSP. The reviewed studies address a wide range of integration challenges, starting with techniques to analyse where fishermen actually fish, assessing the drivers for fishermen's behaviour, seasonal dynamics and long-term spatial changes of commercial fish species under various anthropogenic pressures along their successive life stages, the effects of spatial competition on fisheries and projections on those spaces that might become important fishing areas in the future, and finally, examining how fisheries could benefit from MSP. This paper gives an overview of the latest developments on concepts, tools, and methods. It becomes apparent that the spatial and temporal dynamics of fish and fisheries, as well as the definition of spatial preferences, remain major challenges, but that an integration of fisheries is already possible today.
Study on risk management in EU agriculture : final report
Chartier, Olivier ; Cronin, Evelien ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Cordier, Jean ; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Bocci, Matteo - \ 2017
European Commission - ISBN 9789279655791 - 302 p.
Study on risk management in EU agriculture : executive summary
Chartier, Olivier ; Cronin, Evelien ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Cordier, Jean ; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Bocci, Matteo - \ 2017
European Commission - ISBN 9789279655807 - 14 p.
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