Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Factors related to free-range use in commercial laying hens
Bestman, Monique ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Niekerk, Thea van; Leenstra, Ferry ; Reuvekamp, Berry ; Amsler-Kepalaite, Zivile ; Maurer, Veronika - \ 2019
Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2019). - ISSN 0168-1591
Free-range - Laying hens - Organic - Range use

Free-range use is expected to contribute to the welfare of laying hens, and more so if a high proportion of the hens in a flock uses the range. In the Netherlands and Switzerland, data were collected about free-range use, genotype, rearing conditions, housing system, management, performance, health, welfare and behaviour in 169 free-range and organic layer flocks by farm visits at an age between 45 and 66 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify which factors are related to free-range use. We analysed the % of hens seen outside when conditions for ranging were optimal (% Hens Out). Based on literature and expert knowledge, 26 potential correlating factors were subjected to preselection. Pearson correlation, independent samples t-tests and one-way ANOVA's were performed to investigate correlation between the factors and % Hens Out one by one. Twelve factors appeared to be related significantly to % Hens Out and these were entered in a linear regression model: country, production system, genotype, flock size, stocking density, presence of roosters, feather damage, keel bone damage, health at 60 weeks, outside access during rearing, type of ventilation, and amount of daylight in the house. The final model for the total sample explained 47% of the variation in % Hens Out and contained 5 variables. A higher % Hens Out was associated with brown genotype, smaller flock size, roosters in the flock, better feather cover and natural ventilation. Further analyses were done with subsets of the database for either free-range or organic flocks in either the Netherlands or Switzerland. No factors could be found that explained % Hens Out in Dutch free-range flocks. A better feather score and higher amount of daylight explained 44% of the variation in % Hens Out in Dutch organic flocks. Roosters and rearing on the laying farm explained 41% of the variation in % Hens Out in Swiss free-range flocks. Les fearfulness and brown genotypes or more than one genotype per flock explained 33% of the variation in % Hens Out in Swiss organic flocks. The results may contribute to improving range use by laying hens.

Simulation and reconstruction of metabolite-metabolite association networks using a metabolic dynamic model and correlation based-algorithms
Jahagirdar, Sanjeevan ; Suarez-diez, Maria ; Saccenti, Edoardo - \ 2019
Journal of Proteome Research 18 (2019)3. - ISSN 1535-3893 - p. 1099 - 1113.
Biological networks play a paramount role in our understanding of complex biological phenomena, and metabolite–metabolite association networks are now commonly used in metabolomics applications. In this study we evaluate the performance of several network inference algorithms (PCLRC, MRNET, GENIE3, TIGRESS, and modifications of the MRNET algorithm, together with standard Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation) using as a test case data generated using a dynamic metabolic model describing the metabolism of arachidonic acid (consisting of 83 metabolites and 131 reactions) and simulation individual metabolic profiles of 550 subjects. The quality of the reconstructed metabolite–metabolite association networks was assessed against the original metabolic network taking into account different degrees of association among the metabolites and different sample sizes and noise levels. We found that inference algorithms based on resampling and bootstrapping perform better when correlations are used as indexes to measure the strength of metabolite–metabolite associations. We also advocate for the use of data generated using dynamic models to test the performance of algorithms for network inference since they produce correlation patterns that are more similar to those observed in real metabolomics data.
Smartphone Apps Using Photoplethysmography for Heart Rate Monitoring: Meta-Analysis
Ridder, Benjamin De; Rompaey, Bart Van; Kampen, Jarl K. ; Haine, Steven ; Dilles, Tinne - \ 2018
JMIR Cardio 2 (2018)1.
Background: Smartphone ownership is rising at a stunning rate. Moreover, smartphones prove to be suitable for use in health care due to their availability, portability, user-friendliness, relatively low price, wireless connectivity, far-reaching computing capabilities, and comprehensive memory. To measure vital signs, smartphones are often connected to a mobile sensor or a medical device. However, by using the white light-emitting diode as light source and the phone camera as photodetector, a smartphone could be used to perform photoplethysmography (PPG), enabling the assessment of vital signs. Objective: The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the available evidence on the use of smartphone apps to measure heart rate by performing PPG in comparison with a validated method. Methods: PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant studies published between January 1, 2009 and December 7, 2016. The reference lists of included studies were hand-searched to find additional eligible studies. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Diagnostic Test Study checklist and some extra items were used for quality assessment. A fixed effects model of the mean difference and a random effects model of Pearson correlation coefficient were applied to pool the outcomes of the studies. Results: In total, 14 studies were included. The pooled result showed no significant difference between heart rate measurements with a smartphone and a validated method (mean difference −0.32; 99% CI −1.24 to 0.60; P=.37). In adults, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the relation between heart rate measurement with a smartphone and a validated method was always ≥.90. In children, the results varied depending on measuring point and heart rate. The pooled result showed a strong correlation that was significant (correlation coefficient .951; 95% CI 0.906-0.975; P<.001). The reported limits of agreement showed good agreement between a smartphone and a validated method. There was a moderately strong significant negative correlation between the year of publication of the included studies and the mean difference (r=−.69; P<.001). Conclusions: Smartphone apps measuring heart rate by performing PPG appear to agree with a validated method in an adult population during resting sinus rhythm. In a pediatric population, the use of these apps is currently not validated.
High-Resolution Simulation Study Exploring the Potential of Radars, Crowdsourced Personal Weather Stations, and Commercial Microwave Links to Monitor Small-Scale Urban Rainfall
Vos, L.W. de; Raupach, T.H. ; Leijnse, H. ; Overeem, A. ; Berne, A. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2018
Water Resources Research (2018). - ISSN 0043-1397
microwave link - opportunistic sensing - personal weather station - simulation - small-scale - urban rainfall

Many applications in urban areas require high-resolution rainfall measurements. Typical operational weather radars can provide rainfall intensities at 1-km2 grid cells every 5 min. Opportunistic sensing with commercial microwave links yields path-averaged rainfall intensities (typically 0.1–10 km) within urban areas. Additionally, large amounts of urban in situ rainfall measurements from amateur weather observers are obtainable in real-time. The accuracy of these three techniques is evaluated for an urban study area of 20 × 20 km, taking into account their respective network layouts and sampling characteristics. We use two simulated rainfall events described in terms of drop size distributions on a 100-m grid and with a temporal resolution of 30 s. Accurate radar rainfall estimation with the Z-R relationship relies heavily on an appropriate choice of parameters, and a dual-polarization strategy is more suitable for higher intensities. Under ideal measurement conditions, the weather station network is the most promising, with a Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.86 and a relative bias below 4% for 100-m rainfall estimates at 5-min resolution. Microwave link rainfall observations contain the largest error, shown by a consistently larger coefficient of variation. The accuracy of all techniques improves when considering rainfall at larger scales, especially by increasing time intervals, with the strongest improvements found for microwave links for which errors are largely caused by their temporal sampling. Sparser networks are examined, showing that the decline in measurement accuracy only becomes significant when the link and station network density are reduced to less than half their levels in Amsterdam.

Carbon storage potential in degraded forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia
Ferraz, António ; Saatchi, Sassan ; Xu, Liang ; Hagen, Stephen ; Chave, Jerome ; Yu, Yifan ; Meyer, Victoria ; Garcia, Mariano ; Silva, Carlos ; Roswintiart, Orbita ; Samboko, Ari ; Sist, Plinio ; Walker, Sarah ; Pearson, Timothy R.H. ; Wijaya, Arief ; Sullivan, Franklin B. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Hoekman, Dirk ; Ganguly, Sangram - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
aboveground biomass mapping - airborne lidar - carbon - forest degradation - Indonesia - Kalimantan - peat swamp forests

The forests of Kalimantan are under severe pressure from extensive land use activities dominated by logging, palm oil plantations, and peatland fires. To implement the forest moratorium for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia's government requires information on the carbon stored in forests, including intact, degraded, secondary, and peat swamp forests. We developed a hybrid approach of producing a wall-to-wall map of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of intact and degraded forests of Kalimantan at 1 ha grid cells by combining field inventory plots, airborne lidar samples, and satellite radar and optical imagery. More than 110 000 ha of lidar data were acquired to systematically capture variations of forest structure and more than 104 field plots to develop lidar-biomass models. The lidar measurements were converted into biomass using models developed for 66 439 ha of drylands and 44 250 ha of wetland forests. By combining the AGB map with the national land cover map, we found that 22.3 Mha (106 ha) of forest remain on drylands ranging in biomass from 357.2 ±12.3 Mgha-1 in relatively intact forests to 134.2 ±6.1 Mgha-1 in severely degraded forests. The remaining peat swamp forests are heterogeneous in coverage and degradation level, extending over 3.62 Mha and having an average AGB of 211.8 ±12.7 Mgha-1. Emission factors calculated from aboveground biomass only suggest that the carbon storage potential of more than 15 Mha of degraded and secondary dryland forests will be about 1.1 PgC.

Association between Preoperative Vitamin D Status and Short-Term Physical Performance after Total Hip Arthroplasty : A Prospective Study
Visser, Edith ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Oosting, Ellen ; Endenburg, Silvia C. ; Dronkers, Jaap J. - \ 2018
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 73 (2018)3. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 252 - 260.

Background: Insufficient serum vitamin D concentrations (50-75 nmol/L) are prevalent in 40-65% of patients who require total hip arthroplasty (THA). This could impair physical recovery after surgery. This study investigated the association between preoperative vitamin D status and physical performance after THA. Additionally, postoperative changes in vitamin D concentrations were measured. Methods: We included 87 patients scheduled for elective THA and aged ≥65 years. Three groups were recruited: patients classified as vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L, n = 23), insufficient (50-75 nmol/L, n = 32), or sufficient (> 75 nmol/L, n = 32). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) concentration and physical performance were measured perioperatively. Linear mixed models were used to examine differences between groups. Results: Change in physical performance over time was not affected by preoperative vitamin D status. In contrast, for physical activity, both vitamin D (p = 0.021) and time (p < 0.001) effect was seen: from 80.2 ± 25.8 to 58.1 ± 17.8 min/day in the deficient group, 143.7 ± 19.8 to 92.9 ± 11.5 min/day in the insufficient group, and 108.1 ± 20.9 to 62.3 ± 12.9 min/day in the sufficient group. The Chair Stand Test, Timed Up and Go test, and 10-Meter Walking Test also improved significantly over time, but independent of vitamin D status. An increase in 25(OH)D3 concentration 6 weeks postoperatively was correlated with improved hip function (Pearson's r = -0.471, p = 0.018). Overall, serum 25(OH)D3 declined with 32% one day after surgery (p < 0.001), to nearly return to baseline values 6 weeks later in all groups. Conclusion: Vitamin D status did not appear to affect physical recovery after THA. The drop in vitamin D after surgery deserves further investigation, but could possibly be explained by hemodilution.

A methodology to derive global maps of leaf traits using remote sensing and climate data
Moreno-Martínez, Álvaro ; Camps-Valls, Gustau ; Kattge, Jens ; Robinson, Nathaniel ; Reichstein, Markus ; Bodegom, Peter van; Kramer, Koen ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Reich, Peter ; Bahn, Michael ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Craine, Joseph M. ; Cerabolini, Bruno E.L. ; Minden, Vanessa ; Laughlin, Daniel C. ; Sack, Lawren ; Allred, Brady ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Byun, Chaeho ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Running, Steve W. - \ 2018
Remote Sensing of Environment 218 (2018). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 69 - 88.
Climate - Landsat - Machine learning - MODIS - Plant ecology - Plant traits - Random forests - Remote sensing

This paper introduces a modular processing chain to derive global high-resolution maps of leaf traits. In particular, we present global maps at 500 m resolution of specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content per dry mass, and leaf nitrogen/phosphorus ratio. The processing chain exploits machine learning techniques along with optical remote sensing data (MODIS/Landsat) and climate data for gap filling and up-scaling of in-situ measured leaf traits. The chain first uses random forests regression with surrogates to fill gaps in the database (> 45% of missing entries) and maximizes the global representativeness of the trait dataset. Plant species are then aggregated to Plant Functional Types (PFTs). Next, the spatial abundance of PFTs at MODIS resolution (500 m) is calculated using Landsat data (30 m). Based on these PFT abundances, representative trait values are calculated for MODIS pixels with nearby trait data. Finally, different regression algorithms are applied to globally predict trait estimates from these MODIS pixels using remote sensing and climate data. The methods were compared in terms of precision, robustness and efficiency. The best model (random forests regression) shows good precision (normalized RMSE≤ 20%) and goodness of fit (averaged Pearson's correlation R = 0.78) in any considered trait. Along with the estimated global maps of leaf traits, we provide associated uncertainty estimates derived from the regression models. The process chain is modular, and can easily accommodate new traits, data streams (traits databases and remote sensing data), and methods. The machine learning techniques applied allow attribution of information gain to data input and thus provide the opportunity to understand trait-environment relationships at the plant and ecosystem scales. The new data products – the gap-filled trait matrix, a global map of PFT abundance per MODIS gridcells and the high-resolution global leaf trait maps – are complementary to existing large-scale observations of the land surface and we therefore anticipate substantial contributions to advances in quantifying, understanding and prediction of the Earth system.

Monitoring Forest Phenology and Leaf Area Index with the Autonomous, Low-Cost Transmittance Sensor PASTiS-57
Brede, Benjamin ; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe ; Lauret, Nicolas ; Baret, Frederic ; Clevers, Jan ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Herold, Martin - \ 2018
Remote Sensing 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2072-4292 - 19 p.
Land Surface Phenology (LSP) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) are important variables that describe the photosynthetically active phase and capacity of vegetation. Both are derived on the global scale from optical satellite sensors and require robust validation based on in situ sensors at high temporal resolution. This study assesses the PAI Autonomous System from Transmittance Sensors at 57° (PASTiS-57) instrument as a low-cost transmittance sensor for simultaneous monitoring of LSP and LAI in forest ecosystems. In a field experiment, spring leaf flush and autumn senescence in a Dutch beech forest were observed with PASTiS-57 and illumination independent, multi-temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) measurements in five plots. Both time series agreed to less than a day in Start Of Season (SOS) and End Of Season (EOS). LAI magnitude was strongly correlated with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98. PASTiS-57 summer and winter LAI were on average 0.41 m2m−2 and 1.43 m2m−2 lower than TLS. This can be explained by previously reported overestimation of TLS. Additionally, PASTiS-57 was implemented in the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) model for sensitivity analysis. This confirmed the robustness of the retrieval with respect to non-structural canopy properties and illumination conditions. Generally, PASTiS-57 fulfilled the CEOS LPV requirement of 20% accuracy in LAI for a wide range of biochemical and illumination conditions for turbid medium canopies. However, canopy non-randomness in discrete tree models led to strong biases. Overall, PASTiS-57 demonstrated the potential of autonomous devices for monitoring of phenology and LAI at daily temporal resolution as required for validation of satellite products that can be derived from ESA Copernicus’ optical missions, Sentinel-2 and -3.
Breast-feeding duration and child eating characteristics in relation to later vegetable intake in 2–6-year-old children in ten studies throughout Europe
Wild, Victoire W.T. de; Jager, Gerry ; Olsen, Annemarie ; Costarelli, Vassiliki ; Boer, Eric ; Zeinstra, Gertrude G. - \ 2018
Public Health Nutrition 21 (2018)12. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2320 - 2328.
Actual vegetable consumption - Breast-feeding duration - Child (eating) characteristics - EU programme HabEat - Real-life data
Objective: Breast-feeding is thought to facilitate young children’s acceptance of new foods, including vegetables, but the evidence for this relationship appears inconsistent across studies. Increasing children’s vegetable intake remains challenging; therefore the present study aimed to investigate whether breast-feeding duration predicts vegetable intake in 2–6-year-old children. Design: Actual vegetable intake was measured in studies across three European countries. General linear model analyses with breast-feeding duration, sex and age of the child and maternal education as variables were used to predict children’s vegetable intake per country. Additionally, the relationships between child eating behaviour characteristics (asked through the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire) and vegetable intake were investigated via Pearson correlations. Setting: Daycare centres, schools and home settings in Denmark, Greece and the Netherlands. Subjects: Children aged 2–6 years (n 750). Results: Breast-feeding duration was positively associated with children’s vegetable intake at 2–6 years old in Denmark (P<0·01) and the Netherlands (P<0·05), but not in Greece (P=0·17). Age of the child, maternal education and sex of the child did not predict vegetable intake in our sample. All countries showed an inverse relationship between food neophobia and children’s vegetable intake and a positive relationship between vegetable liking and intake. Conclusions: The present study found that breast-feeding duration is a predictor of later vegetable intake, but that current child eating behaviour characteristics, such as vegetable liking, food neophobia and enjoyment of food, also influence vegetable intake. Besides encouragement of breast-feeding duration, strategies that support vegetable liking and food enjoyment and decrease food neophobia are needed to support young children’s vegetable intake.
Mapping rootable depth and root zone plant-available water holding capacity of the soil of sub-Saharan Africa
Leenaars, Johan G.B. ; Claessens, Lieven ; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M. ; Hengl, Tom ; Ruiperez González, Maria ; Bussel, Lenny G.J. van; Guilpart, Nicolas ; Yang, Haishun ; Cassman, Kenneth G. - \ 2018
Geoderma 324 (2018). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 18 - 36.
Digital soil map - Maize - Root zone depth - Rootability - Soil data - Soil water - Sub-Saharan Africa
In rainfed crop production, root zone plant-available water holding capacity (RZ-PAWHC) of the soil has a large influence on crop growth and the yield response to management inputs such as improved seeds and fertilisers. However, data are lacking for this parameter in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study produced the first spatially explicit, coherent and complete maps of the rootable depth and RZ-PAWHC of soil in SSA. We compiled geo-referenced data from 28,000 soil profiles from SSA, which were used as input for digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques to produce soil property maps of SSA. Based on these soil properties, we developed and parameterised (pedotransfer) functions, rules and criteria to evaluate soil water retention at field capacity and wilting point, the soil fine earth fraction from coarse fragments content and, for maize, the soil rootability (relative to threshold values) and rootable depth. Maps of these secondary soil properties were derived using the primary soil property maps as input for the evaluation rules and the results were aggregated over the rootable depth to obtain a map of RZ-PAWHC, with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The mean RZ-PAWHC for SSA is 74 mm and the associated average root zone depth is 96 cm. Pearson correlation between the two is 0.95. RZ-PAWHC proves most limited by the rootable depth but is also highly sensitive to the definition of field capacity. The total soil volume of SSA potentially rootable by maize is reduced by one third (over 10,500 km3) due to soil conditions restricting root zone depth. Of these, 4800 km3 are due to limited depth of aeration, which is the factor most severely limiting in terms of extent (km2), and 2500 km3 due to sodicity which is most severely limiting in terms of degree (depth in cm). Depth of soil to bedrock reduces the rootable soil volume by 2500 km3, aluminium toxicity by 600 km3, porosity by 120 km3 and alkalinity by 20 km3. The accuracy of the map of rootable depth and thus of RZ-PAWHC could not be validated quantitatively due to absent data on rootability and rootable depth but is limited by the accuracy of the primary soil property maps. The methodological framework is robust and has been operationalised such that the maps can easily be updated as additional data become available.
Diet quality in childhood : the Generation R Study
Velde, Laura A. van der; Nguyen, Anh N. ; Schoufour, Josje D. ; Geelen, Anouk ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Franco, Oscar H. ; Voortman, Trudy - \ 2018
European Journal of Nutrition (2018). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 11.
Determinants - Diet quality - Dietary patterns - Epidemiology - Tracking - Validation
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based cohort, we assessed dietary intake using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a median age of 8.1 years (interquartile range 8.0–8.2) (2011–2014). Based on dietary guidelines, we developed and validated a food-based diet quality score for children consisting of ten components (score 0–10): sufficient intake of vegetables; fruit; whole grains; fish; legumes; nuts; dairy; oils and soft fats; and low intake of sugar-containing-beverages; and high-fat and processed meat. Results: We observed a mean (± SD) diet quality score of 4.5 (± 1.2) out of a maximum of 10. On average, intake of legumes, nuts, and oils or soft fats was below recommendations, whereas intake of sugar-containing beverages and high-fat or processed meat was higher than recommended. The main factors associated with higher diet quality were higher maternal educational level (β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.21, 0.37 versus low education), higher household income (β = 0.15, 95% CI 0.05, 0.25 versus low income), no maternal smoking (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02, 0.25 versus current smoking), and less screen time (β = 0.31, 95% CI 0.24, 0.38)—all independent of each other. For children with available dietary data at age 1 year (n = 2608), we observed only weak tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood (Pearson’s r = 0.19, k = 0.11 for extreme quartiles). Conclusion: Overall diet quality of 8-year-old children did not conform to dietary guidelines, especially for children having more screen time, children of lower educated or smoking mothers, or from lower-income households.
Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors
Hartman, Yvonne A.W. ; Hopman, Maria T.E. ; Schreuder, Tim H. ; Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M. ; Scholten, Ralph R. ; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H. ; Poelkens, Fleur ; Maiorana, Andrew J. ; Naylor, Louise H. ; Willems, Peter H. ; Tack, Cees J. ; Thijssen, Dick H.J. ; Green, Daniel J. - \ 2018
Physiological Reports 6 (2018)4. - ISSN 2051-817X
Cardiovascular diseases - exercise training - physical fitness - risk factors
The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of subjects with increased cardiovascular risk (n = 166) who underwent 8–52 weeks endurance training. We determined fitness (i.e., peak oxygen uptake) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), before and after training. We divided subjects into quartiles based on improvement in fitness, and examined whether these groups differed in terms of risk factors. Associations between changes in fitness and in cardiovascular risk factors were further tested using Pearson correlations. Significant heterogeneity was apparent in the improvement of fitness and individual risk factors, with nonresponder rates of 17% for fitness, 44% for body mass index, 33% for mean arterial pressure, 49% for total cholesterol, and 49% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Neither the number, nor the magnitude, of change in cardiovascular risk factors differed significantly between quartiles of fitness change. Changes in fitness were not correlated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors (all P > 0.05). Our data suggest that significant heterogeneity exists in changes in peak oxygen uptake after training, while improvement in fitness did not relate to improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In subjects with increased cardiovascular risk, improvements in fitness are not obligatory for training-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors.
Arts-based methods for transformative engagement : A toolkit
Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Bäckman, Malin ; Grenni, Sara ; Moriggi, Angela ; Pisters, Siri ; Vrieze, Anke de - \ 2018
Wageningen : SUSPLACE - ISBN 9789463432641 - 91
Benchmarking the environmental performance of specialized milk production systems
Mu, W. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M. ; Engel, Bastiaan ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2017
Ecological Indicators 72 (2017). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 91 - 98.
Dairy production across the world contributes to environmental impacts such as eutrophication, acidi-fication, loss of biodiversity, and use of resources, such as land, fossil energy and water. Benchmarkingthe environmental performance of farms can help to reduce these environmental impacts and improveresource use efficiency. Indicators to quantify and benchmark environmental performances are generallyderived from a nutrient balance (NB) or a life cycle assessment (LCA). An NB is relatively easy to quantify,whereas an LCA provides more detailed insight into the type of losses and associated environmentalimpacts. In this study, we explored correlations between NB and LCA indicators, in order to identify aneffective set of indicators that can be used as a proxy for benchmarking the environmental performanceof dairy farms. We selected 55 specialised dairy farms from western European countries and determinedtheir environmental performance based on eight commonly used NB and LCA indicators from cradle-to-farm gate. Indicators included N surplus, P surplus, land use, fossil energy use, global warming potential(GWP), acidification potential (AP), freshwater eutrophication potential (FEP) and marine eutrophicationpotential (MEP) for 2010. All indicators are expressed per kg of fat-and-protein-corrected milk. Pear-son and Spearman Rho’s correlation analyses were performed to determine the correlations betweenthe indicators. Subsequently, multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses were performed toselect the set of indicators to be used as a proxy. Results show that the set of selected indicator, includingN surplus, P surplus, energy use and land use, is strongly correlated with the eliminated set of indicators,including FEP (r = 0.95), MEP (r = 0.91), GWP (r = 0. 83) and AP (r = 0.79). The canonical correlation betweenthe two sets is high as well (r = 0.97). Therefore, N surplus, P surplus, energy use and land use can be usedas a proxy to benchmark the environmental performance of dairy farms, also representing GWP, AP,FEP and MEP. The set of selected indicators can be monitored and collected in a time and cost-effectiveway, and can be interpreted easily by decision makers. Other important environmental impacts, such asbiodiversity and water use, however, should not be overlooked.
SUSPLACE : Transformations 2017
Pearson, Kelli - \ 2017
Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Patients with End-Stage Cystic Fibrosis Stabilize After the Start of Enteral Tube Feeding
Hollander, Francis M. ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Belle-Van Meerkerk, Gerdien ; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand ; Heijerman, Harry G.M. ; Graaf, Ed A. van de - \ 2017
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 117 (2017)11. - ISSN 2212-2672 - p. 1808 - 1815.
Body mass index - Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes - End-stage lung disease - Enteral tube feeding - Pulmonary function
Background: Enteral tube feeding (ETF) is widely used in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and end-stage lung disease, but previous studies have been limited to investigating whether ETF improves outcomes in patients with moderately or mildly impaired pulmonary function. Objective: This study investigated body weight, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2), pulmonary function, and the presence of CF-related diabetes before and after the start of ETF. Design: This was a retrospective observational study. Participants/setting: Data from 26 adult patients in an outpatient setting who had end-stage CF (19 women) and had been using ETF for at least 6 months between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed. Main outcome measures: Body weight, BMI, pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percent of predicted) and incidence of CF-related diabetes from 6 months before to 6 months after starting ETF. Statistical analyses performed: Time effects were tested with one-way analysis of variance for data that were normally distributed and the Friedman test for non-parametric data. Correlations were tested with Pearson's r or Spearman's ρ, depending on the distribution of the data. Results: Mean body weight increased by 3.5 kg (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8 kg) after patients started ETF. In women, mean BMI decreased by 0.7 in the 6 months before the start of ETF (P<0.05) and increased by 1.4 in the 6 months thereafter (P<0.05). In men, BMI changes were similar (-0.8 and +1.1), but not statistically significant. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percent of predicted significantly decreased in time from a median of 28% to 26% at the start of ETF to 25% after 6 months (P=0.0013), with similar trends in women and men. There was no correlation between changes in weight and lung function. CF-related diabetes was already present in 12 patients and developed in 1 more patient after the start of ETF. Conclusions: ETF improved body weight and BMI but not pulmonary function in 26 patients with end-stage CF. Clinical outcomes were similar in women and men, but the sample size of men was too small to determine statistical significance.
Phenolab: ultra-wide band tracking shows feather pecking hens spent less time in close proximity compared to controls
Haas, E.N. de; Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Mil, B. van; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 51st Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 7-10 August 2017, Aarhus, Denmark. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863112 - p. 176 - 176.
animal welfare - animal behaviour

Hens which feather peck can cause multiple victims in a group. As a result pen-mates could keep a greater distance from feather peckers. Our aim was to relate time spent in close proximity between birds selected divergently on feather pecking. Automatic ultra-wide band location data was obtained by using an active sending tag (UbisenseR) placed in a backpack on the birds. A group of birds was then placed for 15 minutes in a barren test-room equipped with four receiving beacons. We used 37-week old White Leghorn laying hen lines selected for high (HFP) or low feather pecking (LFP), and an unselected control (CON) line (n=76 in total, 5-7 hens per pen; 4 pens per line). Hens were habituated to the backpacks four weeks prior to observations, and were tested for 5-min to the test-room individually one week prior to group testing. Sample rate of tags was set to twice per second, detecting location of each tag separately and simultaneously. Location data was provided by TrackLab software (Noldus, Wageningen, The Netherlands) and compared between tags by Excel calculations. Percentage of time in close proximity was defined as being less than 25 cm apart from another tag, calculated for each bird and averaged per group. Behavioural sampling of feather pecking of 2×20 min at 28-29 wks of age was included on pen-level and used for identification of peckers (>2 bouts/20 min). Percentage of time in close proximity was correlated to feather pecking (pearson correlation), tested to differ between peckers and average of the group (t-test of groups with peckers) and tested to differ between lines (ANOVA including the number of animals per pen as covariate). Feather pecking on pen-level was not correlated to proximity measures (r=-0.28, P>0.10), but birds spent less time in close proximity of the feather pecker as opposed to time spent on average with other pen-mates (17.6・}1% vs 21.6・}1.2, t16=-1.18, P=0.04).

Application and recalibration of soil water retention pedotransfer functions in a tropical upstream catchment : Case study in Bengawan Solo, Indonesia
Rustanto, Andry ; Booij, Martijn J. ; Wösten, Henk ; Hoekstra, Arjen Y. - \ 2017
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics 65 (2017)3. - ISSN 0042-790X - p. 307 - 320.
Java Island - Pedotransfer function recalibration - Soil-water retention - Tropical upstream catchment
Hydrological models often require input data on soil-water retention (SWR), but obtaining such data is laborious and costly so that SWR in many places remains unknown. To fill the gap, a prediction of SWR using a pedotransfer function (PTF) is one of the alternatives. This study aims to select the most suitable existing PTFs in order to predict SWR for the case of the upper Bengawan Solo (UBS) catchment on Java, Indonesia. Ten point PTFs and two continuous PTFs, which were developed from tropical soils elsewhere, have been applied directly and recalibrated based on a small soil sample set in UBS. Scatter plots and statistical indices of mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), model efficiency (EF) and Pearson's correlation (r) showed that recalibration using the Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) algorithm can help to improve the prediction of PTFs significantly compared to direct application of PTFs. This study is the first showing that improving SWR-PTFs by recalibration for a new catchment based on around 50 soil samples provides an effective parsimonious alternative to developing a SWR-PTF from specifically collected soil datasets, which typically needs around 100 soil samples or more.
Improving oncology nurses' knowledge about nutrition and physical activity for cancer survivors
Veen, Merel R. van; Hoedjes, Meeke ; Versteegen, Joline J. ; Meulengraaf-Wilhelm, Nienke van de; Kampman, Ellen ; Beijer, Sandra - \ 2017
Oncology Nursing Forum 44 (2017)4. - ISSN 0190-535X - p. 488 - 496.
Healthpromotion behavior - Nutrition - Patient education - Physical activity

Purpose/Objectives: To assess what percentage of oncology nurses perceived themselves as having insuffcient knowledge to provide advice on nutrition and/or physical activity (PA), which characteristics were associated with nurses' perception, and whether the content and information sources differed among those nurses. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: A web-based survey among oncology nurses in the Netherlands. Sample: 355 oncology nurses provided advice on nutrition; of these, 327 provided advice on PA. Methods: From May to July 2013, oncology nurses were invited to complete an online questionnaire. Pearson's chi-squared tests and uni-and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Main Research Variables: Oncology nurses' perception of having suffcient or insuffcient knowledge to be able to provide advice on nutrition and PA, the content of the advice, and the information sources on which the advice was based. Findings: 43% of oncology nurses perceived themselves as having insuffcient knowledge to provide advice on nutrition, and 46% perceived insuffcient knowledge to provide advice on PA. Factors associated with perceiving insuffcient knowledge on nutrition were being aged younger, having lower education, and providing counseling during treatment only. Those nurses were more likely to suggest taking oral nutritional supplements or visiting a dietitian and were less likely to provide information on fluid intake. Nurses perceiving insuffcient knowledge about PA used oncology guidelines less often. Conclusions: Almost half of the oncology nurses providing advice on nutrition and PA perceived themselves as having insuffcient knowledge to be able to provide such advice. In particular, younger oncology nurses and oncology nurses with an intermediate vocational education may beneft most from education about these topics. Implications for Nursing: Educational training for oncology nurses should include nutrition and PA. Oncology nurses should collaborate with dietitians to discuss what information should be provided to patients by whom, and specifc PA advice should be provided by a physical therapist.

Networked health sector governance and state-building legitimacy in conflict-affected fragile states : the variable impact of non-state provision of public health services in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
Aembe, Bwimana - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): D. Dijkzeul; Murhega Mashanda Job. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431606 - 231
governance - health - congo democratic republic - central government - local area networks - non-governmental organizations - conflict - gezondheid - democratische republiek kongo - rijksoverheid - lokale netwerken - niet-gouvernementele organisaties

State fragility in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has impacted the state’s ability to provide public services, as well as and the population’s experiences and perceptions of the state. For public health and for social welfare more broadly, the contributions of the state are weak and contingent on the involvement of non-state service providers (NSPs). The population has become dependent on non-state actors for the provision of basic social services, and NSPs are especially important in public health, where their engagement accounts for the survival of the sector. The state and NSPs interact through networked governance, where relevant actors are involved in a network through resource interdependency, cooperation, collaboration and even competition to achieve social goals (Klijn, 2004). Networked governance processes in the DRC public health sector take place at three structural levels: national, provincial and operational. Networked governance serves as an institutionalised public model for health sector management through these three levels.

A great deal of previous work has studied the link between legitimacy and state service delivery, but there has been little investigation of the link between basic service provision by NSPs and state legitimacy in fragile states. This study explored how the networked governance of the health sector contributes to state-building processes and to state legitimacy in the DRC, also examining how the image of the state is shaped by NSP service provision. The study focused on state-building outcomes related to effective public health governance, the strengthening of system management and health service provision through state–non-state interactions. The study also explored state legitimacy and the population’s experiences and perceptions of the state, in a context where the delivery of public health services is mediated by non-state actors.

The research was guided by the following key question:

How does the networked governance of health services, involving state and non-state actors through multi-stakeholder interactions, affect state-building and legitimacy in the fragile setting of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo?

Networked Governance in the Management of the DRC’s Health Sector

Non-state stakeholders have been actively involved in the delivery of basic public services throughout the history of the DRC (Pearson, 2011; Seay, 2013; Waldman, 2006). Some scholars have argued that strong inputs from NSPs, supported by international funding, gives the DRC’s health sector its ‘current resilient’ outlook (Pearson, 2011: 12; Seay, 2013). Although these inputs have not been homogeneous across provinces or health zones (HZs) within provinces (Pavignani, Michael, Murru, Beesley & Hill, 2013; Pearson, 2011), their aggregate contribution accounts for the persistence of the sector in terms of policy making and enforcement, health system management and service delivery.

NSPs can be categorised as national or international, and as traditional or situational partners. Faith-based organisations (FBOs) are classified as national and as traditional partners of the state. International actors recognised as traditional health policy partners mostly include bilateral and multilateral institutions that have long supported state-building in the DRC. In contrast, most international NGOs are situational partners whose emergence was spurred by state fragility and the humanitarian consequences of wars. In collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MoH), traditional international partners contribute to the process of national policy making and system strengthening. Situational partners are mostly engaged in unintegrated projects and humanitarian interventions focusing on circumstantial situations of social vulnerability. Through their frequent use of different policies and stand-alone projects, these organisations have involuntarily contributed to a decentralised and rather fragmented system. Traditional partners such as FBOs and international donor organisations play a crucial role in the networked governance of the health sector and in public health care delivery.

Networked Governance and State Legitimacy in the DRC’s Fragile Health Sector

The DRC has a long history of state fragility and deficiencies in performing the functions of modern states. NSPs operate like surrogate state service providers, and both the state and NSPs are engaged in the process of health care provision through networked governance.

In this study’s examination of state legitimacy, ‘a state is more legitimate the more it is treated by its citizens as rightfully holding and exercising political power’ (Gilley, 2006). A lack of legitimacy is a major contributor to state fragility, because it undermines state authority (Unsworth, 2010). In most cases, declines in service delivery have been found to reduce the population’s support of the state and its leadership (OECD/DAC, 2008). However, little is known about how this works in fragile settings characterised by institutional multiplicity, so how NSP interventions contribute to state legitimacy was treated as an open question in this study.

Actor-oriented Interactions in the Networked Governance of the DRC’s Health Sector

Networked governance arrangements in the DRC’s health sector have the characteristics of a social arena, which is ‘typical of actor-oriented interactions’ (Hilhorst & Jansen, 2010). As symbolic locations, arenas are neither geographical entities nor organisational systems; rather, they describe the political actions of all of the social actors involved in a specific issue (Kitschelt 1980 in Renn, 1993).

The Multilevel Nature of Health Sector Networked Governance Arenas

Health sector governance in the DRC has a pyramidal organisation involving the central (national), intermediate (provincial) and operational (HZ) levels (Bukonda, Chand, Disashi, Lumbala & Mbiye, 2012).

The central level consists of the national MoH, which is expected to play a strategic role, engaging in policy formulation, elaboration of the mechanisms for public policy implementation, sector funding and high-level interactions with non-state stakeholders (i.e. signing framework agreements or specific agreements). The MoH is responsible for general sector policy and system regulation, national programmes and tertiary hospitals (Waldman, 2006). Although policy making is an exclusive function of the MoH (Zinnen, 2012), donors and other development partners inform and support the process through technical and financial assistance.

The intermediate level concerns the management of the provincial health system and the oversight of the operational (HZ) level. The intermediate level organises and provides technical support to the HZ (World Bank, 2005). At this level, state and non-state actors interact to improve the structural system governance and to manage the provision of health services. Through the Comité Provincial de Pilotage Santé, stakeholders work towards harmonising interventions and establishing the model of engagement at the provincial level. Using HZ evidence-based reports, the Comité Provincial de Pilotage Santé defines provincial-level stakeholder priorities in line with the national health policy.

The HZ is the operational unit that integrates primary health care services and the first-referral level. An HZ covers an average population of 110,000 and consists of a central HZ office, an array of health posts and centres, and a general referral hospital (Carlson, Maw & Mafuta, 2009). Because of the lack of government financing over the last decades, HZs and their constituent facilities have operated with considerable autonomy, although MoH structures have retained administrative control, particularly over human resources (Carlson et al., 2009). Many facilities have become in effect privatised, relying on patient fees to pay staff and operating costs. At the HZ level, networked governance of the local health system takes place through the Bureau Central de Zone de Santé (HZ Management Board). In this arena, interactions take place among representatives of the state, non-state actors (where possible) and community-based organisations—especially the community health development committees (Comité de Développement Sanitaires).

Research Methods

This research is part of the Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium, which focuses on state legitimacy, capacity for state-building and livelihood trajectories in conflict-affected situations (Levine, 2014). This study fell under the first two of these themes, with a focus on the population’s experiences, perceptions and expectations regarding state legitimacy and on building effective states that deliver services and social protection. This study began in 2012, with the empirical research starting in August 2013. The fieldwork lasted 19 months, ending in April 2015.

Most of the research was conducted in the province of South Kivu, with complementary data collection in Kinshasa. A case study design was used, with two multi-stakeholder governance arrangements serving as the cases. The first case was performance-based financing (PBF), which is the transfer of money or material goods from a funder to a contracting recipient, on the condition that the recipient will take a measurable action or achieve a predetermined performance goal. The second case was a community-based health insurance (CBHI) programme—Mutuelle de Santé (MUS). The case study of PBF focused on health system governance because of PBF’s pivotal role in the process of building the health system. The CBHI case study explored MUS outcomes related to equity in access to health services, protection from financial risk and the financing of health services. The CBHI case study was based primarily on observations in a rural area (Katana) and a semi-urban area (Uvira).

Focusing on the multilevel networked governance of the DRC’s health sector, this study drew on institutional ethnography, which examines work processes and studies how they are coordinated, typically through examining various texts and discourses (Smith, 2009). Attention was given to discourses, relationship patterns, writings and multi-stakeholder governance arrangements throughout study period.

Six types of participants were interviewed: public health officials and state actors from MoH offices at national and provincial levels (approximately 30 participants); representatives of donor organisations, international NGOs and national NGOs (16 organisations: three donor organisations, six international organisations and seven national NGOs); health service providers throughout the province (20 medical doctors); individuals involved in the management of CBHI/MUS at multiple levels, especially in Katana and Uvira (approximately 68 participants); CBOs (35 people from Comité de Développement de l’Aire de Santé, CODESA); and community members (beneficiaries, clients and citizens), especially in Katana, Bukavu, Uvira and Idjwi (approximately 1,000 participants). For the last category of respondents, community opinions on health services, the state and NSPs were assessed through interviewees’ personal storytelling, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. To assess the baseline situation in the health sector, a content analysis of the four main official policy papers was also conducted.

Main Research Findings

The findings of this research revolved around three main study concerns: 1) the institutional outlook, functioning and state-building outcomes of networked health governance and international intervention models; 2) the review of the two schemes fostering networked governance through multi-stakeholder governance engagement; and 3) the exploration of the impact of NSP interventions on the population’s perceptions and the legitimacy of the state.

Institutional Functioning and State-building Outcomes of Networked Health Governance and International Intervention Models

Networked health sector governance and state-building outcomes (chapter 2). Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in the DRC. In many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. The findings demonstrate that state–non-state interactions in the DRC’s health sector create a burgeoning form of multilevel networked governance and that these interactions play a role in explaining the persistence of the health sector despite the weakness of the state. It is difficult to assess the real influence of these interactions on state-building in a context of critical fragility, where coordination and alignment are problematic. The findings also indicate that several factors—specifically, the fragmented nature of interventions conducted by the majority of international NGOs, imbalanced power relations during negotiations with development partners and weaknesses in governance—impede the construction of a coherent, resilient and sustainable health system in the DRC. Generally, the findings indicate that networked governance through interactions between the state and non-state providers may contribute to state-building.

State fragility discourse and the challenge of policy coalition-building for interventions programming and stakeholder engagement models (Chapter 3)

State fragility is a discourse without a policy coalition in the DRC’s health sector governance network. The government and donors/international NGOs have not yet harmonised their perceptions of fragility. These key stakeholders have also not reached a common understanding on intervention policy, and there is a clash between opposing institutional logics in the processes of policy making and intervention programming. The contentious nature of the concept of fragile statehood has hampered the construction of a policy coalition for health sector interventions. Donors rationalise the persistence of emergency-based interventions by emphasising fragile statehood, whereas state officials assert political statehood and argue for a paradigm shift towards a higher degree of state control. The lack of consensus around state fragility has influenced perceptions of the state and international NGOs/donors in their engagement with health interventions programming in the DRC. Government officials in the DRC see fragile statehood as a stigmatising concept that contributes to difficulties with getting international NGOs to comply with the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. However, representatives of the state and donor organisations agree that, because public health sector funding is lacking, donors’ financial contributions ensure the sector’s survival.

Multi-stakeholder Health System Arrangements: Strengthening Networked Health Governance and Community Health Coverage

International organisations and donors have supported schemes, such as PBF and CBHI/MUS, which have impacted the networked governance and system-building in the local health sector, as well as improving health care delivery.

PBF and strengthening public health governance (Chapter 4)

This study examined the effectiveness of PBF in three areas of health system governance: structural governance from a capacity-building perspective, health service provision management and demand-side empowerment for effective accountability. In general, the study found that PBF positively impacted the process of health system-building in these three areas. Although much is still lacking, health governance and the provision of services have improved, and patient-centred care and social accountability have strengthened the provider–patient relationship. The research found positive outcomes for incentive-based contracting and output-based financing. However, donors, state officials and other stakeholders doubt the sustainability of these approaches, and PBF faces obstacles associated with state fragility. In addition to structural threats and uncertain sustainability, transforming transactional motivation into transformational change is a challenge. Ultimately, the research found out that PBF supports health sector-based state-building, but it cannot repair a collapsed state.

CBHI and community health coverage (Chapter 5)

The MUS CBHI scheme began operating just after the wars in South Kivu. The research findings indicate that MUS schemes lead to improvements in access and social protection only for a portion of the population. Similar findings for outcomes related to resource mobilisation and the financial sustainability of the health sector point to continued management challenges facing MUS schemes. These challenges are compounded by state fragility. To contribute effectively to universal health coverage, the state should reinforce its stewardship presence in strengthening MUS.

NSPs and Local Perceptions of the State (Chapter 6)

Service provision—especially health care delivery—serves as a public sphere and an arena for interactions and multi-stakeholder processes. The findings indicated that the population’s perceptions of the state reflect a breach of social contract, because the state has failed to live up to the population’s needs and expectations. The presence of NSPs may have negative effects on the population’s perceptions of the state, because NSPs’ performance establishes their benevolent image while solidifying a negative image of the state. However, the state-building legitimacy outcomes of NSPs’ engagement in this context are contingent on how the services are delivered: When NSPs engage with the state on the ground, people also see the state in action. People then assign credit not only to the NSPs, but also to the state, which is important for state-building and legitimacy. There is no direct correlation between service provision by NSPs and the positive image of the state; what positively impacts the image of the state is its visibility on the ground.

Overall, this study explored state-building outcomes resulting from networked health sector governance in a war-affected context with an empirically weak state. In this context, the public health provision inputs of NSPs are crucial for the population’s welfare. The findings indicate that NSP engagement contributes strongly to public health provision and the management of the health system. However, state fragility has a negative impact on networked health governance and donor-supported interventions. Bids to respond to population vulnerability and humanitarian needs should include state-building engagement, as state fragility hampers the success and undermines the sustainability of any rational intervention carried out by non-state actors.

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