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Induced plant defences in biological control of arthropod pests : a double-edged sword
Pappas, Maria L. ; Broekgaarden, Colette ; Broufas, George D. ; Kant, Merijn R. ; Messelink, Gerben J. ; Steppuhn, Anke ; Wäckers, Felix ; Dam, Nicole M. van - \ 2017
Pest Management Science 73 (2017)9. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1780 - 1788.
Biological control is an important ecosystem service delivered by natural enemies. Together with breeding for plant defence, it constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to pesticides for controlling herbivores in sustainable crop production. Especially induced plant defences may be promising targets in plant breeding for resistance against arthropod pests. Because they are activated upon herbivore damage, costs only incur when defence is needed. Moreover, they can be more specific than constitutive defences. Nevertheless, inducible defence traits that are harming plant pest organisms may interfere with biological control agents, such as predators and parasitoids. Despite the vast fundamental knowledge on plant defence mechanisms and their effects on natural enemies, our understanding on the feasibility of combining biological control with induced plant defence in practice is relatively poor. In this review, we focus on arthropod pest control and present the most important features of biological control with natural enemies and of induced plant defence. Furthermore, we show potential synergies and conflicts among them and finally, identify gaps and list opportunities for their combined use in crop protection. We suggest that breeders should focus on inducible resistance traits that are compatible with the natural enemies of arthropod pests, specifically traits that facilitate communities of natural enemies to build-up.
Supplying high-quality alternative prey in the litter increases control of an above-ground plant pest by a generalist predator
Muñoz-Cárdenas, Karen ; Ersin, Firdevs ; Pijnakker, Juliette ; Houten, Yvonne van; Hoogerbrugge, Hans ; Leman, Ada ; Pappas, Maria L. ; Duarte, Marcus V.A. ; Messelink, Gerben J. ; Sabelis, Maurice W. ; Janssen, Arne - \ 2017
Biological Control 105 (2017). - ISSN 1049-9644 - p. 19 - 26.
Supplying predators with alternative food can have short-term positive effects on prey densities through predator satiation (functional response) and long-term negative effects through increases of predator populations (numerical response). In biological control, alternative food sources for predators are normally supplied on the crop plants; using the litter-inhabiting food web as a source of alternative food for plant-inhabiting predators has received less attention. We investigated the effect of supplying plant-inhabiting predatory mites with alternative prey (astigmatic mites) in the litter on pest control. Predator (Amblyseius swirskii) movement and population dynamics of the pest (western flower thrips) and predators were studied on rose plants in greenhouses. Predators commuted between the above-ground plant parts where they controlled thrips, and the litter, where they fed on alternative prey, although the latter were a superior diet. Predators controlled thrips better in the presence of the astigmatic mites than in their absence. We show that predatory mites can form a link between above-ground pests and the litter food web, and propose that adding alternative prey to the litter of ornamental greenhouses can result in higher predator densities and increased biological control.
Life-history traits and predation of Chrysopa sp. lacewings on aphids and mealybugs
Broufas, G.D. ; Stantzos, D. ; Parthenopoulou, E. ; Pijnakker, Juliette ; Leman, A. ; Delor, J. ; Pappas, M.L. - \ 2016
Induced plant responses and natural enemies
Pappas, M.L. ; Broufas, G.D. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
BioGreenhouse (Fact sheet BioGreenhouse 13) - 2 p.
Conservation of lacewings in and around greenhouses
Pappas, M.L. ; Broufas, G.D. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
BioGreenhouse (Fact sheet BioGreenhouse 5) - 2 p.
Food sprays for predatory mites
Broufas, G.D. ; Pappas, M.L. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
BioGreenhouse (Fact sheet BioGreenhouse 1) - 2 p.
Heritable gene expression differences between apomictic clone members in Taraxacum officinale : Insights into early stages of evolutionary divergence in asexual plants
Ferreira de Carvalho, Julie ; Oplaat, Carla ; Pappas, Nikolaos ; Derks, Martijn ; Ridder, Dick de; Verhoeven, Koen J.F. - \ 2016
BMC Genomics 17 (2016). - ISSN 1471-2164
Apomixis - Dandelion - Functional divergence - RNA-Seq - Taraxacum officinale - Transposable elements
Background: Asexual reproduction has the potential to enhance deleterious mutation accumulation and to constrain adaptive evolution. One source of mutations that can be especially relevant in recent asexuals is activity of transposable elements (TEs), which may have experienced selection for high transposition rates in sexual ancestor populations. Predictions of genomic divergence under asexual reproduction therefore likely include a large contribution of transposable elements but limited adaptive divergence. For plants empirical insight into genome divergence under asexual reproduction remains limited. Here, we characterize expression divergence between clone members of a single apomictic lineage of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) to contribute to our knowledge of genome evolution under asexuality. Results: Using RNA-Seq, we show that about one third of heritable divergence within the apomictic lineage is driven by TEs and TE-related gene activity. In addition, we identify non-random transcriptional differences in pathways related to acyl-lipid and abscisic acid metabolisms which might reflect functional divergence within the apomictic lineage. We analyze SNPs in the transcriptome to assess genetic divergence between the apomictic clone members and reveal that heritable expression differences between the accessions are not explained simply by genome-wide genetic divergence. Conclusion: The present study depicts a first effort towards a more complete understanding of apomictic plant genome evolution. We identify abundant TE activity and ecologically relevant functional genes and pathways affecting heritable within-lineage expression divergence. These findings offer valuable resources for future work looking at epigenetic silencing and Cis-regulation of gene expression with particular emphasis on the effects of TE activity on asexual species' genome.
Analysis of non-TIR NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata Colla: Isolation, RFLP marker development, and physical mapping
Miller, R.N. ; Bertioli, D. ; Baurens, F.C. ; Santos, C.R. ; Alves, P.C.M. ; Martins, N.F. ; Togawa, R. ; Souza, M.T. ; Pappas, G. - \ 2008
BMC Plant Biology 8 (2008). - ISSN 1471-2229 - 15 p.
nucleotide-binding site - downy mildew resistance - plant-disease - phylogenetic analysis - sequence-analysis - atp-binding - proteins - arabidopsis - genome - banana
Background. Many commercial banana varieties lack sources of resistance to pests and diseases, as a consequence of sterility and narrow genetic background. Fertile wild relatives, by contrast, possess greater variability and represent potential sources of disease resistance genes (R-genes). The largest known family of plant R-genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for isolation of candidate genes in banana which may be involved in plant defence. Results. A computational strategy was developed for unbiased conserved motif discovery in NBS and LRR domains in R-genes and homologues in monocotyledonous plant species. Degenerate PCR primers targeting conserved motifs were tested on the wild cultivar Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, which is resistant to a number of fungal pathogens and nematodes. One hundred and seventy four resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were amplified and assembled into 52 contiguous sequences. Motifs present were typical of the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGA subfamily. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences for 33 RGAs with contiguous open reading frames (ORFs), together with RGAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, grouped most Musa RGAs within monocotyledon-specific clades. RFLP-RGA markers were developed, with 12 displaying distinct polymorphisms in parentals and F1 progeny of a diploid M. acuminata mapping population. Eighty eight BAC clones were identified in M. acuminata Calcutta 4, M. acuminata Grande Naine, and M. balbisiana Pisang Klutuk Wulung BAC libraries when hybridized to two RGA probes. Multiple copy RGAs were common within BAC clones, potentially representing variation reservoirs for evolution of new R-gene specificities. Conclusion. This is the first large scale analysis of NBS-LRR RGAs in M. acuminata Calcutta 4. Contig sequences were deposited in GenBank and assigned numbers ER935972 ¿ ER936023. RGA sequences and isolated BACs are a valuable resource for R-gene discovery, and in future applications will provide insight into the organization and evolution of NBS-LRR R-genes in the Musa A and B genome. The developed RFLP-RGA markers are applicable for genetic map development and marker assisted selection for defined traits such as pest and disease resistance
Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species
Piffanelli, P. ; Ciampi, A.Y. ; Silva, F.R. ; Santos, C.R. ; Dhont, A. ; Vilarinhos, A. ; Pappas, G. ; Souza, M.T. ; Milller, R.N.G. - \ 2008
BMC Genomics 9 (2008). - ISSN 1471-2164 - p. 1 - 20.
comparative sequence-analysis - genetic-recombination map - splice-site prediction - nuclear-dna content - arabidopsis-thaliana - flowering plants - gibberellin 20-oxidase - molecular evidence - duplicate genes - acuminata colla
Musa species (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) including bananas and plantains are collectively the fourth most important crop in developing countries. Knowledge concerning Musa genome structure and the origin of distinct cultivars has greatly increased over the last few years. Until now, however, no large-scale analyses of Musa genomic sequence have been conducted. This study compares genomic sequence in two Musa species with orthologous regions in the rice genome. We produced 1.4 Mb of Musa sequence from 13 BAC clones, annotated and analyzed them along with 4 previously sequenced BACs. The 443 predicted genes revealed that Zingiberales genes share GC content and distribution characteristics with eudicot and Poaceae genomes. Comparison with rice revealed microsynteny regions that have persisted since the divergence of the Commelinid orders Poales and Zingiberales at least 117 Mya. The previously hypothesized large-scale duplication event in the common ancestor of major cereal lineages within the Poaceae was verified. The divergence time distributions for Musa-Zingiber (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) orthologs and paralogs provide strong evidence for a large-scale duplication event in the Musa lineage after its divergence from the Zingiberaceae approximately 61 Mya. Comparisons of genomic regions from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana revealed highly conserved genome structure, and indicated that these genomes diverged circa 4.6 Mya. These results point to the utility of comparative analyses between distantly-related monocot species such as rice and Musa for improving our understanding of monocot genome evolution. Sequencing the genome of M. acuminata would provide a strong foundation for comparative genomics in the monocots. In addition a genome sequence would aid genomic and genetic analyses of cultivated Musa polyploid genotypes in research aimed at localizing and cloning genes controlling important agronomic traits for breeding purposes
|Information systems for production management in the food processing industry.
Trienekens, J.H. ; Trienekens, J.J.M. - \ 1993
In: Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Advances in production management systems-APMS '93, I.A. Pappas, I.P. Tatsiopoulos (eds.). Athens, Greece - p. 449 - 457.