Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Beached bachelors: An extensive study on the largest recorded sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus mortality event in the North Sea
IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. ; Neer, Abbo van; Deaville, Rob ; Begeman, Lineke ; Bildt, Marco van de; Brand, Judith M.A. van den; Brownlow, Andrew ; Czeck, Richard ; Dabin, Willy ; Doeschate, Mariel ten; Herder, Vanessa ; Herr, Helena ; IJzer, Jooske ; Jauniaux, Thierry ; Jensen, Lasse Fast ; Jepson, Paul D. ; Jo, Wendy Karen ; Lakemeyer, Jan ; Lehnert, Kristina ; Leopold, Mardik F. ; Osterhaus, Albert ; Perkins, Matthew W. ; Piatkowski, Uwe ; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen ; Pund, Ralf ; Wohlsein, Peter ; Gröne, Andrea ; Siebert, Ursula - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)8. - ISSN 1932-6203

Between the 8th January and the 25th February 2016, the largest sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus mortality event ever recorded in the North Sea occurred with 30 sperm whales stranding in five countries within six weeks. All sperm whales were immature males. Groups were stratified by size, with the smaller animals stranding in the Netherlands, and the largest in England. The majority (n = 27) of the stranded animals were necropsied and/ or sampled, allowing for an international and comprehensive investigation into this mortality event. The animals were in fair to good nutritional condition and, aside from the pathologies caused by stranding, did not exhibit significant evidence of disease or trauma. Infectious agents were found, including various parasite species, several bacterial and fungal pathogens and a novel alphaherpesvirus. In nine of the sperm whales a variety of marine litter was found. However, none of these findings were considered to have been the primary cause of the stranding event. Potential anthropogenic and environmental factors that may have caused the sperm whales to enter the North Sea were assessed. Once sperm whales enter the North Sea and head south, the water becomes progressively shallower (<40 m), making this region a global hotspot for sperm whale strandings. We conclude that the reasons for sperm whales to enter the southern North Sea are the result of complex interactions of extrinsic environmental factors. As such, these large mortality events seldom have a single ultimate cause and it is only through multidisciplinary, collaborative approaches that potentially multifactorial large-scale stranding events can be effectively investigated.

Serologic evidence of West Nile virus and Usutu virus infections in Eurasian coots in the Netherlands
Lim, S.M. ; Geervliet, M. ; Verhagen, J.H. ; Müskens, G.J.D.M. ; Majoor, F.A. ; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E. ; Martina, Byron E. - \ 2018
Zoonoses and Public Health 65 (2018)1. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 96 - 102.
Reservoir hosts - Surveillance - Usutu virus - Vector-borne diseases - West Nile virus - Wild birds

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses that are maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds and are occasionally transmitted to mammals. As arboviruses are currently expanding their geographic range and emerging in often unpredictable locations, surveillance is considered an important element of preparedness. To determine whether sera collected from resident and migratory birds in the Netherlands as part of avian influenza surveillance would also represent an effective source for proactive arbovirus surveillance, a random selection of such sera was screened for WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA. In addition, sera of jackdaws and carrion crows captured for previous experimental infection studies were added to the selection. Of the 265 screened serum samples, 27 were found to be WNV-antibody-positive, and subsequent cross-neutralization experiments using WNV and USUV confirmed that five serum samples were positive for only WNV-neutralizing antibodies and seven for only USUV. The positive birds consisted of four Eurasian coots (Fulica atra) and one carrion crow (Corvus corone) for WNV, of which the latter may suggest local presence of the virus, and only Eurasian coots for USUV. As a result, the screening of a small selection of serum samples originally collected for avian influenza surveillance demonstrated a seroprevalence of 1.6% for WNV and 2.8% for USUV, suggesting that this sustained infrastructure could serve as a useful source for future surveillance of arboviruses such as WNV and USUV in the Netherlands.

Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs
Verhagen, Josanne H. ; Lexmond, Pascal ; Vuong, Oanh ; Schutten, Martin ; Guldemeester, Judith ; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E. ; Elbers, Armin R.W. ; Slaterus, Roy ; Hornman, Menno ; Koch, Guus ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Lierz, Michael - \ 2017
PLoS ONE 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and subsequently virus transmission between poultry holdings and to humans. Based on spatial, temporal and phylogenetic analyses of data generated as part of intense and large-scale influenza surveillance programs in wild birds and poultry in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2011, we demonstrate that LPAIV subtype distribution differed between wild birds and poultry, suggestive of host-range restrictions. LPAIV isolated from Dutch poultry were genetically most closely related to LPAIV isolated from wild birds in the Netherlands or occasionally elsewhere in Western Europe. However, a relatively long time interval was observed between the isolations of related viruses from wild birds and poultry. Spatial analyses provided evidence for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) being more abundant near primary infected poultry farms. Detailed year-round investigation of virus prevalence and wild bird species distribution and behavior near poultry farms should be used to improve risk assessment in relation to avian influenza virus introduction and retarget avian influenza surveillance programs
Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals
Reperant, L.A. ; Brown, I.H. ; Haenen, O.L.M. ; Jong, M.D. de; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E. ; Papa, A. ; Rimstad, E. ; Valarcher, J.F. ; Kuiken, T. - \ 2016
Journal of Comparative Pathology 155 (2016)1. - ISSN 0021-9975 - p. S41 - S53.
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective basis for more in-depth analysis of the risk of companion animals as sources of viruses for human and food production animal health
Neurotropic virus infections as the cause of immediate and delayed neuropathology
Ludlow, Martin ; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Herden, Christiane ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Tappe, Dennis ; Trebst, Corinna ; Griffin, Diane E. ; Brindle, Hannah E. ; Solomon, Tom ; Brown, Alan S. ; Riel, Debby van; Wolthers, Katja C. ; Pajkrt, Dasja ; Wohlsein, Peter ; Martina, Byron E.E. ; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang ; Verjans, Georges M. ; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E. - \ 2016
Acta Neuropathologica 131 (2016)2. - ISSN 0001-6322 - p. 159 - 184.
Alphavirus - Bornavirus - Bunyavirus - Central nervous system - Flavivirus - Herpesvirus - Influenza virus - Neuroinfectiology - Neuropathology - Paramyxovirus - Picornavirus - Rhabdovirus - Virus infection

A wide range of viruses from different virus families in different geographical areas, may cause immediate or delayed neuropathological changes and neurological manifestations in humans and animals. Infection by neurotropic viruses as well as the resulting immune response can irreversibly disrupt the complex structural and functional architecture of the central nervous system, frequently leaving the patient or affected animal with a poor or fatal prognosis. Mechanisms that govern neuropathogenesis and immunopathogenesis of viral infections are highlighted, using examples of well-studied virus infections that are associated with these alterations in different populations throughout the world. A better understanding of the molecular, epidemiological and biological characteristics of these infections and in particular of mechanisms that underlie their clinical manifestations may be expected to provide tools for the development of more effective intervention strategies and treatment regimens.

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Harbor Seals and Gray Seals from the Netherlands
Bodewes, Rogier ; Garcia, Ana Rubio ; Brasseur, Sophie M. ; Conteras, Guillermo J.S. ; De Bildt, Marco W.G. Van; Koopmans, Marion P.G. ; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E. ; Kuiken, Thijs - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)12. - ISSN 1932-6203

In the spring and summer 2014, an outbreak of seal influenza A(H10N7) virus infection occurred among harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the coasts of Sweden and Denmark. This virus subsequently spread to harbor seals off the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands. While thousands of seals were reported dead in Sweden, Denmark and Germany, only a limited number of seals were found dead in the Netherlands. To determine the extent of exposure of seals in the Netherlands to influenza A/H10N7 virus, we measured specific antibody titers in serum samples from live-captured seals and seals admitted for rehabilitation in the Netherlands by use of a hemagglutination inhibition assay and an ELISA. In harbor seals in 2015, antibodies against seal influenza A(H10N7) virus were detected in 41% (32 out of 78) pups, 10% (5 out of 52) weaners, and 58% (7 out of 12) subadults or adults. In gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in 2015, specific antibodies were not found in the pups (n = 26), but in 26% (5 out of 19) of the older animals. These findings indicate that, despite apparent low mortality, infection with seal influenza A(H10N7) virus was geographically widespread and also occurred in grey seals.

Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya virus protects AG129 mice against lethal challenge
Doel, P. van den; Volz, A. ; Roose, J.M. ; Sewbalaksing, V.D. ; Pijlman, G.P. ; Middelkoop, I. van; Duiverman, V. ; Wetering, E. van de; Sutter, G. ; Osterhaus, A.D. ; Martina, B.E. - \ 2014
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8 (2014)9. - ISSN 1935-2727 - 12 p.
indian-ocean islands - reunion island - neutralizing antibodies - nonhuman-primates - immune-responses - adult patients - insect cells - dna vaccine - infection - mva
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome has been documented, although at low incidences. The CHIKV RNA genome encodes five structural proteins (C, E1, E2, E3 and 6K). The E1 spike protein drives the fusion process within the cytoplasm, while the E2 protein is believed to interact with cellular receptors and therefore most probably constitutes the target of neutralizing antibodies. We have constructed recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing E3E2, 6KE1, or the entire CHIKV envelope polyprotein cassette E3E26KE1. MVA is an appropriate platform because of its demonstrated clinical safety and its suitability for expression of various heterologous proteins. After completing the immunization scheme, animals were challenged with CHIV-S27. Immunization of AG129 mice with MVAs expressing E2 or E3E26KE1 elicited neutralizing antibodies in all animals and provided 100% protection against lethal disease. In contrast, 75% of the animals immunized with 6KE1 were protected against lethal infection. In conclusion, MVA expressing the glycoprotein E2 of CHIKV represents as an immunogenic and effective candidate vaccine against CHIKV infections.
Chikungunya virus-like particles are more immunogenic in a lethal AG129 mouse model compared to glycoprotein El or E2 subunits
Metz, S.W.H. ; Martina, B.E. ; Doel, P. van den; Geertsema, C. ; Osterhaus, A.D. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Pijlman, G.P. - \ 2013
Vaccine 31 (2013)51. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 6092 - 6096.
insect cells - expression
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes acute illness characterized by fever and long-lasting arthritic symptoms. The need for a safe and effective vaccine against CHM/infections is on the rise due to on-going vector spread and increasing severity of clinical complications. Here we report the results of a comparative vaccination-challenge experiment in mice using three different vaccine candidates produced in insect cells by recombinant baculoviruses: (i) secreted (s)E1 and (ii) sE2 CHIKV glycoprotein subunits (2 mu g/immunization), and (iii) CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs) (1 mu g E2 equivalent/immunization). These experiments show that vaccination with two subsequent administrations of 1 mu g of Matrix M adjuvanted CHIN VLPs completely protected AG129 mice from lethal CHIN challenge. Vaccination with El and E2 subunits provided partial protection, with half of the mice surviving but with significantly lower neutralizing antibody titres as compared to the VLP vaccinated mice. This study provides evidence that even a modest neutralizing antibody response is sufficient to protect mice from CHM/infections. Neutralization was the prominent correlate of protection. In addition, CHIKV VLPs provide a superior immune response and protection against CHIICV-induced disease in mice as compared to individual CHIKV-sEl and -sE2 subunits. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of vaccination strategies against infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) based on recombinant viral vectors expressing FIV Rev and OrfA
Huisman, W. ; Schrauwen, E.J.A. ; Tijhaar, E. ; Süzer, Y. ; Pas, S.D. ; Amerongen, G. van; Sutter, G. ; Rimmelzwaan, G.F. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. - \ 2008
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 126 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 332 - 338.
cytotoxic t-lymphocytes - semliki-forest-virus - envelope glycoprotein - protective immunity - subunit vaccines - rhesus macaques - 89.6p challenge - animal-model - tat protein - replication
In recent years it has become clear that cell-mediated immunity is playing a role in the control of lentivirus infections. In particular, cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses have been associated with improved outcome of infection, especially those directed against the regulatory proteins like Rev and Tat, which are expressed early after infection. Therefore, there is considerable interest in lentiviral vaccine candidates that can induce these types of immune responses. In the present study, we describe the construction and characterisation of expression vectors based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus system and modified vaccinia virus Ankara for the expression of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) accessory proteins Rev and OrfA. These recombinant viral vectors were used to immunize cats using a prime-boost regimen and the protective efficacy of this vaccination strategy was assessed after challenge infection of immunized cats with FIV.
The 2000 canine distemper eptdemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors
Kuiken, T. ; Kennedy, S. ; Barret, T. ; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Bren, S.D. ; Codd, G.A. ; Duck, C. ; Deaville, R. ; Eybatov, T. ; Forsyth, M.A. ; Foster, G.D. ; Jepson, P.D. ; Kydyrmatov, A. ; Mitrofanov, I. ; Ward, C.J. ; Wilson, S. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. - \ 2006
Veterinary Pathology 43 (2006). - ISSN 0300-9858 - p. 321 - 338.
harbor seals - obstructive-jaundice - morbillivirus infection - mass mortality - marine mammals - common seals - bile-acids - sp nov. - virus - vitulina
More than 10,000 Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) were reported dead in the Caspian Sea during spring and summer 2000. We performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to identify the cause of mortality and potential contributory factors. The monthly stranding rate In 2000 was up to 2.8 times the historic mean. It was preceded by an unusually mild winter, as observed before in mass mortality events of pinnipeds. The primary diagnosis in I I of 13 seals was canine distemper, characterized by broncho-interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in lymphoid organs., and the presence of typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple epithelia. Canine distemper virus infection was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction products. Organochlorine and zinc concentrations in tissues of seals with canine distemper were comparable to those of Caspian seals in previous years. Concurrent bacterial infections that may have contributed to the mortality of the seals included Bordetella bronchiseptica (4/8 seals), Streptococcus phocae (3/8), Salmonella dublin (1/8), and S. choleraesuis (1/8). A newly identified bacterium, Corynebacterium caspium, was associated with balanoposthitis in one seal. Several infectious and parasitic organisms, including poxvirus, Atopobacter phocae, Eimeria- and Sarcocystis-like organisms, and Halarachne sp. were identified in Caspian seals for the first time.
Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Fouchier, R.A.M. ; Schneeberger, P.M. ; Rozendaal, F.W. ; Broekman, J.M. ; Kemink, S.A.G. ; Munnster, V. ; Kuiken, T. ; Rimmelzwaan, G.F. ; Schutten, M. ; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Koch, G. ; Bosman, A. ; Koopmans, M. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. - \ 2004
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 (2004)5. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1356 - 1361.
h5n1 virus - hong-kong - hemagglutinin - infection - amplification - replication - diagnosis - emergence - sequence - assay
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human pandemic threat. Between the end of February and the end of May 2003, a fowl plague outbreak occurred in The Netherlands. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from wild ducks, was isolated from chickens. The same virus was detected subsequently in 86 humans who handled affected poultry and in three of their family members. Of these 89 patients, 78 presented with conjunctivitis, 5 presented with conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness, 2 presented with influenza-like illness, and 4 did not fit the case definitions. Influenza-like illnesses were generally mild, but a fatal case of pneumonia in combination with acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred also. Most virus isolates obtained from humans, including probable secondary cases, had not accumulated significant mutations. However, the virus isolated from the fatal case displayed 14 amino acid substitutions, some of which may be associated with enhanced disease in this case. Because H7N7 viruses have caused disease in mammals, including horses, seals, and humans, on several occasions in the past, they may be unusual in their zoonotic potential and, thus, form a pandemic threat to humans
Antigenic and molecular heterogeneity in recent swine influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates with possible implications for vaccination policy
Jong, J.C. de; Heinen, P.P. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Nieuwstadt, A.P. van; Claas, E.C.J. ; Bestebroer, T.M. ; Bijlsma, K. ; Verweij, C. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. ; Rimmelzwaan, G.F. ; Fouchier, R.A.M. ; Kimman, T.G. - \ 2001
Vaccine 19 (2001). - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 4452 - 4464.
Characterisation of a recently isolated lyssavirus in frugivorous zoo bats
Poel, W.H.M. van der; Heide, R. van der; Amerongen, G. van; Keulen, L.J. van; Wellenberg, G.J. ; Bourhy, H. ; Schaftenaar, W. ; Groen, J. ; Osterhaus, A.D. - \ 2000
Archives of Virology 145 (2000). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 19191 - 11931.
Need to increase awareness among family doctors and medical specialists of rickettsiosis as an import disease in non-endemic areas
Nur, Y.A. ; Brandenburg, A. ; Niesters, H.G.M. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. ; Groen, J. - \ 2000
The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 56 (2000). - ISSN 0300-2977 - p. 186 - 189.
Antigenic drift in swine influenza H3 haemagglutinins with implications for vaccination policy
Jong, J.C. de; Nieuwstadt, A.P. van; Kimman, T.G. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Bestebroer, T.M. ; Bijlsma, K. ; Verweij, C. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. ; Claas, E.C.J. - \ 1999
Vaccine 17 (1999)11-12. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 1321 - 1328.
In order to explore the occurrence of antigenic drift in swine influenza A(H3N2) virus, we examined virus strains from outbreaks of respiratory disease among finishing pigs in the Netherlands in 1996 and 1997 and from earlier outbreaks. In contrast to swine H3N2 strains from the 1980s, the recent isolates did not show significant cross-reactivity with human influenza A(H3N2) viruses from 1972-1975 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. These new strains form a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree of the HA1 parts of HA. We conclude that recently there has been considerable antigenic drift within the swine H3N2 viruses in the Netherlands and Belgium and recommend replacement of the A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) strain in the current vaccine by a more recent swine H3N2 isolate.
Antigen detection in vivo after immunization with different presentation forms of rabies virus antigen. II. Cellular, but not humoral, systemic immune responses against rabies virus immune-stimulating complexes are macrophage dependent
Claassen, I.J.T.M. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. ; Poelen, M. ; Rooijen, N. van; Claassen, E. - \ 1998
Immunology 94 (1998). - ISSN 0019-2805 - p. 455 - 460.
Studies on the efficacy of hyperbaric rendering procedures in inactivating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie agents
Schreuder, B.E.C. ; Geertsma, R.E. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Asten, J.A.A.M. van; Enthoven, P. ; Oberthür, R.C. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. - \ 1998
Veterinary Record 142 (1998)19. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 474 - 480.
A subtype-specific peptide-based enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies to the G protein of human respiratory syncytial virus is more sensitive than routine serological tests
Langedijk, J.P.M. ; Brandenburg, A.H. ; Middel, W.G.J. ; Osterhaus, A.B. ; Meloen, R.H. ; Oirschot, J.T. van - \ 1997
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35 (1997)7. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 1656 - 1660.
Peptides deduced from the central conserved region (residues 158 to 189) of protein G of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) subtypes A and B were used as antigens in subtype-specific enzyme-linked -bent assays (G- peptide ELISAs). These G-peptide ELlSAs were compared with seven other serological assays to detect HRSV infection: ELlSAs based on complete protein G, on fusion protein F, and on nucleoprotein N; a complement fixation assay; a virus neutralization test; and ELISAs for the detection of immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM antibodies specific for HRSV. In paired serum samples from patients with HRSV infection, more infections were diagnosed by the G- peptide ELISA (67%) than by all other serological tests combined (48%). Furthermore, for 16 of 18 patients (89%), the G-peptide ELISAs were able to differentiate between antibodies against HRSV subtypes A and B. This study shows that peptides corresponding to the central conserved region of the attachment protein G of HRSV can successfully be used as antigens in immunoassays. The G-peptide ELISA appeared to be more sensitive than conventional tests for the detection of HRSV antibody titer rises.
Suppression of natural killer cell activity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring
Ross, P.S. ; Swart, R.L. de; Timmerman, H.H. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. ; Vos, J.G. ; Loveren, H. van; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. - \ 1996
Aquatic Toxicology 34 (1996). - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 71 - 84.
Host resistance to rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) and immune function in adult PVG rats fed herring from the contaminated Baltic Sea.
Ross, P.S. ; Loveren, H. van; Swart, R.L. de; Vliet, H. van der; Klerk, A. de; Timmerman, H.H. ; Binnendijk, R. van; Brouwer, A. ; Vos, J.G. ; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. - \ 1996
Archives of Toxicology 70 (1996). - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 661 - 671.
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