Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Preantral follicular atresia occurs mainly through autophagy, while antral follicles degenerate mostly through apoptosis
Meng, Li ; Jan, Sabrina Z. ; Hamer, Geert ; Pelt, Ans M. van; Stelt, Inge van der; Keijer, Jaap ; Teerds, Katja J. - \ 2018
Biology of Reproduction 99 (2018)4. - ISSN 0006-3363 - p. 853 - 863.

There is a general agreement that granulosa cell apoptosis is the cause of antral follicle attrition. Less clear is whether this pathway is also activated in case of preantral follicle degeneration, as several reports mention that the incidence of granulosa cell apoptosis in preantral follicles is negligible. Our objective is therefore to determine which cell-death pathways are involved in preantral and antral follicular degeneration.Atretic preantal and antral follicles were investigated using immunohistochemistry and laser-capture microdissection followed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Microtubule-associated light-chain protein 3 (LC3), sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62), Beclin1, autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), and cleaved caspase 3 (cCASP3) were used as markers for autophagy and apoptosis, respectively. P62 immunostaining was far less intense in granulosa cells of atretic compared to healthy preantral follicles, while no difference in LC3 and BECLIN1 immunostaining intensity was observed. This difference in P62 immunostaining was not observed in atretic antral follicles. mRNA levels of LC3 and P62 were not different between healthy and atretic (pre)antral follicles. ATG7 immunostaining was observed in granulosa cells of preantral atretic follicles, not in granulosa cells of degenerating antral follicles. The number of cCASP3-positive cells was negligible in preantral atretic follicles, while numerous in atretic antral follicles. Taken together, we conclude that preantral and antral follicular atresia is the result of activation of different cell-death pathways as antral follicular degeneration is initiated by massive granulosa cell apoptosis, while preantral follicular atresia occurs mainly via enhanced granulosa cell autophagy.

Genome-wide association study reveals novel players in defense hormone crosstalk in Arabidopsis
Proietti, Silvia ; Caarls, Lotte ; Coolen, Silvia ; Pelt, Johan A. van; Wees, Saskia C.M. van; Pieterse, Corné M.J. - \ 2018
Plant, Cell & Environment 41 (2018)10. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2342 - 2356.
Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and insect herbivores. Salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) can antagonize JA‐regulated defenses, thereby modulating pathogen or insect resistance. We performed a genome‐wide association (GWA) study on natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana for the effect of SA and ABA on the JA pathway. We treated 349 Arabidopsis accessions with methyl JA (MeJA), or a combination of MeJA and either SA or ABA, after which expression of the JA‐responsive marker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2) was quantified as a readout for GWA analysis. Both hormones antagonized MeJA‐induced PDF1.2 in the majority of the accessions but with a large variation in magnitude. GWA mapping of the SA‐ and ABA‐affected PDF1.2 expression data revealed loci associated with crosstalk. GLYI4 (encoding a glyoxalase) and ARR11 (encoding an Arabidopsis response regulator involved in cytokinin signalling) were confirmed by T‐DNA insertion mutant analysis to affect SA–JA crosstalk and resistance against the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea. In addition, At1g16310 (encoding a cation efflux family protein) was confirmed to affect ABA–JA crosstalk and susceptibility to Mamestra brassicae herbivory. Collectively, this GWA study identified novel players in JA hormone crosstalk with potential roles in the regulation of pathogen or insect resistance.
Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the enviroment : a pooled analysis
Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro ; Smid, J.H. ; Pelt, Wilfrid Van; Bonten, M.J.M. ; Fluit, A.C. ; Bunt, Gerrita van den; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Hordijk, J. ; Dierikx, C.M. ; Veldman, K.T. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Dohmen, W. ; Schmitt, H. ; Liakopoulos, A. ; Pacholewicz, Ewa ; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Velthuis, Annet ; Heuvelink, A. ; Gonggrijp, Maaike ; Duijkeren, E. van; Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Roda Husman, A.N. de; Blaak, H. ; Havelaar, A.H. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Heederik, D.J.J. - \ 2018
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 73 (2018)2. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 339 - 347.
Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains unclear.
Objectives: To quantify molecular similarities between different reservoirs as a first step towards risk attribution.
Methods: Pooled data on ESBL/AmpC-EC isolates were recovered from 35 studies in the Netherlands comprising.27 000 samples, mostly obtained between 2005 and 2015. Frequency distributions of ESBL/AmpC genes from 5808 isolates and replicons of ESBL/AmpC-carrying plasmids from 812 isolates were compared across 22 reservoirs through proportional similarity indices (PSIs) and principal component analyses (PCAs).
Results: Predominant ESBL/AmpC genes were identified in each reservoir. PCAs and PSIs revealed close human–animal ESBL/AmpC gene similarity between human farming communities and their animals (broilers and pigs) (PSIs from 0.8 to 0.9). Isolates from people in the general population had higher similarities to those from human clinical settings, surface and sewage water and wild birds (0.7–0.8), while similarities to livestock or food reservoirs were lower (0.3–0.6). Based on rarefaction curves, people in the general population had more diversity in ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmid replicon types than those in other reservoirs.
Conclusions: Our ‘One Health’ approach provides an integrated evaluation of the molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-EC from numerous sources. The analysis showed distinguishable ESBL/AmpC-EC transmission cycles in different hosts and failed to demonstrate a close epidemiological linkage of ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmid replicon types between livestock farms and people in the general population.
High prevalence of intra-familial co-colonization by extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae in preschool children and their parents in Dutch households
Liakopoulos, Apostolos ; Bunt, Gerrita van den; Geurts, Yvon ; Bootsma, Martin C.J. ; Toleman, Mark ; Ceccarelli, Daniela ; Pelt, Wilfrid van; Mevius, Dik J. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)FEB. - ISSN 1664-302X
Co-carriage - ESBL/AmpC - Escherichia coli - Household - Insertion sequence - Netherlands - Plasmid
Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESCR) Enterobacteriaceae pose a serious infection control challenge for public health. The emergence of the ESCR phenotype is mostly facilitated by plasmid-mediated horizontal extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC gene transfer within Enterobacteriaceae. Current data regarding the plasmid contribution to this emergence within the Dutch human population is limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to gain insight into the role of plasmids in the dissemination of ESBL/AmpC genes inside Dutch households with preschool children and precisely delineate co-colonization. In 87 ESCR Enterobacteriaceae from fecal samples of parents and preschool children within 66 Dutch households, genomic localization, plasmid type and insertion sequences linked to ESBL/AmpC genes were determined. Chromosomal location of ESBL/AmpC genes was confirmed when needed. An epidemiologically relevant subset of the isolates based on household co-carriage was assessed by Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for genetic relatedness. The narrow-host range I1a and F plasmids were the major facilitators of ESBL/AmpC-gene dissemination. Interestingly, we documented a relatively high occurrence of chromosomal integration of typically plasmid-encoded ESBL/AmpC-genes. A high diversity of non-epidemic Escherichia coli sequence types (STs) was revealed; the predominant STs belonged to the pandemic lineages of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli ST131 and ST69. Intra-familiar co-carriage by identical ESCR Enterobacteriaceae was documented in 7 households compared to 14 based on sole gene typing, as previously reported. Co-carriage was more frequent than expected based on pure chance, suggesting clonal transmission between children and parents within the household.
Samenvatting ESBL-Attributieanalyse (ESBLAT) : Op zoek naar de bronnen van antibioticaresistentie bij de mens
Mevius, Dik ; Heederik, Dick ; Duijkeren, Engeline ; Veldman, Kees ; Essen, Alieda van; Kant, Arie ; Liakopoulos, Apostolos ; Geurts, Yvon ; Pelt, Wilfrid van; Mughini Gras, Lapo ; Schmitt, Heike ; Dierikx, Cindy ; Hoek, Angela van; Evers, Eric ; Roda Husman, Annemaria de; Blaak, Hetty ; Dissel, Jaap van; Smid, Joost ; Dohmen, Wietske ; Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro ; Havelaar, Arie ; Hordijk, Joost ; Wagenaar, Jaap ; Fluit, Ad ; Bunt, Gerrita van den; Bonten, Marc ; Velthuis, Annet ; Heuvelink, Annet ; Buter, Rianne ; Gonggrijp, Maaike ; Santman-Berends, Inge ; Lam, Theo ; Urlings, Bert ; Heres, Lourens ; Bouwknecht, Martijn ; Groot, Jacques de - \ 2018
Netherlands : De Stichting TKI Agri&Food (TKI) - 11 p.
Rapport ESBL-Attributieanalyse (ESBLAT) : Op zoek naar de bronnen van antibioticaresistentie bij de mens
Mevius, Dik ; Heederik, Dick ; Duijkeren, Engeline ; Veldman, Kees ; Essen, Alieda van; Kant, Arie ; Liakopoulos, Apostolos ; Geurts, Yvon ; Pelt, Wilfrid van; Mughini Gras, Lapo ; Schmitt, Heike ; Dierikx, Cindy ; Hoek, Angela van; Evers, Eric ; Roda Husman, Annemaria de; Blaak, Hetty ; Dissel, Jaap van; Smid, Joost ; Dohmen, Wietske ; Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro ; Havelaar, Arie ; Hordijk, Joost ; Wagenaar, Jaap ; Fluit, Ad ; Bunt, Gerrita van den; Bonten, Marc ; Velthuis, Annet ; Heuvelink, Annet ; Buter, Rianne ; Gonggrijp, Maaike ; Santman-Berends, Inge ; Lam, Theo ; Urlings, Bert ; Heres, Lourens ; Bouwknecht, Martijn ; Groot, Jacques de - \ 2018
Netherlands : De Stichting TKI Agri&Food (TKI) - 73
RECON: Reef effect structures in the North Sea, islands or connections? : Summary report
Coolen, J.W.P. ; Jak, R.G. ; Weide, B.E. van der; Cuperus, J. ; Luttikhuizen, P. ; Schutter, M. ; Dorenbosch, M. ; Driessen, F. ; Lengkeek, W. ; Blomberg, M. ; Moorsel, G. van; Faasse, M.A. ; Bos, O.G. ; Dias, I.M. ; Spierings, M. ; Glorius, S.G. ; Becking, L.E. ; Schol, T. ; Crooijmans, R. ; Boon, A.R. ; Pelt, H. van; Kleissen, F. ; Gerla, D. ; Degraer, S. ; Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2018
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C074/17A) - 33
Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics
Roest, H.I.J. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Weesendorp, E. ; Bossers, A. ; Elbers, A.R.W. - \ 2017
In: Molecular Diagnostics Part 2: Clinical, Veterinary, Agrobotanical and Food Safety Applications / van Pelt-Verkuil, E., van Leeuwen, W.B., te Witt, R., Springer - ISBN 9789811045110 - p. 219 - 234.
In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this increased demand. Veterinary molecular diagnostics primarily focuses on the detection, identification, and genotyping of pathogens. Techniques are comparable to those used in the human molecular diagnostic field. In veterinary diagnosis, these techniques are applied to either the diagnosis of diseases in individual animals and herds or to assess the disease status of a herd. Notable features of veterinary molecular diagnostics are the sampling of a diagnostic unit for herd diagnoses, which can compensate test characteristics and, to a lesser extent, the high RNA/DNA loads in cases of animal disease outbreaks. To further identify bacteria, numerous genotyping techniques are used, including whole genome sequencing (WGS). To characterise viruses, WGS is the method of choice. The applications of molecular techniques in molecular diagnostics and molecular epidemiology are presented in two case studies: Q fever and the highly pathogenic avian influenza
Molecular diagnostics in plant health
Bonants, P.J.M. ; Witt, René te - \ 2017
In: Moleculair diagnostics / van Pelt-Verkuil, E., van Leeuwen, W.B., te Witt, R., Singapore : Springer - ISBN 9789811045103 - p. 175 - 202.
In several crops, their quality and condition is very important. The products are relatively expensive and plant diseases can destroy valuable harvests in a very short time. The presence or absence of plant pathogens and pests, therefore, needs to be accurately tested. For decades, identification and detection methods have been designed to demonstrate that starting material for further propagation and also certified bulbs, tubers, cuttings, and plants are free of many plant pathogens. Every year, millions of plants are tested, including approximately one and a half million bulbs. Despite the ease of low-cost, fast, and well-automated test methods, such as ELISA, more and more molecular-based techniques are used the last decade. These techniques are, generally, more specific and more sensitive. These new tests are also necessary because plant pathogens are often latent (asymptomatic) present in the material to be tested. The Netherlands has a high in—and export of plants and plant products. These large trading volumes may harbour many plant pathogens. The European Commission has drawn up a list of unwanted plant pathogens (quarantine organisms). This list contains more than 300 different organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, phytoplasmas, nematodes and insects). Each EU-country has to control the in—and export traffic of plants and plant products for the introduction of these unwanted organisms. In the Netherlands, this task is performed by four inspection services: Naktuinbouw (Netherlands Inspection Service for Horticulture), NAK (The Dutch General Inspection Service), BKD (Inspection Service for Flowerbulbs) and KCB (Quality Control Bureau). The NVWA (Dutch Food and Consumers Authority) is the NPPO (National plant protection organisation) in the Netherlands and supervises the inspection services. Many different molecular methods are used daily for the detection and identification of many plant pathogens and plant diseases.
Genetic improvement of longevity in dairy cows
Pelt, Mathijs van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Roel Veerkamp, co-promotor(en): T.H.E. Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430821 - 188
dairy cows - longevity - genetic improvement - breeding value - genetic analysis - survival - animal models - animal genetics - melkkoeien - gebruiksduur - genetische verbetering - fokwaarde - genetische analyse - overleving - diermodellen - diergenetica

Improving longevity helps to increase the profit of the farmer, and it is seen as an important measure of improved animal welfare and sustainability of the sector. Breeding values for longevity have been published since in 1999 in the Netherlands. For AI-companies and farmers it is necessary that breeding values are accurately estimated and will remain stable for the rest of life. However, current breeding values for longevity of bulls seem to fluctuate more than expected. The main aim of this thesis was to revisit the genetics of longevity and develop a genetic evaluation model for longevity, where breeding values reflect the true breeding value quicker during early life and therefore breeding values become more stable. Genetic parameters were estimated for survival up to 72 months after first calving with a random regression model (RRM). Survival rates were higher in early life than later in life (99 vs. 95%). Survival was genetically not the same trait across the entire lifespan, because genetic correlations differ from unity between different time intervals, especially when intervals were further apart. Survival in the first year after first calving was investigated more in depth. Survival of heifers has improved considerably in the past 25 years, initially due to the focus on a high milk production. More recently, the importance of a high milk production for survival has been reduced. Therefore functional survival was defined as survival adjusted for within-herd production level. For survival the optimum age at first calving was around 24 months, whereas for functional survival calving before 24 months resulted in a higher survival. Over years, genetic correlations between survival in different 5-yr intervals were below unity, whereas for functional survival genetic correlations did not indicate that survival changed over years. This suggested that a genetic evaluation using historical data should analyze functional survival rather than survival. A new genetic evaluation system for longevity was developed based on a RRM analyzing functional survival. Based on the correlation between the first breeding value of a bull and his later breeding values, the ranking of bulls was shown to be more stable for RRM than the current genetic evaluation. Bias in breeding value was observed, mainly for bulls with a large proportion of living daughters. Adjusting for within-herd production level reduced this bias in the breeding values greatly. Before implementing this new model for genetic evaluation, the cause of this bias needs to be further investigated.

Tularemie in Nederland, terug van weggeweest?
Pijnacker, Roan ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Swaan, C.M. ; Maas, M. ; Rosa, M. de; Broens, E.M. ; Fanoy, E. ; Vries, M.C. de; Notermans, D.W. ; Tas, P. v.d.; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Pelt, W. van; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2016
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Medische Microbiologie 24 (2016)2. - ISSN 0929-0176 - p. 65 - 68.
Tularemie is een bacteriële zoönose veroorzaakt door Francisella tularensis. De ziekte kent verschillende verschijningsvormen, dierlijke reservoirs en transmissieroutes. De bacterie kan zich maandenlang handhaven buiten
een dierlijke gastheer. Na decennialange afwezigheid in Nederland is tularemie vanaf 2011 incidenteel aangetoond bij zowel hazen als mensen. Begin 2015 was er een opvallend hoge sterfte onder hazen in de omgeving van Akkrum in Friesland. In dit gebied werd bij 11 hazen tularemie aangetoond. In dit artikel bespreken we de achtergrond en de huidige situatie van tularemie in Nederland
Trends in Salmonella bij de mens, landbouwhuisdieren en in voedsel
Pelt, W. van; Voort, M. van der; Bouwknegt, M. ; Veldman, K.T. ; Wit, B. ; Heck, M. ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo - \ 2016
Infectieziekten bulletin 27 (2016)8. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 243 - 250.
Sinds het begin van deze eeuw is het aantal patiënten met salmonellose meer dan gehalveerd. Een ontwikkeling die gereflecteerd wordt door de bevindingen in de surveillance van landbouwhuisdieren en van vlees in de winkel, die in dit artikel worden beschreven. De bestrijdingsprogramma’s bij landbouwhuisdieren en verbeteringen in de hygiëne van het voedselproductie proces hebben dus effect gehad. Met een incidentie in de afgelopen 3 jaar van 9,1-9,3 bevestigde salmonellosegevallen per 100.000 inwoners en naar schatting 27.000 gevallen van acute gastro-enteritis door Salmonella-infecties in de bevolking, heeft Nederland een van de laagste incidenties van Europa.
ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage
Bunt, G. van den; Liakopoulos, A. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Geurts, Y. ; Fluit, A.C. ; Bonten, M.J.M. ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Pelt, W. van - \ 2016
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 72 (2016)2. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 589 - 595.
Objectives ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in preschool children and their parents. Methods From April 2013 to January 2015, each month 2000 preschool children were randomly selected from Dutch population registries. The parents were invited to complete an epidemiological questionnaire and to obtain and send a faecal sample from the selected child and from one parent. Samples were tested for ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for ESBL/AmpC carriage in children and parents, and findings were internally validated by bootstrapping. Results In total, 1016 families were included and ESBL/AmpC prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%–5.0%); 3.5% (95% CI 2.5%–4.8%) in children and 4.5% (95% CI 3.4%–6.0%) in parents. Attending a daycare centre (DCC) was the only significant risk factor for children (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.3). For parents, the only significant risk factor was having one or more children attending DCCs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.8). For parents of ESBL/AmpC-positive children the OR for ESBL/AmpC carriage was 19.7 (95% CI 9.2–42.4). Co-carriage of specific ESBL/AmpC genotypes in child and parent occurred more often than expected by chance (14.6% versus 1.1%, P < 0.001). Conclusions In this study, intestinal carriage with ESBL/AmpCs was detected in ∼4% of households with preschool children. DCC attendance was a risk factor in both children and parents and co-carriage of specific genotypes frequently occurred in child–parent pairs. These findings suggest household transmission or/and family-specific exposure to common sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.
Genetic changes of survival traits over the past 25 yr in Dutch dairy cattle
Pelt, M.L. van; Ducrocq, V. ; Jong, G. de; Calus, M.P.L. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 9810 - 9819.
genetic correlation - longevity - survival

Genetic correlations and heritabilities for survival were investigated over a period of 25 yr to evaluate if survival in first lactation has become a different trait and if this is affected by adjusting for production level. Survival after first calving until 12 mo after calving (surv_12mo) and survival of first lactation (surv_1st_lac) were analyzed in Dutch black-and-white cows. The data set contained 1,108,745 animals for surv_12mo and 1,062,276 animals for surv_1st_lac, with first calving between 1989 and 2013. The trait survival as recorded over 25 yr was split in five 5-yr intervals to enable a multitrait analysis. Bivariate models using subsets of the full data set and multitrait and autoregressive models using the full data set were used. Survival and functional survival were analyzed. Functional survival was defined as survival adjusted for within-herd production level for 305-d yield of combined kilograms of fat and protein. Mean survival increased over time, whereas genetic variances and heritability decreased. Bivariate models yielded large standard errors on genetic correlations due to poor connectedness between the extreme 5-yr intervals. The more parsimonious models using the full data set gave nonunity genetic correlations. Genetic correlations for survival were below 0.90 between intervals separated by 1 or more 5-yr intervals. Genetic correlations for functional survival did not indicate that definition of survival changed (≥0.90). The difference in genetic correlations between survival and functional survival is likely explained by lower emphasis of dairy farmers on culling in first lactation for low yield in more recent years. This suggests that genetic evaluation for longevity using historical data should analyze functional survival rather than survival.

Decrease in tick bite consultations and stabilization of early Lyme borreliosis in the Netherlands in 2014 after 15 years of continuous increase
Hofhuis, Agnetha ; Bennema, Sita ; Harms, Margriet ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Takken, W. ; Wijngaard, C.C. van den; Pelt, Wilfrid van - \ 2016
BMC Public Health 16 (2016). - ISSN 1471-2458
Background
Nationwide surveys have shown a threefold increase in general practitioner (GP) consultations for tick bites and early Lyme borreliosis from 1994 to 2009 in the Netherlands. We now report an update on 2014, with identical methods as for the preceding GP surveys.

Methods
To all GPs in the Netherlands, a postal questionnaire was sent inquiring about the number of consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans diagnoses (most common manifestation of early Lyme borreliosis) in 2014, and the size of their practice populations.

Results
Contrasting to the previously rising incidence of consultations for tick bites between 1994 and 2009, the incidence decreased in 2014 to 488 consultations for tick bites per 100,000 inhabitants, i.e., 82,000 patients nationwide. This survey revealed a first sign of stabilization of the previously rising trend in GP diagnosed erythema migrans, with 140 diagnoses per 100,000 inhabitants of the Netherlands. This equals about 23,500 annual diagnoses of erythema migrans nationwide in 2014.

Conclusions
In contrast to the constantly rising incidence of GP consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans diagnoses in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2009, the current survey of 2014 showed a first sign of stabilization of erythema migrans diagnoses and a decreased incidence for tick bite consultations.
Location of colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from livestock and meat
Veldman, Kees ; Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda van; Rapallini, Michel ; Wit, Ben ; Heymans, Raymond ; Pelt, Wilfrid van; Mevius, Dik - \ 2016
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 71 (2016)8. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 2340 - 2342.
Transcriptome dynamics of Arabidopsis during sequential biotic and abiotic stresses
Coolen, Silvia ; Proietti, Silvia ; Hickman, Richard ; Davila Olivas, Nelson H. ; Huang, Pingping ; Verk, Marcel C. van; Pelt, Johan A. van; Wittenberg, Alexander H.J. ; Vos, Martin de; Prins, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Aarts, Mark G.M. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Pieterse, Corné M.J. ; Wees, Saskia C.M. van - \ 2016
The Plant Journal 86 (2016)3. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 249 - 267.
Arabidopsis thaliana - Botrytis cinerea - combinatorial plant stress - drought stress - gene regulatory network - Pieris rapae - plant hormones - RNA-Seq - transcript profiling - 016-3950

In nature, plants have to cope with a wide range of stress conditions that often occur simultaneously or in sequence. To investigate how plants cope with multi-stress conditions, we analyzed the dynamics of whole-transcriptome profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to six sequential double stresses inflicted by combinations of: (i) infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, (ii) herbivory by chewing larvae of Pieris rapae, and (iii) drought stress. Each of these stresses induced specific expression profiles over time, in which one-third of all differentially expressed genes was shared by at least two single stresses. Of these, 394 genes were differentially expressed during all three stress conditions, albeit often in opposite directions. When two stresses were applied in sequence, plants displayed transcriptome profiles that were very similar to the second stress, irrespective of the nature of the first stress. Nevertheless, significant first-stress signatures could be identified in the sequential stress profiles. Bioinformatic analysis of the dynamics of co-expressed gene clusters highlighted specific clusters and biological processes of which the timing of activation or repression was altered by a prior stress. The first-stress signatures in second stress transcriptional profiles were remarkably often related to responses to phytohormones, strengthening the notion that hormones are global modulators of interactions between different types of stress. Because prior stresses can affect the level of tolerance against a subsequent stress (e.g. prior herbivory strongly affected resistance to B. cinerea), the first-stress signatures can provide important leads for the identification of molecular players that are decisive in the interactions between stress response pathways.

Changes in the genetic level and the effects of age at first calving and milk production on survival during the first lactation over the last 25 years
Pelt, M.L. van; Jong, G. de; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2016
Animal 10 (2016)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 2043 - 2050.
age at first calving - dairy cattle - longevity - survival - within-herd production level

Survival during the first year after first calving was investigated over the last 25 years, 1989–2013, as well as how the association of survival with season of calving, age at first calving (AFC) and within-herd production level has changed over that period. The data set contained 1 108 745 Dutch black-and-white cows in 2185 herds. Linear models were used to estimate (1) effect of year and season and their interaction and (2) effect of AFC, within-herd production level, and 5-year intervals and their two-way interactions, and the genetic trend. All models contained AFC and percentage of Holstein Friesian as a fixed effect, and herd-year-season, sire and maternal grandsire as random effects. Survival and functional survival were analysed. Functional survival was defined as survival adjusted for within-herd production level. Survival rate increased by 8% up to 92% in the last 25 years. When accounting for pedigree, survival showed no improvement up to 1999, but improved since then. Genetically, survival increased 3% to 4% but functional survival did not increase over the 25 years. We found an interesting difference between the genetic trends for survival and functional survival for bulls born between 1985 and 1999, where the trend for survival was still increasing, but was negative for functional survival. Since 1999, genetic trend picked up again for both survival and functional survival. AFC, season of calving and within-herd production level affected survival. Survival rate decreased 0.6%/month for survival and 1.5% for functional survival between AFC of 24 and 32 months. Calving in summer resulted in 2.0% higher survival than calving in winter. Within herd, low-producing cows had a lower survival rate than high-producing cows. However, these effects became less important during the recent years. Based on survival optimum AFC is around 24 months, but based on functional survival it is better to have an AFC

Extended-spectrum cephalosporin- resistant Salmonella enterica serovar heidelberg strains, the Netherlands
Liakopoulos, Apostolos ; Geurts, Yvon ; Dierikx, Cindy M. ; Brouwer, Mike ; Kant, Arie ; Wit, Ben ; Heymans, Raymond ; Pelt, Wilfrid Van; Mevius, Dik J. - \ 2016
Emerging Infectious Diseases 22 (2016)7. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 1257 - 1261.

Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains (JF6X01.0022/XbaI.0251, JF6X01.0326/XbaI.1966, JF6X01.0258/XbaI.1968, and JF6X01.0045/XbaI.1970) have been identified in the United States with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our examination of isolates showed introduction of these strains in the Netherlands and highlight the need for active surveillance and intervention strategies by public health organizations.

Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Penny, Christian ; Ragimbeau, Catherine ; Schets, Franciska M. ; Blaak, Hetty ; Duim, Birgitta ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Boer, Albert de; Cauchie, Henry-Michel ; Mossong, Joel ; Pelt, Wilfrid Van - \ 2016
Water Research 101 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 36 - 45.
campylobacter - surface water - water quality - pollution - water pollution - microbiology - wild birds - poultry - campylobacter jejuni - campylobacter coli - netherlands - luxembourg - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - microbiologie - wilde vogels - pluimvee - nederland - luxemburg
Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44–50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions.
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