Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 20 / 2921

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export
    A maximum of 250 titles can be exported. Please, refine your queryYou can also select and export up to 30 titles via your marked list.
  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: q=Post
Check title to add to marked list
The effects of carbon dioxide on growth performance, welfare, and health of Atlantic salmon post-smolt (Salmo salar) in recirculating aquaculture systems
Mota, Vasco C. ; Nilsen, Tom Ole ; Gerwins, Jascha ; Gallo, Michele ; Ytteborg, Elisabeth ; Baeverfjord, Grete ; Kolarevic, Jelena ; Summerfelt, Steven T. ; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn - \ 2019
Aquaculture 498 (2019). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 578 - 586.
Closed systems - CO - Hypercapnia - RAS - Salmonids

High carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations negatively impact fish, which makes data on its tolerance especially relevant for production systems that can accumulate CO2 such as recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The current study evaluates the effect of CO2 on the growth performance, welfare, and health of Atlantic salmon post-smolts in RAS. This study consisted of two phases. The first was a CO2 exposure phase, where eighteen tanks were used with six treatments in triplicate: 5, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40 mg/L of CO2 during 12 weeks in a 12 ppt salinity RAS (hereafter RAS phase). In the second phase, PIT-tagged fish were transferred to a 34 ppt salinity single flow-through tank at CO2 < 5 mg/L (hereafter seawater phase) for an additional 6-week experimental period mimicking a seawater phase. Overall, mortality of fish exposed to CO2 was low and not related to treatments. The mean final body weight was significantly higher in the 5 mg/L treatment compared to CO2 treatments ≥12 mg/L at the end of RAS phase and to CO2 treatments ≥33 mg/L at the end of seawater phase. Moreover, regressions showed that growth significantly decreased linearly with increasing CO2 in the water. Eye cataracts and visible external damage on skin, operculum, and fins were inexistent and similar among CO2 treatments. Kidneys showed no signs of mineral deposits in any of the structures of the tissue. However, skin analysis showed that fish exposed to high CO2 concentrations had a significantly thinner dermis layer (both at the end of RAS and seawater phase) and a significantly thinner epidermis layer and lower mucus cells count (at the end of seawater phase). In conclusion, Atlantic salmon post-smolts cultured in brackish water RAS showed a maximum growth performance at CO2 concentrations below 12 mg/L. Except skin, no major effects of health and welfare were observed, including cataracts and nephrocalcinosis. Further studies should evaluate the molecular and physiological responses to both short-term and long-term carbon dioxide exposure.

Performance of secondary wastewater treatment methods for the removal of contaminants of emerging concern implicated in crop uptake and antibiotic resistance spread : A review
Krzeminski, Pawel ; Tomei, Maria Concetta ; Karaolia, Popi ; Langenhoff, Alette ; Almeida, C.M.R. ; Felis, Ewa ; Gritten, Fanny ; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus ; Fernandes, Telma ; Manaia, Celia M. ; Rizzo, Luigi ; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 648 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1052 - 1081.
Antibiotic resistance - Biological processes - CEC removal - Crop uptake - EU Watch list - Secondary wastewater treatment

Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) discharged in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), not specifically designed for their removal, pose serious hazards to human health and ecosystems. Their impact is of particular relevance to wastewater disposal and re-use in agricultural settings due to CEC uptake and accumulation in food crops and consequent diffusion into the food-chain. This is the reason why the chemical CEC discussed in this review have been selected considering, besides recalcitrance, frequency of detection and entity of potential hazards, their relevance for crop uptake. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been included as microbial CEC because of the potential of secondary wastewater treatment to offer conditions favourable to the survival and proliferation of ARB, and dissemination of ARGs. Given the adverse effects of chemical and microbial CEC, their removal is being considered as an additional design criterion, which highlights the necessity of upgrading conventional WWTPs with more effective technologies. In this review, the performance of currently applied biological treatment methods for secondary treatment is analysed. To this end, technological solutions including conventional activated sludge (CAS), membrane bioreactors (MBRs), moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs), and nature-based solutions such as constructed wetlands (CWs) are compared for the achievable removal efficiencies of the selected CEC and their potential of acting as reservoirs of ARB&ARGs. With the aim of giving a picture of real systems, this review focuses on data from full-scale and pilot-scale plants treating real urban wastewater. To achieve an integrated assessment, technologies are compared considering also other relevant evaluation parameters such as investment and management costs, complexity of layout and management, present scale of application and need of a post-treatment. Comparison results allow the definition of design and operation strategies for the implementation of CEC removal in WWTPs, when agricultural reuse of effluents is planned.

Herbarium Genomics: Plant Archival DNA Explored
Bakker, F.T. - \ 2018
In: Population Genomics Springer
Herbarium genomics, allowing testing of historic biological hypotheses in plant science, is a promising field mainly driven by recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Herbarium collections represent an enormous botanical repository of both specimens and of phenotypic observations and locality data, of sometimes long-extinct taxa. Herbarium specimens, a large part of which stem from the nineteenth and eighteenth century, are mostly pressed and mounted and were usually heat-treated and poisoned for preservation. Whereas the presence of post-mortem damage in herbarium DNA has been found to consist of mainly genome fragmentation (single- and double-stranded breaks), damage-derived miscoding lesions appear to be highly limited or even negligible. For organelle genomes and other repetitive genomic compartments, genome skimming appears effective in retrieving sequence data from plant herbarium specimens, whereas studies addressing herbarium nuclear-encoded genes and particularly whole genomes are still in minority. High levels of herbarium genomic fragmentation possibly lead to insert sizes being smaller than Illumina read lengths applied. Using a series of 93 herbarium DNA samples, representing 10 angiosperm families, near-complete plastomes were assembled for 80% of the specimens, some of which are 146 years old. Overlapping read pairs were found to occur in roughly 80% of all read pairs obtained. After merging such overlapping pairs, the resulting fragments and their distribution can be considered to reflect the ongoing process of genome fragmentation up to the moment of DNA extraction. Fragment length distributions appear to fit gamma distributions with either many small fragments present or an increasing number of longer fragments having accumulated. These distributions appear to differ from usually observed first-order genomic degradation kinetics, possibly due to the nonrepresentative nature of genome skimming samples.
Looking beyond conflict: the long-term impact of suffering war crimes on recovery in post-conflict northern Uganda
Atim, Teddy - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): Margit van Wessel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435369 - 231
Technical note : Mapping surface-saturation dynamics with thermal infrared imagery
Glaser, Barbara ; Antonelli, Marta ; Chini, Marco ; Pfister, Laurent ; Klaus, Julian - \ 2018
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22 (2018)11. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 5987 - 6003.

Surface saturation can have a critical impact on runoff generation and water quality. Saturation patterns are dynamic, thus their potential control on discharge and water quality is also variable in time. In this study, we assess the practicability of applying thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for mapping surface-saturation dynamics. The advantages of TIR imagery compared to other surface-saturation mapping methods are its large spatial and temporal flexibility, its non-invasive character, and the fact that it allows for a rapid and intuitive visualization of surface-saturated areas. Based on an 18-month field campaign, we review and discuss the methodological principles, the conditions in which the method works best, and the problems that may occur. These considerations enable potential users to plan efficient TIR imagery-mapping campaigns and benefit from the full potential offered by TIR imagery, which we demonstrate with several application examples. In addition, we elaborate on image post-processing and test different methods for the generation of binary saturation maps from the TIR images. We test the methods on various images with different image characteristics. Results show that the best method, in addition to a manual image classification, is a statistical approach that combines the fitting of two pixel class distributions, adaptive thresholding, and region growing.

Students’ online argumentative peer feedback, essay writing, and content learning : does gender matter?
Noroozi, Omid ; Hatami, Javad ; Bayat, Arash ; Ginkel, Stan van; Biemans, Harm J.A. ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2018
Interactive Learning Environments (2018). - ISSN 1049-4820 - 16 p.
Argumentative essay - gender - learning - online peer feedback - writing

Whilst the importance of online peer feedback and writing argumentative essays for students in higher education is unquestionable, there is a need for further research into whether and the extent to which female and male students differ with regard to their argumentative feedback, essay writing, and content learning in online settings. The current study used a pre-test, post-test design to explore the extent to which female and male students differ regarding their argumentative feedback quality, essay writing and content learning in an online environment. Participants were 201 BSc biotechnology students who wrote an argumentative essay, engaged in argumentative peer feedback with learning partners in the form of triads and finally revised their original argumentative essay. The findings revealed differences between females and males in terms of the quality of their argumentative feedback. Female students provided higher-quality argumentative feedback than male students. Although all students improved their argumentative essay quality and also knowledge content from pre-test to post-test, these improvements were not significantly different between females and males. Explanations for these findings and recommendations are provided.

RNA interference-based antiviral immune response against the salivary gland hypertrophy virus in Glossina pallidipes
Meki, Irene K. ; Kariithi, Henry M. ; Parker, Andrew G. ; Vreysen, Marc J.B. ; Ros, Vera I.D. ; Vlak, Just M. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Abd-Alla, Adly M.M. - \ 2018
BMC Microbiology 18 (2018). - ISSN 1471-2180 - p. 257 - 270.
Covert infections - Glossinidae - GpSGHV - RNAi - Sterile insect technique - Symptomatic and asymptomatic infection - Tsetse

BACKGROUND: Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; Hytrosaviridae) is a non-occluded dsDNA virus that specifically infects the adult stages of the hematophagous tsetse flies (Glossina species, Diptera: Glossinidae). GpSGHV infections are usually asymptomatic, but unknown factors can result to a switch to acute symptomatic infection, which is characterized by the salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome associated with decreased fecundity that can ultimately lead to a colony collapse. It is uncertain how GpSGHV is maintained amongst Glossina spp. populations but RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, a conserved antiviral defense in insects, is hypothesized to be amongst the host's mechanisms to maintain the GpSGHV in asymptomatic (persistent or latent) infection state. Here, we investigated the involvement of RNAi during GpSGHV infections by comparing the expression of three key RNAi machinery genes, Dicer (DCR), Argonaute (AGO) and Drosha, in artificially virus injected, asymptomatic and symptomatic infected G. pallidipes flies compared to PBS injected (controls) individuals. We further assessed the impact of AGO2 knockdown on virus infection by RT-qPCR quantification of four selected GpSGHV genes, i.e. odv-e66, dnapol, maltodextrin glycosyltransferase (a tegument gene) and SGHV091 (a capsid gene). RESULTS: We show that in response to hemocoelic injections of GpSGHV into G. pallidipes flies, increased virus replication was accompanied by significant upregulation of the expression of three RNAi key genes; AGO1, AGO2 and DCR2, and a moderate increase in the expression of Drosha post injection compared to the PBS-injected controls. Furthermore, compared to asymptomatically infected individuals, symptomatic flies showed significant downregulation of AGO1, AGO2 and Drosha, but a moderate increase in the expression of DCR2. Compared to the controls, knockdown of AGO2 did not have a significant impact on virus infection in the flies as evidenced by unaltered transcript levels of the selected GpSGHV genes. CONCLUSION: The upregulation of the expression of the RNAi genes implicate involvement of this machinery in controlling GpSGHV infections and the establishment of symptomatic GpSGHV infections in Glossina. These findings provide a strategic foundation to understand GpSGHV infections and to control latent (asymptomatic) infections in Glossina spp. and thereby control SGHVs in insect production facilities.

Soy supplementation : Impact on gene expression in different tissues of ovariectomized rats and evaluation of the rat model to predict (post)menopausal health effect
Islam, Mohammed A. ; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J. ; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den; Velpen, Vera van der; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Leeuwen, F.X.R. van - \ 2018
Toxicology Reports 5 (2018). - ISSN 2214-7500 - p. 1087 - 1097.
(Post)menopausal health effect - Gene expression - Ovariectomized rat model - Soy isoflavone supplementation

This toxicogenomic study was conducted to predict (post)menopausal human health effects of commercial soy supplementation using ovariectomized rats as a model. Different target tissues (i.e. breast, uterus and sternum) and non-target tissues (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), adipose and liver) of ovariectomized F344 rats exposed to a commercially available soy supplement for eight weeks, were investigated. Changes in gene expression in these tissues were analysed using whole-genome microarray analysis. No correlation in changes in gene expression were observed among different tissues, indicating tissue specific effects of soy isoflavone supplementation. Out of 87 well-established estrogen responsive genes (ERGs), only 19 were found to be significantly regulated (p < 0.05) in different tissues, particularly in liver, adipose and uterus tissues. Surprisingly, no ERGs were significantly regulated in estrogen sensitive breast and sternum tissues. The changes in gene expression in PBMC and adipose tissue in rats were compared with those in (post)menopausal female volunteers who received the same supplement in a similar oral dose and exposure duration in human intervention studies. No correlation in changes in gene expression between rats and humans was observed. Although receiving a similar dose, in humans the plasma levels expressed as total free aglycones were several folds higher than in the rat. Therefore, the overall results in young ovariectomized female F344 rats indicated that using rat transcriptomic data does not provide a suitable model for human risk or benefit analysis of soy isoflavone supplementation.

Short term policies to keep the door open for Paris climate goals
Kriegler, Elmar ; Bertram, Christoph ; Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Jakob, Michael ; Pehl, Michaja ; Stevanović, Miodrag ; Höhne, Niklas ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Minx, Jan C. ; Fekete, Hanna ; Hilaire, Jérôme ; Luna, Lisa ; Popp, Alexander ; Steckel, Jan Christoph ; Sterl, Sebastian ; Yalew, Amsalu Woldie ; Dietrich, Jan Philipp ; Edenhofer, Ottmar - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)7. - ISSN 1748-9318
1.5C - 2C temperature limits - Carbon pricing - Integrated assessment - Mitigation pathway - Paris Agreement - Political implementability - Regulatory policies

Climate policy needs to account for political and social acceptance. Current national climate policy plans proposed under the Paris Agreement lead to higher emissions until 2030 than cost-effective pathways towards the Agreements' long-term temperature goals would imply. Therefore, the current plans would require highly disruptive changes, prohibitive transition speeds, and large long-term deployment of risky mitigation measures for achieving the agreement's temperature goals after 2030. Since the prospects of introducing the cost-effective policy instrument, a global comprehensive carbon price in the near-term, are negligible, we study how a strengthening of existing plans by a global roll-out of regional policies can ease the implementation challenge of reaching the Paris temperature goals. The regional policies comprise a bundle of regulatory policies in energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, and land use and moderate, regionally differentiated carbon pricing. We find that a global roll-out of these policies could reduce global CO2 emissions by an additional 10 GtCO2eq in 2030 compared to current plans. It would lead to emissions pathways close to the levels of cost-effective likely below 2C scenarios until 2030, thereby reducing implementation challenges post 2030. Even though a gradual phase-in of a portfolio of regulatory policies might be less disruptive than immediate cost-effective carbon pricing, it would perform worse in other dimensions. In particular, it leads to higher economic impacts that could become major obstacles in the long-term. Hence, such policy packages should not be viewed as alternatives to carbon pricing, but rather as complements that provide entry points to achieve the Paris climate goals.

The impact of instructed mental simulation on wanting and choice between vice and virtue food products
Muñoz-Vilches, Naomí C. ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293
Choice - Health - Hedonic - Mental simulation - Utilitarian - Wanting

Deciding what to eat often implies a conflict between immediate goals (I need to eat, ideally something enjoyable) and long-term goals (I need to be healthy), particularly when choosing between foods superior on a hedonic dimension (referred to as vices) and foods superior on an utilitarian dimension (referred to as virtues). One sort of intervention that could potentially shift balance between short-term and long-term consequences is instructed mental simulation. Mental simulations could be characterised as images or can be embodied, as a complete experience, including body sensations, feelings and images. We examine systematic differences in two types of instructed mental simulation: imagining the moment of consumption (process) and post-consumption (outcome), and emphasise the importance of product type (vice, virtue) on its effect on wanting and choice. In a within-subject experiment, 76 participants were allocated to the two mental simulation conditions (happening in different sessions) and imagined consuming or having consumed a vice and a virtue product. After imagining each product, the participants rated their level of wanting and indicated the product they preferred: the vice or the virtue one. The results showed that imagining the consumption of the vice product or the post-consumption of the virtue product increased the rate of wanting for the correspondent product, the same pattern was found for preferences. Furthermore, results showed that health orientation moderated the effect of mental simulation on wanting and choice. Further knowledge in different simulation types may have important implications for understanding how we represent food in our mind and help with the development of effective communicational interventions that nudge people towards healthier food choices.

A protocol for an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized land-use and climate scenarios
Kim, Hyejin ; Rosa, Isabel M.D. ; Alkemade, Rob ; Leadley, Paul ; Hurtt, George ; Popp, Alexander ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Anthoni, Peter ; Arneth, Almut ; Baisero, Daniele ; Caton, Emma ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Chini, Louise ; Palma, Adriana De; Fulvio, Fulvio Di; Marco, Moreno Di; Espinoza, Felipe ; Ferrier, Simon ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Gonzalez, Ricardo E. ; Gueguen, Maya ; Guerra, Carlos ; Harfoot, Mike ; Harwood, Thomas D. ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Havlík, Petr ; Hellweg, Stefanie ; Hill, Samantha L.L. ; Hirata, Akiko ; Hoskins, Andrew J. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Jetz, Walter ; Johnson, Justin A. ; Krause, Andreas ; Leclère, David ; Martins, Ines S. ; Matsui, Tetsuya ; Merow, Cory ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Ohashi, Haruka ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Purvis, Andy ; Quesada, Benjamin ; Rondinini, Carlo ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Sharp, Richard ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Thuiller, Wilfried ; Titeux, Nicolas - \ 2018
Geoscientific Model Development 11 (2018)11. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 4537 - 4562.

To support the assessments of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the IPBES Expert Group on Scenarios and Models is carrying out an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized scenarios (BES-SIM). The goals of BES-SIM are (1) to project the global impacts of land-use and climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services (i.e., nature's contributions to people) over the coming decades, compared to the 20th century, using a set of common metrics at multiple scales, and (2) to identify model uncertainties and research gaps through the comparisons of projected biodiversity and ecosystem services across models. BES-SIM uses three scenarios combining specific Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)-SSP1xRCP2.6, SSP3xRCP6.0, SSP5xRCP8.6-to explore a wide range of land-use change and climate change futures. This paper describes the rationale for scenario selection, the process of harmonizing input data for land use, based on the second phase of the Land Use Harmonization Project (LUH2), and climate, the biodiversity and ecosystem services models used, the core simulations carried out, the harmonization of the model output metrics, and the treatment of uncertainty. The results of this collaborative modeling project will support the ongoing global assessment of IPBES, strengthen ties between IPBES and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios and modeling processes, advise the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on its development of a post-2020 strategic plans and conservation goals, and inform the development of a new generation of nature-centred scenarios.

Ecotourism after nature : Anthropocene tourism as a new capitalist “fix”
Fletcher, Robert - \ 2018
Journal of Sustainable Tourism (2018). - ISSN 0966-9582
Anthropocene - capitalism - Capitalocene - disaster - ecotourism - voluntourism

How does ecotourism–conventionally characterized by its pursuit of a “natural” experience–confront assertions that “nature is over” attendant to growing promotion of the “Anthropocene”? One increasingly prominent strategy is to try to harness this “end of nature” itself as a novel tourism “product”. If the Anthropocene is better understood as the Capitalocene, as some contend, then this strategy can be viewed as a paradigmatic example of disaster capitalism in which crises precipitated by capitalist processes are themselves exploited as new forms of accumulation. In this way, engagement with the Anthropocene becomes the latest in a series of spatio-temporal “fixes” that the tourism industry can be seen to provide to the capitalist system in general. Here I explore this dynamic by examining several ways in which the prospect of the loss of “natural” resources are promoted as the basis of tourism experience: disaster tourism; extinction tourism; voluntourism; development tourism; and, increasingly, self-consciously Anthropocene tourism as well. Via such strategies, Anthropocene tourism exemplifies capitalism’s astonishing capacity for self-renewal through creative destruction, sustaining itself in a “post-nature” world by continuing to market social and environmental awareness and action even while shifting from pursuit of nonhuman “nature” previously grounding these aims.

Direct and Long-Term Metabolic Consequences of Lowly vs. Highly-Digestible Starch in the Early Post-Weaning Diet of Mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2072-6643
adipose tissue - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - carbohydrates - glycemic index - indirect calorimetry - metabolic flexibility - nutrition - sexual dimorphism

Starches of low and high digestibility have different metabolic effects. Here, we examined whether this gives differential metabolic programming when fed in the immediate post-weaning period. Chow-fed mice were time-mated, and their nests were standardized and cross-fostered at postnatal days 1⁻2. After postnatal week (PW) 3, individually housed female and male offspring were switched to a lowly-digestible (LDD) or highly-digestible starch diet (HDD) for three weeks. All of the mice received the same high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks thereafter. Energy and substrate metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation were studied at the end of the HDD/LDD and HFD periods by extended indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance (PW 11) and metabolic flexibility (PW14) were analyzed. Directly in response to the LDD versus the HDD, females showed smaller adipocytes with less crown-like structures in gonadal white adipose tissue, while males had a lower fat mass and higher whole body fat oxidation levels. Both LDD-fed females and males showed an enlarged intestinal tract. Although most of the phenotypical differences disappeared in adulthood in both sexes, females exposed to LDD versus HDD in the early post-weaning period showed improved metabolic flexibility in adulthood. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the type of starch introduced after weaning could, at least in females, program later-life health.

Telemonitoring to improve nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly : Design and methods for process and effect evaluation of a non-randomized controlled trial
Doorn-van Atten, M.N. van; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Pilichowski, P. ; Roca, R. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2018
BMC Geriatrics 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2318
Community-dwelling elderly - Prevention - Real-life setting - Study protocol - Telemonitoring - Undernutrition

Background: A good nutritional status is key for maintaining health and quality of life in older adults. In the Netherlands, 11 to 35% of the community-dwelling elderly are undernourished. Undernutrition or the risk of it should be signalled as soon as possible to be able to intervene at an early stage. However, in the context of an ageing population health care resources are scarce, evoking interest in health enabling technologies such as telemonitoring. This article describes the design of an intervention study focussing at telemonitoring and improving nutritional status of community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The PhysioDom Home Dietary Intake Monitoring intervention was evaluated using a parallel arm pre-test post-test design including 215 Dutch community-dwelling elderly aged > 65 years. The six-month intervention included nutritional telemonitoring, television messages, and dietary advice by a nurse or a dietician. The control group received usual care. Measurements were performed at baseline, after 4.5 months, and at the end of the study, and included the primary outcome nutritional status and secondary outcomes behavioural determinants, diet quality, appetite, body weight, physical activity, physical functioning, and quality of life. Furthermore, a process evaluation was conducted to provide insight into intervention delivery, feasibility, and acceptability. Discussion: This study will improve insight into feasibility and effectiveness of telemonitoring of nutritional parameters in community-dwelling elderly. This will provide relevant insights for health care professionals, researchers, and policy makers. Trial registration: The study was retrospectively registered at (identifier NCT03240094) since August 3, 2017.

Phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Ppt)-mediated biosynthesis of lysine, but not siderophores or DHN melanin, is required for virulence of Zymoseptoria tritici on wheat
Derbyshire, Mark C. ; Gohari, Amir Mirzadi ; Mehrabi, Rahim ; Kilaru, Sreedhar ; Steinberg, Gero ; Ali, Solaf ; Bailey, Andy ; Hammond-Kosack, Kim ; Kema, Gert H.J. ; Rudd, Jason J. - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease of wheat. Z. tritici is an apoplastic fungal pathogen, which does not penetrate plant cells at any stage of infection, and has a long initial period of symptomless leaf colonisation. During this phase it is unclear to what extent the fungus can access host plant nutrients or communicate with plant cells. Several important primary and secondary metabolite pathways in fungi are regulated by the post-translational activator phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Ppt) which provides an essential co-factor for lysine biosynthesis and the activities of non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS). To investigate the relative importance of lysine biosynthesis, NRPS-based siderophore production and PKS-based DHN melanin biosynthesis, we generated deletion mutants of ZtPpt. The ∆ZtPpt strains were auxotrophic for lysine and iron, non-melanised and non-pathogenic on wheat. Deletion of the three target genes likely affected by ZtPpt loss of function (Aar- lysine; Nrps1-siderophore and Pks1- melanin), highlighted that lysine auxotrophy was the main contributing factor for loss of virulence, with no reduction caused by loss of siderophore production or melanisation. This reveals Ppt, and the lysine biosynthesis pathway, as potential targets for fungicides effective against Z. tritici.

Resolving the dilemma between team autonomy and control in a post-bureaucratic era: Evidences from a telco multinational company
Annosi, M.C. ; Brunetta, Federica - \ 2018
Organizational Dynamics 47 (2018)4. - p. 250 - 258.
Identification of risk factors and prevalence of injuries at different stages of the broiler slaughter process
Jong, I.C. de; Gerritzen, Marien ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Lohman, T. - \ 2018
In: The XVth European Poultry Conference: Conference Information and Proceedings / Prukner-Radovčić, Estella, Medić, Helga, Zagreb : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 240 - 240.
Broiler, Handling, Injuries, Slaughter, Welfare
Transport and handling of broilers during the (pre)slaughter process are risk factors for welfare. The impact of preslaughter treatments on injuries and thus the effect on welfare is poorly known. Moreover, it is unclear which proportion of carcass damage can be attributed to the conscious phase, and affects welfare, and which proportion of carcass damage can be attributed to handling after stunning and killing of birds and is related to product quality. We first analysed routinely collected data of a Dutch slaughter plant to identify risk factors for carcass damage. It was included whether or not prevalence of carcass damage was related to flock welfare status. Data collected in 2014-2016 from five farms with low foot pad dermatitis (FPD) score (<40 points) and five farms with high FPD score (>80 points) were analysed (N=771 flocks), assuming that FPD score was indicative of flock welfare status. A regression model was applied. The model showed positive associations between live body weight (P=0.000; B=0.001), number of dead-on-arrival (P=0.001; B=0.004), and wing damage. A negative association was found between wing damage and number of broilers per tray (P=0.037; B=-0.015). No relation between FPD score and carcass damage was found. Second, prevalence of injuries or damage during the slaughter process was determined in 20 flocks. Wing, leg and breast bruises, wing dislocations, and wing and leg fractures were scored between lairage and post-plucking. An increase in wing fractures from lairage (0,99%), post-shackling (1.67%), post-stunning (2.73%) and post-plucking (5.02%) was found (P=0.000 between all stages). Medium and large breast bruises increased between lairage and post-plucking (P=0.000). Small wing bruises decreased between lairage and post-plucking (P=0.047). This study showed that flock welfare status was not related to injuries, and that weight and crate density could be identified as risk factors for wing damage. Injuries and damage do mainly occur during the slaughter process. However, it was difficult to determine whether or not carcass damage originated from handling live animals, and thus is an animal welfare problem, or after stunning and therefore is a product quality issue. It is advised to develop an accuratebruise and damage scoring system that can be used to determine whether or not carcassdamage was caused in live animals.
Comparison of performance, health and welfare aspects between commercially housed hatchery-hatched and on-farm hatched broiler flocks
Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Hattum, T. van; Riel, J.W. van; Raaijmakers, M.M.P. ; Zoet, E.S. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 9 p.
broiler - early feeding - on-farm hatching - performance - welfare

On-farm hatching systems for broiler chicks are increasingly used in practice. We studied whether or not performance, health and welfare aspects differed between commercial flocks hatched on-farm or in a hatchery (control). In two successive production cycles on seven farms, a total of 16 on-farm hatched flocks were paired to 16 control flocks, housed at the same farm. Paired flocks originated from the same batch of eggs and were subjected to similar on-farm management. On-farm hatched and control flocks only differed with respect to hatching conditions, with on-farm hatched flocks not being exposed to, for example, chick handling, post-hatch feed and water deprivation and transport, in contrast to control flocks that were subjected to standard hatchery procedures, subsequently transported and placed in the poultry house. Day-old chick quality (navel and hock scores), 1st week mortality, total mortality, BW at day (d) 0, d7 and at depopulation, and (total) feed conversion ratio were determined. Prevalence of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, breast discoloration/blisters and cleanliness, litter quality and gait score were determined at d21 of age and around depopulation (d39 on average). Gross pathology and gut morphology were examined at depopulation age in a sample of birds of five flocks per treatment. On-farm hatching resulted in a higher BW at d0 (=5.4 g) and d7 (=11.5 g) (P<0.001), but day-old chick quality as measured by navel (P=0.003) and hock (P=0.01) quality was worse for on-farm hatched compared to control birds. Body weight, 1st week and total mortality, and feed conversion ratio at slaughter age were similar for both on-farm hatched and control flocks. On-farm hatched flocks had less footpad dermatitis (P=0.05), which indicated a better welfare. This was likely related to a tendency for better litter quality in on-farm hatched flocks at 21 days of age in comparison to control flocks (P=0.08). No major differences in gross pathology or in intestinal morphology at depopulation age were found between treatments. In conclusion, on-farm hatching resulted in better 1st week broiler performance and better welfare compared to conventional hatching in a hatchery.

Lessons learned from monitoring the stable water isotopic variability in precipitation and streamflow across a snow-dominated subarctic catchment
Lyon, Steve W. ; Ploum, Stefan W. ; Velde, Ype van der; Rocher-Ros, Gerard ; Mörth, Carl Magnus ; Giesler, Reiner - \ 2018
Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 50 (2018)1. - ISSN 1523-0430
Catchment hydrology - freshet - spring flood - stable water isotopes - tracers

This empirical study explores shifts in stable water isotopic composition for a subarctic catchment located in northern Sweden as it transitions from spring freshet to summer low flows. Relative changes in the isotopic composition of streamflow across the main catchment and fifteen nested subcatchments are characterized in relation to the isotopic composition of precipitation. With our sampling campaign, we explore the variability in stream-water isotopic composition that originates from precipitation as the input shifts from snow to rain and as landscape flow pathways change across scales. The isotopic similarity of high-elevation snowpack water and early season rainfall water seen through our sampling scheme made it difficult to truly isolate the impact of seasonal precipitation phase change on stream-water isotopic response. This highlights the need to explicitly consider the complexity of arctic and alpine landscapes when designing sampling strategies to characterize hydrological variability via stable water isotopes. Results show a potential influence of evaporation and source water mixing both spatially (variations with elevation) and temporally (variations from post-freshet to summer flows) on the composition of stream water across Miellajokka. As such, the data collected in this empirical study allow for initial conceptualization of the relative importance of, for example, hydrological connectivity within this mountainous, subarctic landscape.

Post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets in practice is associated with protein fermentation, but specific protein fermentation metabolites contribute differently
Gilbert, M.S. ; Hee, B. van der; Gulersonmez, M. ; Stigter, E. ; Kies, Arie ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2018
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.