Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Insight into the sulfur metabolism of Desulfurella amilsii by differential proteomics
Florentino, Anna P. ; Pereira, Inês A.C. ; Boeren, Sjef ; Born, Michael van den; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene - \ 2018
Environmental Microbiology (2018). - ISSN 1462-2912 - 17 p.

Many questions regarding proteins involved in microbial sulfur metabolism remain unsolved. For sulfur respiration at low pH, the terminal electron acceptor is still unclear. Desulfurella amilsii is a sulfur-reducing bacterium that respires elemental sulfur (S0) or thiosulfate, and grows by S0 disproportionation. Due to its versatility, comparative studies on D. amilsii may shed light on microbial sulfur metabolism. Requirement of physical contact between cells and S0 was analyzed. Sulfide production decreased by around 50% when S0 was trapped in dialysis membranes, suggesting that contact between cells and S0 is beneficial, but not strictly needed. Proteome analysis was performed under the aforementioned conditions. A Mo-oxidoreductase suggested from genome analysis to act as sulfur reductase was not detected in any growth condition. Thiosulfate and sulfite reductases showed increased abundance in thiosulfate-reducing cultures, while rhodanese-like sulfurtransferases were highly abundant in all conditions. DsrE and DsrL were abundantly detected during thiosulfate reduction, suggesting a modified mechanism of sulfite reduction. Proteogenomics suggest a different disproportionation pathway from what has been reported. This work points to an important role of rhodaneses in sulfur processes and these proteins should be considered in searches for sulfur metabolism in broader fields like meta-omics.

Suppression of Plant Immunity by Fungal Chitinase-like Effectors
Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini ; Sanchéz-Vallet, Andrea ; Toledo Thomazella, Daniela Paula de; Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital do; Nascimento, Leandro Costa do; Oliveira Figueira, Antonio Vargas de; Thomma, Bart P.H.J. ; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães ; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima - \ 2018
Current Biology 28 (2018)18. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3023 - 3030.e5.
cacao - chitin - effector - frosty pod rot - GH18 - LysM - MAMP-triggered immunity - Moniliophthora - neofunctionalization - witches’ broom disease

Crop diseases caused by fungi constitute one of the most important problems in agriculture, posing a serious threat to food security [1]. To establish infection, phytopathogens interfere with plant immune responses [2, 3]. However, strategies to promote virulence employed by fungal pathogens, especially non-model organisms, remain elusive [4], mainly because fungi are more complex and difficult to study when compared to the better-characterized bacterial pathogens. Equally incomplete is our understanding of the birth of microbial virulence effectors. Here, we show that the cacao pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa evolved an enzymatically inactive chitinase (MpChi) that functions as a putative pathogenicity factor. MpChi is among the most highly expressed fungal genes during the biotrophic interaction with cacao and encodes a chitinase with mutations that abolish its enzymatic activity. Despite the lack of chitinolytic activity, MpChi retains substrate binding specificity and prevents chitin-triggered immunity by sequestering immunogenic chitin fragments. Remarkably, its sister species M. roreri encodes a second non-orthologous catalytically impaired chitinase with equivalent function. Thus, a class of conserved enzymes independently evolved as putative virulence factors in these fungi. In addition to unveiling a strategy of host immune suppression by fungal pathogens, our results demonstrate that the neofunctionalization of enzymes may be an evolutionary pathway for the rise of new virulence factors in fungi. We anticipate that analogous strategies are likely employed by other pathogens. Fiorin et al. demonstrate that two fungal pathogens of cacao independently evolved catalytically dead chitinases that bind to chitin and prevent elicitation of plant immunity. The study exemplifies how pathogens may evolve effectors by repurposing the functions of enzymes that are conserved throughout evolution.

In situ biofilm quantification in bioelectrochemical systems by using optical coherence tomography
Molenaar, Sam D. ; Sleutels, Tom ; Pereira, Joao ; Iorio, Matteo ; Borsje, Casper ; Zamudio, Julian A. ; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco ; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Heijne, Annemiek ter - \ 2018
ChemSusChem 11 (2018)13. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 2171 - 2178.
3d imaging - Bioelectrochemical systems - Biofilms - Microbial growth - Tomography

Detailed studies of microbial growth in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are required for their suitable design and operation. Here, we report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a tool for in situ and noninvasive quantification of biofilm growth on electrodes (bioanodes). An experimental platform is designed and described in which transparent electrodes are used to allow real-time, 3D biofilm imaging. The accuracy and precision of the developed method is assessed by relating the OCT results to well-established standards for biofilm quantification (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total N content) and show high correspondence to these standards. Biofilm thickness observed by OCT ranged between 3 and 90 μm for experimental durations ranging from 1 to 24 days. This translated to growth yields between 38 and 42 mgCODbiomass gCODacetate 1 at an anode potential of 0.35 V versus Ag/AgCl. Time-lapse observations of an experimental run performed in duplicate show high reproducibility in obtained microbial growth yield by the developed method. As such, we identify OCT as a powerful tool for conducting in-depth characterizations of microbial growth dynamics in BESs. Additionally, the presented platform allows concomitant application of this method with various optical and electrochemical techniques.

Biological treatment of produced water coupled with recovery of neutral lipids
Sudmalis, D. ; Silva, P. da; Temmink, H. ; Bijmans, M.M. ; Pereira, M.A. - \ 2018
Water Research 147 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 33 - 42.
Alkane biodegradation - Biological treatment - Neutral lipids production - Produced water

Produced water (PW) is the largest waste stream generated by oil and gas industry. It is commonly treated by physical-chemical processes due to high salt content and poor biodegradability of water insoluble compounds, such as n-alkanes. N-alkanes can represent a major fraction of organic contaminants within PW. In this study the possibility of simultaneous n – alkane biodegradation and production of neutral lipids in a concentrated PW stream with A. borkumenis SK2 as the sole reactor inoculum was investigated. N-alkane removal efficiency up to 99.6%, with influent alkane COD of 7.4 g/L, was achieved in a continuously operated reactor system. Gas chromatography results also showed that the majority of other non-polar compounds present in the PW were biodegraded. Biodegradation of n-alkanes was accompanied by simultaneous production of neutral lipids, mostly wax ester (WE)-alike compounds. We demonstrate, that under nutrient limited conditions and 108.9 ± 3.3 mg/L residual n-alkane concentration the accumulation of extracellular WE-alike compounds can be up to 12 times higher compared to intracellular, reaching 3.08 grams per litre of reactor volume (g/Lreactor) extracellularly and 0.28 g/Lreactor intracellularly. With residual n-alkane concentration of 311.5 ± 34.2 mg/L accumulation of extracellular and intracellular WE-alike compounds can reach up to 6.15 and 0.91 g/Lreactor, respectively. To the best of our knowledge simultaneous PW treatment coupled with production of neutral lipids has never been demonstrated before.

Insight into the Role of Facultative Bacteria Stimulated by Microaeration in Continuous Bioreactors Converting LCFA to Methane
Duarte, M.S. ; Silva, Sérgio A. ; Salvador, Andreia F. ; Cavaleiro, Ana J. ; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Alves, M.M. ; Pereira, M.A. - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)11. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6497 - 6507.

Conversion of unsaturated long chain fatty acids (LCFA) to methane in continuous bioreactors is not fully understood. Palmitate (C16:0) often accumulates during oleate (C18:1) biodegradation in methanogenic bioreactors, and the reason why this happens and which microorganisms catalyze this reaction remains unknown. Facultative anaerobic bacteria are frequently found in continuous reactors operated at high LCFA loads, but their function is unclear. To get more insight on the role of these bacteria, LCFA conversion was studied under microaerophilic conditions. For that, we compared bioreactors treating oleate-based wastewater (organic loading rates of 1 and 3 kg COD m-3 d-1), operated under different redox conditions (strictly anaerobic-AnR, -350 mV; microaerophilic-MaR, -250 mV). At the higher load, palmitate accumulated 7 times more in the MaR, where facultative anaerobes were more abundant, and only the biomass from this reactor could recover the methanogenic activity after a transient inhibition. In a second experiment, the abundance of facultative anaerobic bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas spp. (from which two strains were isolated), was strongly correlated (p < 0.05) with palmitate-to-total LCFA percentage in the biofilm formed in a continuous plug flow reactor fed with very high loads of oleate. This work strongly suggests that microaeration stimulates the development of facultative bacteria that are critical for achieving LCFA conversion to methane in continuous bioreactors. Microbial networks and interactions of facultative and strict anaerobes in microbial communities should be considered in future studies.

Bridging ICTs with governance capabilities for food–energy–water sustainability : Emergent Governance Studies
Karpouzoglou, T.D. ; Pereira, L. ; Doshi, S. - \ 2018
In: Food, Energy and Water Sustainability: Eemergent Governance Strategies / Pereira, Laura M., McElroy, Caitlin, Littaye, Alexandra, Girard, Alexandra M., Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group (Earthscan Studies in Natural Resource Management ) - ISBN 9781315696522 - p. 222 - 238.
In this chapter, we critically explore the important role that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play in food, energy, and water (FEW) governance. In particular, we perceive an important role for ICTs in bridging the knowledge gap associated with FEW development goals and for addressing the many synergies and trade-offs between these goals and existing governance arrangements (Mol, 2006; UN, 2014; WWAP, 2015). FEW governance presents us with a ‘wicked’ problem in that it is unstructured, complex, and contains multiple and interconnected subsets of problems (Weber & Khademanian, 2009). A wicked problem can be understood as a problem that is typically ill-defined and involves many uncertainties and contrary views of how to address it (Dewulf & Termeer, 2015). In a similar way in which climate change adaptation is a wicked problem, FEW governance cannot be precisely formulated or solved due to diverging understandings of FEW development priorities as well as inherent complexities associated with their monitoring and evaluation (Murthy et al., 2013). Yet, FEW governance is becoming a key political priority as the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) places huge importance on FEW systems and the need for putting in place a comprehensive monitoring framework to track progress towards global sustainability (EAT Initiative, 2015). It is in this context that we envisage ICTs will play a substantial role in creating better conditions for FEW governance and thus aid in achieving the SDGs over the coming years.
Energy modelling and the Nexus concept
Brouwer, Floor ; Avgerinopoulos, Georgios ; Fazekas, Dora ; Laspidou, Chrysi ; Mercure, Jean-Francois ; Pollitt, Hector ; Ramos, Eunice Pereira ; Howells, Mark - \ 2018
Energy Strategy Reviews 19 (2018). - ISSN 2211-467X - p. 1 - 6.
The Nexus concept is the interconnection between the resources energy, water, food, land and climate. Such interconnections enable to address trade-offs and seek for synergies among them. Several policy areas (e.g. bio-based economy, circular economy) increasingly consider the Nexus concept. Ignoring synergies and trade-offs between energy and natural flows, can generate misleading modelling outcomes. Several modelling tools are available to address energy and the Nexus. Based on six such models, this paper aims to support the design and testing of coherent strategies for sustainable development. Model improvements would be achieved by comparing model outcomes and including a common baseline.
Effects of dietary supplementation of Gracilaria sp. extracts on fillet quality, oxidative stress, and immune responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
Peixoto, Maria J. ; Magnoni, Leonardo ; Gonçalves, José F.M. ; Twijnstra, Robert H. ; Kijjoa, Anake ; Pereira, Rui ; Palstra, Arjan P. ; Ozório, Rodrigo O.A. - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Phycology (2018). - ISSN 0921-8971 - 10 p.
Dicentrarchus labrax - Dietary seaweed supplementation - Fillet quality - Fish welfare - Gracilaria sp. extract - Rhodophyta

The current study evaluated the effects of two different fractions derived from the methanolic extraction of the red seaweed Gracilaria sp. supplemented in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) diets. With that purpose, three experimental diets were prepared: a basal diet (control), a control supplemented with the methanolic extract (GE, 0.5% diet) and a control supplemented with the insoluble residue of the GE extraction (GR, 4.5%). Seabass with an average initial weight of 16.5 ± 0.6 g were fed the experimental diets for 42 days, and the following parameters were evaluated: growth indicators, digestive enzyme activities, immune and oxidative stress responses, fillet pH and color (L*, a*, and b* values), and skin color. The dietary supplementation of GE or GR had no effect on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, fillet pH, and color. Skin color was significantly lighter (L*) in fish-fed GE (83.9 ± 1.9) and GR (84.3 ± 2.3) diets when compared with the control group (81.9 ± 3.8). The dietary treatments did not affect the oxidative stress biomarkers. Alternative complement pathway (ACH50) was significantly higher in fish-fed GE diet (168.2 ± 13.4 EU mL−1) than in the control diet (113.1 ± 31.4 EU mL−1). No dietary effect was observed on peroxidase and lysozyme activities. The current study indicates that dietary supplementation of Gracilaria sp. methanolic extracts may have little influence on the innate immune system and skin color in seabass.

New insights into the phylogeny of the TMBIM superfamily across the three of life : Comparative genomics and synteny networks reveal independent evolution of the BI and LFG families in plants
Gamboa-Tuz, Samuel D. ; Pereira-Santana, Alejandro ; Zhao, Tao ; Schranz, M.E. ; Castano, Enrique ; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis C. - \ 2018
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126 (2018). - ISSN 1055-7903 - p. 266 - 278.
Bax inhibitor 1 - Gene family evolution - Lifeguard - Programmed cell death - Synteny network - TMBIM
The Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor Motif containing (TMBIM) superfamily, divided into BAX Inhibitor (BI) and Lifeguard (LFG) families, comprises a group of cytoprotective cell death regulators conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, no research has focused on the evolution of this superfamily in plants. We identified 685 TMBIM proteins in 171 organisms from Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and provided a phylogenetic overview of the whole TMBIM superfamily. Then, we used orthology and synteny network analyses to further investigate the evolution and expansion of the BI and LFG families in 48 plants from diverse taxa. Plant BI family forms a single monophyletic group; however, monocot BI sequences transposed to another genomic context during evolution. Plant LFG family, which expanded trough whole genome and tandem duplications, is subdivided in LFG I, LFG IIA, and LFG IIB major phylogenetic groups, and retains synteny in angiosperms. Moreover, two orthologous groups (OGs) are shared between bryophytes and seed plants. Other several lineage-specific OGs are present in plants. This work clarifies the phylogenetic classification of the TMBIM superfamily across the three domains of life. Furthermore, it sheds new light on the evolution of the BI and LFG families in plants providing a benchmark for future research.
Evaluation of a single extraction test to estimate the human oral bioaccessibility of potentially toxic elements in soils : Towards more robust risk assessment
Rodrigues, S.M. ; Cruz, N. ; Carvalho, L. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Pereira, E. ; Boim, A.G.F. ; Alleoni, L.R.F. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 635 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 188 - 202.
ISO-17586:2016 - Oral bioaccessibility - Potentially toxic elements - Risk assessment - SBET - UBM
Intake of soil by children and adults is a major exposure pathway to contaminants including potentially toxic elements (PTEs). However, only the fraction of PTEs released in stomach and intestine are considered as bioaccessible and results from routine analyses of the total PTE content in soils, therefore, are not necessarily related to the degree of bioaccessibility. Experimental methods to determine bioaccessibility usually are time-consuming and relatively complicated in terms of analytical procedures which limits application in first tier assessments. In this study we evaluated the potential suitability of a recently developed single extract method (ISO-17586:2016) using dilute (0.43 M) nitric acid (HNO3) to mimic the bioaccessible fraction of PTEs in soils. Results from 204 soils from Portugal, Brazil and the Netherlands including all major soil types and a wide range of PTEs' concentrations showed that the extraction efficiency using 0.43 M HNO3 of Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils is related to that of in vitro methods including the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) and Unified BARGE Method (UBM). Also, differences in the degree of bioaccessibility resulting from differences in parent material, geology and climate conditions did not affect the response of the 0.43 M HNO3 extraction which is a prerequisite to be able to compare results from different soils. The use of 0.43 M HNO3 as a first screening of bioaccessibility therefore offers a robust and representative way to be included in first tier standard soil tests to estimate the oral bioaccessibility. Capsule: The single dilute (0.43 M) nitric acid extraction can be used in first tier soil risk assessment to assess both geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of PTEs.
Influence of carbon anode properties on performance and microbiome of Microbial Electrolysis Cells operated on urine
Barbosa, Sónia G. ; Peixoto, Luciana ; Soares, Olívia S.G.P. ; Pereira, Manuel Fernando R. ; Heijne, Annemiek Ter ; Kuntke, Philipp ; Alves, Maria Madalena ; Pereira, Maria Alcina - \ 2018
Electrochimica Acta 267 (2018). - ISSN 0013-4686 - p. 122 - 132.
Cellulose-based carbon - Microbial community - Microbial electrolysis cell - Phenolic-based carbon - Polyacrilonitrile-based carbon
Anode performance of Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) fed with urine using different anodes, Keynol (phenolic-based), C-Tex (cellulose-based) and PAN (polyacrylonitrile-based) was compared under cell potential control (1st assay) and anode potential control (2nd assay). In both assays, C-Tex MEC outperformed MECs using Keynol and PAN. C-Tex MEC under anode potential control (−0.300 V vs. Ag/AgCl) generated the highest current density (904 mA m−2), which was almost 3-fold higher than the Keynol MEC and 8-fold higher than the PAN MEC. Analysis of anodes textural, chemical and electrochemical characteristics suggest that the higher external surface area of C-Tex enabled higher current density generation compared to Keynol and PAN. Anodes properties did not influence significantly the microbial diversity of the developed biofilm. Nonetheless, C-Tex had higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Lactobacillales and Enterobacteriales suggesting its correlation with the higher current generation.
Membrane separation and characterisation of lignin and its derived products obtained by a mild ethanol organosolv treatment of rice straw
Moniz, Patrícia ; Serralheiro, Cláudia ; Matos, Cristina T. ; Boeriu, Carmen G. ; Frissen, Augustinus E. ; Duarte, Luís C. ; Roseiro, Luísa B. ; Pereira, Helena ; Carvalheiro, Florbela - \ 2018
Process Biochemistry 65 (2018). - ISSN 1359-5113 - p. 136 - 145.
Added value compounds - Combined pretreatment - Lignin - Phenolic compounds - Purification
An organosolv process using ethanol-water was optimized in order to recover high quality lignin from rice-straw previously pre-treated by autohydrolysis at 210 °C. The results showed a selective and appreciable removal of lignin under very mild conditions and the highest delignification yield occurred at 30 °C. The lignin extracts were characterised using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 31P-NMR, and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR spectroscopy (2D-HSQC NMR), which enabled the identification of low molecular weight lignins with a syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of about 0.74 containing phenolic compounds with potential bioactive properties. In order to separate the target compounds, membrane technology has been used and an enriched extract containing value-added phenolic compounds such as tricin, vanillin, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid was obtained. High membrane efficiency (around 80%) was obtained for target compounds.
Volatile organic molecules from Fusarium oxysporum strain 21 with nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita
Terra, Willian César ; Campos, Vicente Paulo ; Martins, Samuel Julio ; Costa, Lilian Simara Abreu S. ; Silva, Júlio Carlos Pereira da; Barros, Aline Ferreira ; Lopez, Liliana Estupiñan ; Santos, Thaisa Conrado Nunes ; Smant, Geert ; Oliveira, Denilson Ferreira - \ 2018
Crop Protection 106 (2018). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 125 - 131.
Bioprospecting - Fusarium oxysporum - Plant-parasitic nematodes - Volatiles
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microorganisms are potential alternatives for the development of new nematicides. In a previous study, we identified VOCs produced by Fusarium oxysporum strain 21 (F.o–21). In this study, we tested the eight most abundant VOCs produced by F.o-21 against Meloidogyne incognita. Compounds 2-methylbutyl acetate (1), 3-methylbutyl acetate (2), ethyl acetate (7), and 2-methylpropyl acetate (8) led to in vitro mortality of 100%, 91%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, in second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The lethal concentration (LC50) for compounds 1, 2, 7, and 8 in M. incognita J2, was 236, 198, 213, and 218 μg/mL, respectively. Under the same conditions, the commercial nematicide called carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-1-benzofuran-7-yl N-methyl carbamate) showed an LC50 of 191 μg/mL. Eggs exposed to compounds 2 and 7, for 72 h showed up to a 90% reduction in hatching, and the compounds 1, 2, 7, and 8 reduced M. incognita infectivity by 52%, 52%, 36% and 41%, respectively. When the compounds were applied in tomato seedlings infested by M. incognita, compound 1 reduced the number of galls per root gram by 22% when compared to the negative control (without the application of nematicide). The compound 2-methylbutyl acetate (1) showed potential to be used in the field after improvements in the application technology.
Knowledge gaps about mixed forests : What do European forest managers want to know and what answers can science provide?
Coll, Lluís ; Ameztegui, Aitor ; Collet, Catherine ; Löf, Magnus ; Mason, Bill ; Pach, Maciej ; Verheyen, Kris ; Abrudan, Ioan ; Barbati, Anna ; Barreiro, Susana ; Bielak, Kamil ; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés ; Ferrari, Barbara ; Govedar, Zoran ; Kulhavy, Jiri ; Lazdina, Dagnija ; Metslaid, Marek ; Mohren, Frits ; Pereira, Mário ; Peric, Sanja ; Rasztovits, Ervin ; Short, Ian ; Spathelf, Peter ; Sterba, Hubert ; Stojanovic, Dejan ; Valsta, Lauri ; Zlatanov, Tzvetan ; Ponette, Quentin - \ 2018
Forest Ecology and Management 407 (2018). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 106 - 115.
Ecosystem services - Forest management and functioning - Forest stability - Participatory process - Research challenges - Review - Species mixtures

Research into mixed-forests has increased substantially in the last decades but the extent to which the new knowledge generated meets practitioners’ concerns and is adequately transmitted to them is unknown. Here we provide the current state of knowledge and future research directions with regards to 10 questions about mixed-forest functioning and management identified and selected by a range of European forest managers during an extensive participatory process. The set of 10 questions were the highest ranked questions from an online prioritization exercise involving 168 managers from 22 different European countries. In general, the topics of major concern for forest managers coincided with the ones that are at the heart of most research projects. They covered important issues related to the management of mixed forests and the role of mixtures for the stability of forests faced with environmental changes and the provision of ecosystem services to society. Our analysis showed that the current scientific knowledge about these questions was rather variable and particularly low for those related to the management of mixed forests over time and the associated costs. We also found that whereas most research projects have sought to evaluate whether mixed forests are more stable or provide more goods and services than monocultures, there is still little information on the underlying mechanisms and trade-offs behind these effects. Similarly, we identified a lack of knowledge on the spatio-temporal scales at which the effects of mixtures on the resistance and adaptability to environmental changes are operating. Our analysis may help researchers to identify what knowledge needs to be better transferred and to better design future research initiatives meeting practitioner's concerns.

A diagnostic framework for food system governance arrangements : The case of South Africa
Termeer, Catrien J.A.M. ; Drimie, Scott ; Ingram, John ; Pereira, Laura ; Whittingham, Mark J. - \ 2018
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 84 (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 85 - 93.
Diagnostics - Food security - Food system governance - Governance arrangements - South Africa

Although policymakers and scientists are increasingly embracing the food system perspective, it has been poorly reflected in institutional terms. We aim to fill this gap by addressing the question as to what forms of governance are most appropriate to govern food systems in a more holistic way. The article presents a diagnostic framework consisting of five principles: 1) system-based problem framing to deal with interlinked issues, drivers and feedback loops; 2) connectivity across boundaries to span siloed governance structures and include non-state actors; 3) adaptability to flexibly respond to inherent uncertainties and volatility; 4) inclusiveness to facilitate support and legitimacy; and 5) transformative capacity to overcome path dependencies and create adequate conditions to foster structural change. This framework is used to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of three food governance arrangements in South Africa, each of which deliberately aimed to embrace a holistic perspective. Although promising on paper, the outcomes are disappointing because of a reversion to a technical onedimensional problem framing during the implementation, the dominance of single departments, the limited attention to monitoring and flexible responses and the exclusion of those most affected by food insecurity. We conclude that the tensions between the ambitious objectives of the arrangements and the institutional constraints of implementing them can persist because of inadequate resources to facilitate transformative change. Finally, we propose an agenda to further elaborate the framework and improve its practical usefulness.

Opportunities and requirements for implementing an irrigation monitoring and management platform in Costa Rica
Bruin, S. de; Aguilar Pereira, J.F. ; Arce Mesen, R. ; Soto Quiros, E. - \ 2017
- 4 p.
Concerns about deficient climate resilience of current irrigated agricultural production imply that the efficiency and effectiveness of irrigation systems should be increased. This short paper reports on the development of a web app for reporting failures of an irrigation system as well as web processing services for soil-crop water balance computations in Costa Rica. The effort provided a means for assessing GI educational and infrastructural requirements in Costa Rica. SENARA —the national service for groundwater, irrigation and drainage— aims to incorporate geo-spatial functionalities in a strategically important integrated water resource management system. Technical advancements and available free software solutions greatly facilitated the development of a prototype web app for an irrigation project “Llano Grande” that serves 121 farms. The used system design readily supports upscaling to other projects on a national scale. However, operationalization of an irrigation monitoring and management platform that includes the soil-crop water balance will require substantial progress concerning access to spatial data layers and meteorological data, the quality of spatial data layers and the technical and organizational geo-infrastructure. Furthermore, universities should accommodate programmes for training spatial data scientists and geo-informaticians that are needed to innovate and maintain such infrastructure.
Visions for nature and nature’s contributions to people for the 21st century : Report from an IPBES visioning workshop held on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand
Lundquist, Carolyn J. ; Pereira, H.M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Belder, E. den; Carvalho Ribeiro, Sonja ; Davies, Kate ; Greenaway, Alison ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Kim, H. ; Lazarova, Tanya ; Pereira, Laura ; Peterson, G. ; Ravera, Federica ; Brink, Thelma van den; Argumedo, Alejandro ; Arida, Clarissa ; Armenteras, Dolors ; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle ; Baptiste, Brigitte ; Belanger, Julie ; Bingham, Kelly ; Bowden-Kerby, Austin ; Cao, Mingchang ; Nettleton-Carino, Jocelyn ; Damme, Paul Andre Van; Devivo, R. ; Dickson, Fiona ; Dushimumuremyi, Jean Paul ; Ferrier, S. ; Flores-Díaz, Adriana ; Foley, Melissa ; Garcia Marquez, Jaime ; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina ; Greenhalgh, Suzie ; Hamilton, D.J. ; Hardison, Preston ; Hicks, Geoff ; Hughey, Ken ; Kahui-McConnell, Richelle ; Wangechi Karuri-Sebina, Geci ; Kock, M. de; Leadley, Paul ; Lemaitre, Frederic ; Maltseva, Elina ; Mattos Scaramuzza, Carlos A. de; Metwaly, Mona ; Nelson, W. ; Ngo, Hien ; Neumann, Christian ; Norrie, Craig ; Perry, Joanne ; Quintana, Rodrigo ; Rodriguez Osuna, Vanesa Eliana ; Röhrl, Richard ; Seager, J. ; Sharpe, Helen ; Shortland, Tui ; Shulbaeva, Polina ; Rashid Sumaila, U. ; Takahashi, Yasuo ; Titeux, Titeux ; Tiwari, Sunandan ; Trisos, Christopher ; Ursache, Andrei ; Wheatley, Amanda ; Wilson, David ; Wood, S. ; Wyk, Ernita van; Yue, Tian Xiang ; Zulfikar, Dina - \ 2017
- 123 p.
Existing scenarios of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) have important limitations and gaps that constrain their usefulness for the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Specifically, they fail to incorporate policy objectives related to nature conservation and social-ecological feedbacks, they do not address the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem services, and they are typically relevant at only a particular spatial scale. In addition, nature and its benefits are treated as the consequence of human decisions, but are not at the centre of the analysis. To address these issues, the IPBES Scenarios and Models Expert Group initiated the development of a set of Multiscale Scenarios for Nature Futures based on positive visions for human relationships with nature.
The first step of this process was a visioning workshop with stakeholders and experts on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 73 participants from inter-governmental organisations, national government organisations, non-governmental organisations, academia and the private sector, from 31 countries, and with a range of sectoral expertise on biodiversity topics, from urban development to agriculture to fisheries, worked together in a visioning exercise. This report documents the results from this visioning workshop to inform further stakeholder consultation and the development of the associated multiscale scenarios by modelers and experts.
This creative visioning exercise was carried out in four steps based on a suite of participatory methods that were used to develop visions of alternative futures. First the participants identified important themes to develop the visions. Next, thematic groups identified the main trends for BES in each theme and a set of “Seeds” of emerging initiatives leading to positive futures for our relationship with nature. Implications of what would happen across a range of sectors were identified for each seed. Then a pathway analysis of how the current regime in each theme may be transformed into the future desirable regime was carried
out. Narratives were then built for the visions emerging from each group. Finally, commonalities of visions across the groups were identified, and the regional relevance of each vision for different parts of the world was assessed.
Biorefinery Approach to the Use of Macroalgae as Feedstock for Biofuels
Lopez Contreras, A.M. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Hou, X. ; Huijgen, W. ; Ditchfield, Ariene K. ; Bjornsdottir, Bryndis ; Obata, Oluwatosin O. ; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O. ; Hal, Jaap W. van; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda - \ 2017
In: Algal Biofuels / Pereira, Leonel, CRC Press - ISBN 9781498752312 - p. 103 - 139.
Macroalgae (also called seaweeds) have gained attention in recent years as feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. This is due to their advantages over traditional terrestrial feedstocks for biorefinery: higher productivity cultivation (amount of biomass produced per unit of surface area) than terrestrial crops, no competition for arable land, lower fresh water consumption during cultivation, and no requirement for fertilizer (van den Burg et al. 2013). In addition, macroalgae have a distinctive chemical composition that differs from lignocelluloses and terrestrial crops, and some 104species are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, and/or bioactive components that make them very suitable for biorefinery (Kraan 2013, van den Burg et al., 2013). For the production of fuels, the most studied routes are the biological conversion of sugars into liquid fuels such as ethanol or butanol, the thermochemical conversion of macroalgae biomass into liquid fuel by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), the chemo-catalytic conversion of sugars into furans, and the anaerobic digestion of biomass into methane. Various reviews of the use of macroalgae for biofuels have appeared in recent years, including Chen et al. 2015, Jiang et al. 2016, Milledge et al. 2014, Suutari et al. 2015, Wei et al. 2013. Chen et al. (2015) concluded that biodiesel production from macroalgae seems less attractive than that from microalgae, given the low content of lipids in macroalgae. Therefore, biodiesel from macroalgal lipids was left outside the scope of this chapter.
An aerial mission planner for practicable and safe aerial surveying using ant colony optimization metaheuristics design
Pereira Valente, J.R. ; Stützle, Thomas ; Kooistra, L. - \ 2017
In: 2017 EFITA WCCA Congress Conference Proceedings. - IRSTEA - ISBN 9782853626866 - p. 133 - 134.
Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014 : Development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries
Dieleman, Joseph ; Campbell, Madeline ; Chapin, Abigail ; Eldrenkamp, Erika ; Fan, Victoria Y. ; Haakenstad, Annie ; Kates, Jennifer ; Liu, Yingying ; Matyasz, Taylor ; Micah, Angela ; Reynolds, Alex ; Sadat, Nafis ; Schneider, Matthew T. ; Sorensen, Reed ; Evans, Tim ; Evans, David ; Kurowski, Christoph ; Tandon, Ajay ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar ; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, A. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amrock, Stephen Marc ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bernal, Oscar Alberto ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Beyene, Tariku Jibat ; Birungi, Charles ; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie ; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Castro, Ruben Estanislao ; Catalá-López, Ferran ; Dalal, Koustuv ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Jager, Pieter De; Dharmaratne, Samath D. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia E. ; Faro, Andre ; Feigl, Andrea B. ; Fischer, Florian ; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Hay, Simon I. ; Hendrie, Delia ; Horino, Masako ; Jürisson, Mikk ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; John, Denny ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Karimi, Seyed M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Yun Jin ; Kinge, Jonas M. ; Krohn, Kristopher J. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Masiye, Felix ; Meier, Toni ; Meretoja, Atte ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M. ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Nangia, Vinay ; Olgiati, Stefano ; Osman, Abdalla Sidahmed ; Owolabi, Mayowa O. ; Patel, Tejas ; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J. ; Pereira, David M. ; Perelman, Julian ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal ; Roba, Hirbo Shore ; Salama, Joseph ; Savic, Miloje ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Shrime, Mark G. ; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio ; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tediosi, Fabrizio ; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie ; Thomson, Alan J. ; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Undurraga, Eduardo A. ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Violante, Francesco S. ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Wijeratne, Tissa ; Xu, Gelin ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2017
The Lancet 389 (2017)10083. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1981 - 2004.
Background: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development. We also identify countries that deviate from the trends. Methods: We estimated national health spending by type of care and by source, including development assistance for health, based on a diverse set of data including programme reports, budget data, national estimates, and 964 National Health Accounts. These data represent health spending for 184 countries from 1995 through 2014. We converted these data into a common inflation-adjusted and purchasing power-adjusted currency, and used non-linear regression methods to model the relationship between health financing, time, and economic development. Findings: Between 1995 and 2014, economic development was positively associated with total health spending and a shift away from a reliance on development assistance and out-of-pocket (OOP) towards government spending. The largest absolute increase in spending was in high-income countries, which increased to purchasing power-adjusted $5221 per capita based on an annual growth rate of 3.0%. The largest health spending growth rates were in upper-middle-income (5.9) and lower-middle-income groups (5.0), which both increased spending at more than 5% per year, and spent $914 and $267 per capita in 2014, respectively. Spending in low-income countries grew nearly as fast, at 4.6%, and health spending increased from $51 to $120 per capita. In 2014, 59.2% of all health spending was financed by the government, although in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 29.1% and 58.0% of spending was OOP spending and 35.7% and 3.0% of spending was development assistance. Recent growth in development assistance for health has been tepid; between 2010 and 2016, it grew annually at 1.8%, and reached US$37.6 billion in 2016. Nonetheless, there is a great deal of variation revolving around these averages. 29 countries spend at least 50% more than expected per capita, based on their level of economic development alone, whereas 11 countries spend less than 50% their expected amount. Interpretation: Health spending remains disparate, with low-income and lower-middle-income countries increasing spending in absolute terms the least, and relying heavily on OOP spending and development assistance. Moreover, tremendous variation shows that neither time nor economic development guarantee adequate prepaid health resources, which are vital for the pursuit of universal health coverage.
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