Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The applicability of animal health surveillance systems for post-market monitoring of potential adverse effects of genetically modified (GM) feed
Vince, L. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Kostov, K. ; Pfeiffer, D.U. ; Guitian, J. - \ 2018
Food and Chemical Toxicology 117 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 79 - 88.
Animal feed - Animal health - Genetically modified crops - Post market monitoring (PMM) - Surveillance

A facultative post market monitoring of potential health impacts of genetically modified (GM) feedstuffs on livestock consuming these feeds after pre-market risk assessment is under ongoing consideration. Within the IPAFEED database, scientific studies on health effects beyond performance in livestock and the results of a systematic search for evidence of outcome effects due to GM feed are consolidated. These outcomes were reviewed and checked for consistency in order to identify plausible syndromes suitable for conducting surveillance. The 24 selected studies showed no consistent changes in any health parameter. There were no repeated studies in any species by GM crop type and animal species. As such, there is insufficient evidence to inform the design of surveillance systems for detecting known adverse effects. Animal health surveillance systems have been proposed for the post market monitoring of potential adverse effects in animals. Such systems were evaluated for their applicability to the detection of hypothetical adverse effects and their strengths and weaknesses to detect syndromes of concern are presented. For known adverse effects, applied controlled post-market studies may yield conclusive and high-quality evidence. For detecting unknown adverse effects, the use of existing surveillance systems may still be of interest. A simulation tool developed within the project can be adapted and applied to existing surveillance systems to explore their applicability to the detection of potential adverse effects of GM feed.

Body-fat indicators and kidney function decline in older post-myocardial infarction patients : The Alpha Omega Cohort Study
Esmeijer, Kevin ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Giltay, Erik J. ; Stijnen, Theo ; Dekker, Friedo W. ; Fijter, Johan W. de; Kromhout, Daan ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. - \ 2018
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 25 (2018)1. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 90 - 99.
Cardiovascular disease - Kidney function - Obesity - Risk factors

Background: Obesity increases risk of hypertension and diabetes, the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. The effect of obesity on kidney function decline in stable post-myocardial infarction patients is poorly documented. This relation was investigated in a large cohort of older post-myocardial infarction patients. Design: Data were analysed from 2410 post-myocardial infarction patients in the Alpha Omega Trial, aged 60–80 years receiving optimal pharmacotherapy treatment (79% men, 18% diabetes). Methods: Cystatin C based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcysC) was calculated at baseline and after 41 months, using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 and high waist circumference as ≥102 and ≥88 cm for men and women. The relation between body mass index, waist circumference and annual eGFRcysC decline was evaluated by linear regression. Results: At baseline, mean (standard deviation) eGFRcysC was 81.5 (19.6) ml/min/1.73 m2, 23% of all patients were obese. After multivariable adjustment, the annual mean (95% confidence interval) eGFRcysC decline in men and women was –1.45 (–1.59 to –1.31) and –0.92 (–1.20 to –0.63) ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively (p = 0.001). Obese versus non-obese patients and patients with high versus normal waist circumference experienced greater annual eGFRcysC decline. Men and women showed an additional annual eGFRcysC decline of –0.35 (–0.56 to –0.14) and –0.21 (–0.55 to 0.14) ml/min/1.73 m2 per 5 kg/m2 body mass index increment (p for interaction 0.3). Conclusions: High compared to normal body mass index or waist circumference were associated with more rapid kidney function decline in older stable post-myocardial infarction patients receiving optimal drug therapy.

Dietary diversity affects feeding behaviour of suckling piglets
Middelkoop, Anouschka ; Choudhury, Raka ; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Kemp, Bas ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2018
Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2018). - ISSN 0168-1591
Behaviour - Creep feed - Dietary diversity - Feed intake - Flavour - Piglet

Stimulating solid feed intake in suckling piglets is important to facilitate the weaning transition, exemplified by the positive correlation between pre- and post-weaning feed intake. The present study compared the effect of dietary diversity (i.e. offering two feeds simultaneously) and flavour novelty (i.e. regularly changing the flavour of one feed) on the feeding behaviour and performance of suckling piglets until weaning at day 22. It was hypothesized that presentation of the feed in a more diverse form, by varying multiple sensory properties of the feed, stimulates pre-weaning feed intake. Piglets received ad libitum feed from 2 days of age in two feeders per pen (choice feeding set-up). One group of piglets (dietary diversity (DD), n = 10 litters) were given feed A and feed B which differed in production method, size, flavour, ingredient composition and nutrient profile, smell, texture and colour. The other group of piglets (flavour novelty (FN), n = 9 litters) received feed A plus feed A to which one of 4 flavours were added from day 6 in a daily sequential order. Feeding behaviour was studied by weighing feed remains (d6, 12, 16, 22) and by live observations (4-min scan sampling, 6 h/d; d9, 14, 21; n = 6 litters per treatment). Observations were also used to discriminate ‘eaters’ from ‘non-eaters’. All piglets were weighed at d2, 6 and 22. Piglets did not prefer feed A (d2–22: 1.4 ± 0.16 kg/litter) over B (1.6 ± 0.18) within DD nor had a preference for feed A with (d6–22: 1.1 ± 0.06 kg/litter) or without additional flavours (0.9 ± 0.07) within FN. Nevertheless, DD-litters (d2–22: 3.0 ± 0.32 kg) ate significantly more than FN-litters (2.0 ± 0.12 kg; P = 0.02) and explored the feed 2.6 times more at d14 (P = 0.001). Furthermore feed A, the common feed provided in DD and FN, was more consumed in DD (d2–22: 1.4 ± 0.16 kg) compared to FN (1.0 ± 0.07 kg; P = 0.04). The percentage of eaters within a litter did not differ over time between DD (d9: 26%, d14: 78%, d21: 94%) and FN (20%, 71% and 97%) and no effect was found on pre-weaning weight gain. In conclusion, this study showed that provision of dietary diversity to suckling piglets stimulated their feed exploration and intake more than dietary flavour novelty only, but did not enhance the percentage of piglets within a litter that consume the feed or their growth performance. These data suggest that dietary diversity could be an innovative feeding strategy to stimulate solid feed intake in suckling piglets.

The effect of low protein energy-rich diets on plasma hepatic markers, hepatic damage, and discrimination reversal learning in young female chicks
Bona, Laura ; Staaveren, Nienke van; Pokharel, Bishwo Bandhu ; Krimpen, Marinus van; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra - \ 2018
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5 (2018). - ISSN 2297-1769
Cognition - Enzymes - Female broiler - Hepatic damage - Welfare

Consumption of low protein energy-rich (LPER) diets increases susceptibility to metabolic disease in mammals, such as hepatic damage, and can have an adverse effect on cognition. However, the effects of these diets on both physical and mental welfare have not been investigated in domestic meat chickens. Female chicks received a low protein energy-rich or a standard control diet from 21 to 51 days of age. The effects of these dietary manipulations on plasma hepatic markers for liver damage, liver necropsy, and learning a visual discrimination reversal task were assessed. Birds given access to LPER diets weighed less than chicks that had access to the control diets. All chicks had post-mortem signs of hepatic hemorrhage/increased liver color scores and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels above 230 U/L indicative of hepatic damage in birds. The LPER diet had no impact on the performance of female chicks when learning to distinguish colors in a reversal visual discrimination task. The present study suggests that liver damage does not become worse when feeding LPER or impact visual reversal learning in female meat-type chickens. However, the high incidence of liver cell damage/liver hemorrhage, and "abnormal" AST activities are of concern in female broiler chicks across both diets, and suggests that the health of modern meat-type genotypes needs to be improved.

Cardiovascular Risk Factors Accelerate Kidney Function Decline in Post−Myocardial Infarction Patients : The Alpha Omega Cohort Study
Esmeijer, Kevin ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Fijter, Johan W. de; Giltay, Erik J. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. - \ 2018
cardiovascular risk factors - kidney function decline - lifestyle

Introduction: Impaired kidney function is a robust risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Age-related annual kidney function decline of 1.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2 after age 40 years is doubled in post−myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Methods: We investigated the impact of the number of cardiovascular risk factors (including unhealthy lifestyle) on annual kidney function decline, in 2426 post-MI patients (60−80 years) of the prospective Alpha Omega Cohort study. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by serum cystatin C (eGFRcysC) and combined creatinine−cystatin C (eGFRcr-cysC), using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations from 2012. Data were analyzed by multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results: At baseline, mean (SD) eGFRcysC and eGFRcr-cysC were 81.5 (19.6) and 78.5 (18.7) ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Of all patients, 79% were men, 19% had diabetes, 56% had high blood pressure (≥140/90 mm Hg), 16% were current smokers, 56% had high serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL of ≥2.5 mmol/l), and 23% were obese (body mass index of ≥30.0 kg/m2). After multivariable adjustment, the additional annual eGFRcysC decline (95% confidence interval) was as follows: in patients with versus without diabetes, −0.90 (−1.23 to −0.57) ml/min per 1.73 m2; in patients with high versus normal blood pressure, −0.50 (−0.76 to −0.24) ml/min per 1.73 m2; in obese versus nonobese patients, −0.31 (−0.61 to 0.01) ml/min per 1.73 m2; and in current smokers versus nonsmokers, −0.19 (−0.54 to 0.16) ml/min per 1.73 m2. High LDL was not associated with accelerated eGFRcysC decline. Similar results were obtained with eGFRcr-cysC. Conclusion: In older, stable post-MI patients without cardiovascular risk factors, the annual kidney function decline was −0.90 (−1.16 to −0.65) ml/min per 1.73 m2. In contrast, in post-MI patients with ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors, the annual kidney function decline was 2.5-fold faster, at −2.37 (−2.85 to −1.89) ml/min per 1.73 m2.

Feasibility and Effectiveness of Nutritional Telemonitoring for Home Care Clients: A Pilot Study
Doorn-van Atten, Marije N. van; Haveman-nies, Annemien ; Heery, Daniel ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2018
Background and Objectives: Undernutrition has unfavorable consequences for health and quality of life. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a telemonitoring intervention to improve the nutritional status of community-dwelling older adults. Research Design and Methods: The study involved a one-group pretest post-test design, complemented by a qualitative study. The 3-month intervention included 20 Dutch home care clients aged >65 years and consisted of nutritional telemonitoring, television messages, and dietary advice. A process evaluation provided insight into intervention delivery and acceptability. Changes in behavioral determinants, diet quality, appetite, nutritional status, physical functioning, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Researchers and health care professionals implemented the intervention as intended and health care professionals accepted the intervention well. However, 9 participants dropped out, and participants’ acceptance was low, mainly due to the low usability of the telemonitoring television channel. Adherence to the telemonitoring measurements was good, although participants needed more help from nurses than anticipated. Participants increased compliance to several Dutch dietary guidelines and no effects on nutritional status, physical functioning, and quality of life were found. Discussion and Implications: Successful telemonitoring of nutritional parameters in community-dwelling older adults starts with optimal usability and acceptability by older adults and their health care professionals. This pilot study provides insight into how to optimize telemonitoring interventions for older adults for maximum impact on behavior and health.
Herd-level mastitis-associated costs on Canadian dairy farms
Aghamohammadi, Mahjoob ; Haine, Denis ; Kelton, David F. ; Barkema, Herman W. ; Hogeveen, Henk ; Keefe, Gregory P. ; Dufour, Simon - \ 2018
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5 (2018). - ISSN 2297-1769
Canada - Cattle - Dairy - Economic - Mastitis

Mastitis imposes considerable and recurring economic losses on the dairy industry worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate herd-level costs incurred by expenditures and production losses associated with mastitis on Canadian dairy farms in 2015, based on producer reports. Previously, published mastitis economic frameworks were used to develop an economic model with the most important cost components. Components investigated were divided between clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and other costs components (i.e., preventive measures and product quality). A questionnaire was mailed to 374 dairy producers randomly selected from the (Canadian National Dairy Study 2015) to collect data on these costs components, and 145 dairy producers returned a completed questionnaire. For each herd, costs due to the different mastitis-related components were computed by applying the values reported by the dairy producer to the developed economic model. Then, for each herd, a proportion of the costs attributable to a specific component was computed by dividing absolute costs for this component by total herd mastitis-related costs. Median self-reported CM incidence was 19 cases/100 cow-year and mean self-reported bulk milk somatic cell count was 184,000 cells/mL. Most producers reported using post-milking teat disinfection (97%) and dry cow therapy (93%), and a substantial proportion of producers reported using pre-milking teat disinfection (79%) and wearing gloves during milking (77%). Mastitis costs were substantial (662 CAD per milking cow per year for a typical Canadian dairy farm), with a large portion of the costs (48%) being attributed to SCM, and 34 and 15% due to CM and implementation of preventive measures, respectively. For SCM, the two most important cost components were the subsequent milk yield reduction and culling (72 and 25% of SCM costs, respectively). For CM, first, second, and third most important cost components were culling (48% of CM costs), milk yield reduction following the CM events (34%), and discarded milk (11%), respectively. This study is the first since 1990 to investigate costs of mastitis in Canada. The model developed in the current study can be used to compute mastitis costs at the herd and national level in Canada.

Sorting protocol for packaging wastes
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Huremovic, D. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1826) - 26
This sorting protocol describes a method to analyse post-consumer packaging waste samples in a relatively large detail. This detailed description of these lightweight packaging (LWP) wastes is required to provide compositional data which is required input data in material flow analysis. The protocol starts with describing the general requirements needed to study LWP in detail. Subsequently the method is described. This methodology is relative complex and laborious for LWP that contains plastic packages and is composed of three steps: sorting to main material by visual recognition, sorting into main polymer type with NIR and finally sorting into packaging type
Effects of early feeding and dietary interventions on development of lymphoid organs and immune competence in neonatal chickens : A review
Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled ; Hodgins, Douglas C. ; Lammers, Aart ; Alkie, Tamiru Negash ; Sharif, Shayan - \ 2018
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 201 (2018). - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 1 - 11.
Antimicrobial peptides - Chicken - Dietary supplementation - Early feeding - Feed additives - Heat stress - Immune system - In ovo feeding - Lymphoid organs - Nanoparticles - Phytobiotics - Prebiotics - Probiotics - TLR ligands
With the ongoing intensification of the poultry industry and the continuous need to control pathogens, there is a critical need to extend our understanding of the avian immune system and the role of nutritional interventions on development of immune competence in neonatal chicks. In this review, we will focus on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs during embryonic life and the first 2 weeks post-hatch, and how early feeding practices improve heath and modulate the development and function of the immune system in young chicks. The evidence for the positive impact of the nutrition of breeder hens on embryonic development and on the survival and immunity of their chicks will also be outlined. Additionally, we will discuss the vital role of supplemental feeding either in ovo or immediately post-hatch in chick health and immunity and the importance of these approaches in ameliorating immune system functions of heat-stressed chicks. To conclude, we provide some perspectives on a number of key issues, concerning the mechanisms of nutritional modulation of immunity, that need to be addressed. A thorough investigation of these mechanisms may assist in the formulation of diets to improve the immunity and general health status.
Effects of a multi-component nutritional telemonitoring intervention on nutritional status, diet quality, physical functioning and quality of life of community-dwelling older adults
Doorn-van Atten, M.N. van; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Bakel, M.M. van; Ferry, M. ; Franco, M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2018
British Journal of Nutrition 119 (2018)10. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1185 - 1194.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention including nutritional telemonitoring, nutrition education, and follow-up by a nurse on nutritional status, diet quality, appetite, physical functioning and quality of life of Dutch community-dwelling elderly. We used a parallel arm pre-test post-test design with 214 older adults (average age 80 years) who were allocated to the intervention group (n 97) or control group (n 107), based on the municipality. The intervention group received a 6-month intervention including telemonitoring measurements, nutrition education and follow-up by a nurse. Effect measurements took place at baseline, after 4·5 months, and at the end of the study. The intervention improved nutritional status of participants at risk of undernutrition (β (T1)=2·55; 95 % CI 1·41, 3·68; β (T2)=1·77; 95 % CI 0·60, 2·94) and scores for compliance with Dutch guidelines for the intake of vegetables (β=1·27; 95 % CI 0·49, 2·05), fruit (β=1·24; 95 % CI 0·60, 1·88), dietary fibre (β=1·13; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·57), protein (β=1·20; 95 % CI 0·15, 2·24) and physical activity (β=2·13; 95 % CI 0·98, 3·29). The intervention did not have an effect on body weight, appetite, physical functioning and quality of life. In conclusion, this intervention leads to improved nutritional status in older adults at risk of undernutrition, and to improved diet quality and physical activity levels of community-dwelling elderly. Future studies with a longer duration should focus on older adults at higher risk of undernutrition than this study population to investigate whether the impact of the intervention on nutritional and functional outcomes can be improved.
Action lab: A smart journey through OER
Post, Marijn - \ 2018
Despite the increasing amount of open educational resources (OER), their adoption by teachers remains low. One of the reasons is that it is challenging and very time consuming to find reliable, relevant and qualitative OER. Library staff do find their way in the jungle of OER, and through the use of new technologies, they can guide teachers in finding their way to OER and integration of OER in education. Currently, as a pilot, the TU Delft Library, VU and WUR (as members of the OOO library group) developed several techniques and tools to support and simplify OER searching. During an interactive discussion we would like to share the possibilities and findings of these and, in addition, we would like to investigate whether there is a need to scale up such processes for higher education. The discussion will help us mapping the needs of the OER searchers and will contribute to the development of future and running projects like “SURFsharekit” the portal created by SURFnet.
Making a Portal for Digital Educational Resources: meet Wageningen Universities Library for Learning
Post, Marijn - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research (WUR) produces an increasing amount of digital educational resources (DER) due to the introduction of MOOCs, online masters and the creation of course materials suitable for multiple courses. The DERs must be easy to find and access, however, they are scattered on different servers, networks, and personal drives. Hence, it is unknown which and how many DERs are available and where and how they can be found. As a solution WUR Library, in cooperation with ICT and the Education Support Centre, started working on a new portal to search and find DER made at the WUR. This portal, should not only be a gateway via which teachers can present their materials, but should also inspire them to re-use materials from other teachers. We named the portal Library for Learning (L4L). Within WUR a couple of repositories containing collections with DER in different data formats were already available (knowledge clips, theses and images). We were able to harvest the different repositories and transform the data into a generic data format. Via our newly created search index (L4L) teachers can search for content in the different DER collections. The DER and its metadata will be managed and stored in the native repository. Updated and new metadata records will be harvested on a regular basis. Until now, we were able to index four DER collections in the L4L: knowledge clips (source: WURTV2), MSc thesis (source: Theses online), infographics (source: Infographics ) and practical clips (Source: Groenekennis). Although we succeeded in indexing four collections, the road to success was bumpy and we faced many challenges. During our presentation we want to use the L4L as a use case for other organizations working on a similar project. We want to share our technical, communicative and metadata mapping challenges and possible solutions.
Retention soil filter as post-treatment step to remove micropollutants from sewage treatment plant effluent
Brunsch, Andrea F. ; Laak, Thomas L. ter; Christoffels, Ekkehard ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Langenhoff, Alette A.M. - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 637-638 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1098 - 1107.
Constructed wetlands - Granular activated carbon - Micropollutants - Post-treatment step - Retention soil filter - Wastewater treatment

Retention soil filters (RSFs) are a specific form of vertical flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of rain water and/or wastewater. We have tested 3 pilot RSFs to investigate removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 14 different organic micropollutants (OMPs) from the effluent of a large scale sewage treatment plant (STP). Two of them were operated as conventional RSF with material (sand with CaCO3 and organic matter) from two different full-scale RSFs. The third pilot RSF contained filter material (sand with CaCO3) with additional biochar in the upper layer (0–10 cm) and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the lower layer (60–90 cm). The filters were planted with Phragmites australis. The RSFs were operated and monitored for 3 years, and water samples were taken regularly at inflow, outflows and in 3 depths within the filters. In total 523 samples were taken. In the conventional RSF, best median removal was detected for galaxolide, diclofenac 4-hydroxy, metoprolol and clarithromycin (75–79%). No removal was seen for sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. The DOC and OMP removal in the conventional RSFs was best in the upper layer with highest organic matter content, increased in time over the three years of operation and also with extended contact time. In the effluent of the RSF with GAC, 10 out of the 14 OMPs could not be detected; 4 OMPs were detected, but only metformin with removal < 80%, thus showing a more efficient removal than the conventional RSF. A decrease in DOC removal was detected in the GAC layer (>88% to 60%) over the 2.5 years of operation. Biochar was most effective in OMP removal in the first operational year. It can be concluded that the increasing removal efficiency of the conventional RSF material – also present in the RSF with biochar and GAC – might mitigate the reduced efficiency of the sorbent additives biochar and GAC. This enables to extend the operational lifetime of the filters with acceptable removal rates. Finally, our study demonstrates that an RSF with GAC shows an enhanced removal of OMPs, which is a suitable post-treatment step for STPs.

Effects of Tree-crop Farming on Land-cover Transitions in a Mosaic Landscape in the Eastern Region of Ghana
Asubonteng, Kwabena ; Pfeffer, Karin ; Ros-tonen, Mirjam ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Baud, Isa - \ 2018
Environmental Management (2018). - ISSN 0364-152X - 19 p.
Tree crops such as cocoa and oil palm are important to smallholders’ livelihoods and national economies of tropical producer countries. Governments seek to expand tree-crop acreages and improve yields. Existing literature has analyzed socioeconomic and environmental effects of tree-crop expansion, but its spatial effects on the landscape are yet to be explored. This study aims to assess the effects of tree-crop farming on the composition and the extent of land-cover transitions in a mixed cocoa/oil palm landscape in Ghana. Land-cover maps of 1986 and 2015 produced through ISODATA, and maximum likelihood classification were validated with field reference, Google Earth data, and key respondent interviews. Post-classification change detection was conducted and the transition matrix analyzed using intensity analysis. Cocoa and oil palm areas have increased in extent by 8.9% and 11.2%, respectively, mainly at the expense of food-crop land and forest. The intensity of forest loss to both tree crops is at a lower intensity than the loss of food-crop land. There were transitions between cocoa and oil palm, but the gains in oil palm outweigh those of cocoa. Cocoa and oil palm have increased in area and dominance. The main cover types converted to tree-crop areas are food-crop land and off-reserve forest. This is beginning to have serious implications for food security and livelihood options that depend on ecosystem services provided by the mosaic landscape. Tree-crop policies should take account of the geographical distribution of tree-commodity production at landscape level and its implications for food production and ecosystems services.
Determinants of health seeking behaviour following rabies exposure in Ethiopia
Beyene, T.J. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Revie, C.W. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2018
Zoonoses and Public Health 65 (2018)4. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 443 - 453.
Ethiopia - health seeking behaviour - post-exposure treatment - rabies
The objective of this study was to identify factors that determine medical treatment seeking behaviour following potential rabies exposure after being bitten by a suspected dog and the likelihood of compliance to receive sufficient doses of post-exposure prophylaxis after the visit to a health centre visit. A detailed survey based on case investigation was conducted on suspected rabid dog bite cases in three areas of Ethiopia. Two multivariable logistic regression models were created with a set of putative variables to explain treatment seeking and compliance outcomes. Based on the registered bite cases at each health centre and the set of unregistered bite cases derived by contact tracing, 655 bite victim cases were identified to have occurred between September 2013 and August 2014. Of these evaluated bite incidences, 465 cases were considered to have been caused by a potentially rabid dog. About 77% of these suspected rabid dog bite victims visited a health centre, while 57% received sufficient doses of PEP. The overall likelihood of seeking medical services following rabies exposure was higher for people bitten by dogs of unknown ownership, where the bite was severe, being bitten on the leg, spend of more than 100 USD per month and where the victim lived close to the nearest health centre, while the likelihood of receiving sufficient doses of PEP was sensitive to monthly spending and distance to health centre. However, the evaluated factors did only explain a part of the variation among the three districts. The district in which victims lived appeared to have a relevant influence on the likelihood of seeking medical treatment but did not improve the prediction on the likelihood of treatment compliance. Given the insights obtained from this study, improvements in the rural districts with regard to accessibility of post-exposure prophylaxis delivering health centres in shorter distance could improve health seeking behaviour. In addition, in rural districts, majority of exposed persons who seek medical treatment tend to comply with treatment regimen, indicating that the promotion of medical treatment through awareness creation campaigns could be beneficial.
Experimenting with a novel technology for provision of safe drinking water in rural Bangladesh: The case of sub-surface arsenic removal (SAR)
Kundu, D.K. ; Gupta, A. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Rahman, M.M. ; Halem, Doris van - \ 2018
Technology in Society 53 (2018). - ISSN 0160-791X - p. 161 - 172.
Arsenic contamination - Safe drinking water - Socio-technical experiment - Sub-surface arsenic removal - Bangladesh
Subsurface Arsenic Removal (SAR) is a technique used for in-situ removal of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater. This new technology was deployed recently on an experimental basis in two sites in rural Bangladesh, to address the pressing problem of rural drinking water supplies contaminated by arsenic. This article assesses whether and to what extent these first field experiments with SAR can be conceptualized as “socio-technical experiments” designed to incubate and improve radical technological innovations by serving as ‘living lab”, “window” and/or “agent of change”. As per writings in transition theory, an experiment functions as a living lab if it permits testing, learning and improving upon a technological innovation. It functions as a window if it is able to facilitate communication and conversation by raising actors’ interest and enrolling new actors. It functions as an agent of change if it can successfully stimulate changes in potential users' practices and behaviours. Through studying two SAR experiments, this article finds that this novel technology served as a living lab and window, but not (yet) as agent of change, partly because integrating social considerations (such as community buy-in, appropriate site selection and post-installation support) into SAR prototype design during field experimentation proved very difficult. A key obstacle was that the technical efficacy of the technology remained a primary concern during experimentation, and it was unsafe to make water deriving from experimental SAR units available to users. The technology thus remained an abstract idea and provided unable to stimulate behavioural changes amongst users. We conclude that there is a need to identify conditions under which real world experiments can serve as agents of change to facilitate sustainable uptake of arsenic safe technologies in rural developing country contexts.
Sephadex filtration as successful alternative to density-gradient centrifugation procedures for ram sperm selection with improved kinetics
Galarza, D.A. ; López-Sebastián, A. ; Woelders, H. ; Blesbois, E. ; Santiago-Moreno, J. - \ 2018
Animal Reproduction Science 192 (2018). - ISSN 0378-4320 - p. 261 - 270.
Centrifugation - Filtration - Gradients - Selection - Sperm
Density-gradients centrifugation (DGC) and filtration columns (FC) are used to separate deformed or dead sperm, debris, and other cells that may negatively affect the fertilizing capacity of sperm in fresh, chilled and frozen/thawed semen. The present study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of DGC (BoviPure®, Percoll® and Accudenz®) and FC (Sephadex G-15®) sperm selection procedures for fresh-extended and cold-stored ram semen by assessment of post-treatment sperm quality variables. Twenty normospermic ejaculates from ten adult Merino rams were used. Sperm concentration of recovered cells was greater (P < 0.001) after BoviPure treatment than other procedures in both fresh and cold semen. With the Sephadex method, there were more desirable values than with use of DGC procedures in several sperm motility variables measured by using the CASA system. In non-refrigerated semen samples, the percentage of progressive sperm motility (%PSM) after Sephadex filtration was greater (P < 0.05) than after BoviPure treatment; the straightline velocity (VSL) value after Sephadex filtration was greater (P < 0.01) than after Accudenz treatment; the amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) after Sephadex and Accudenz treatment was less than non-filtered semen (P < 0.001) and after Percoll (P < 0.01) and BoviPure (P < 0.05) treatments. In cold-stored semen samples, the %PSM after Sephadex filtration was greater than non-filtered (P < 0.05) semen and after BoviPure (P < 0.05), Percoll (P < 0.05) and Accudenz (P < 0.001) treatments. It is concluded that Sephadex column filtration can be used to select ram sperm in non-refrigerated and cooled semen, because percentage progressively motile sperm and some other sperm motility characteristics are greater with use of this techniques as compared with use of DGC methods.
Land in post-conflict situations : War, decentralization, land governance and state formation In Northern Uganda
Kobusingye, Doreen Nancy - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): M. van Leeuwen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437721 - 142
Comparing transient and steady-state analysis of single-ring infiltrometer data for an abandoned field affected by fire in Eastern Spain
Prima, Simone Di; Lassabatere, Laurent ; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús ; Marrosu, Roberto ; Pulido, Manuel ; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael ; úbeda, Xavier ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Cerdà, Artemi ; Pirastru, Mario - \ 2018
Water 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 2073-4441
Bottomless bucket method - Data analysis procedures - Field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity - Infiltration - Post-fire soil hydraulic characterization - Single-ring infiltrometer
This study aimed at determining the field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, of an unmanaged field affected by fire by means of single-ring infiltrometer runs and the use of transient and steady-state data analysis procedures. Sampling and measurements were carried out in 2012 and 2017 in a fire-affected field (burnt site) and in a neighboring non-affected site (control site). The predictive potential of different data analysis procedures (i.e., transient and steady-state) to yield proper Kfs estimates was investigated. In particular, the transient WU1 method and the BB, WU2 and OPD methods were compared. The cumulative linearization (CL) method was used to apply the WU1 method. Values of Kfs ranging from 0.87 to 4.21 mm·h-1 were obtained, depending on the considered data analysis method. The WU1 method did not yield significantly different Kfs estimates between the sampled sites throughout the five-year period, due to the generally poor performance of the CL method, which spoiled the soil hydraulic characterization. In particular, good fits were only obtained in 23% of the cases. The BB, WU2 and the OPD methods, with a characterization based exclusively on a stabilized infiltration process, yielded an appreciably lower variability of the Kfs data as compared with the WU1 method. It was concluded that steady-state methods were more appropriate for detecting slight changes of Kfs in post-fire soil hydraulic characterizations. Our results showed a certain degree of soil degradation at the burnt site with an immediate reduction of the soil organic matter and a progressive increase of the soil bulk density during the five years following the fire. This general impoverishment resulted in a slight but significant decrease in the field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity.
Introduction: Colonialism, Institutional Change, and Shifts in Global Labour Relations
Hofmeester, Karin ; Zwart, P. de - \ 2018
In: Colonialism, Institutional Change, and Shifts in Global Labour Relations / Hofmeester, Karin, de Zwart, Pim, Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press - ISBN 9789462984363 - p. 11 - 26.
The introduction explains the purpose of this volume: to explain the development of labour relations by looking at the institutions pertaining to various economic resources in society: commodities, land, labour, and capital. Rather than looking at the effect of colonial institutions on economic growth and viewing labour in a static and generic manner, we want to establish a more precise relationship between colonial institutions and changing labour relations. Therefore the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial periods are taken into account and we carefully look at changes over time in the institutions and the various forms of labour relations that prevailed, both free and unfree. The agency of the workers and their possible options to opt out of the labour system that was
established by the colonizers are explicitly included.
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