Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Canonical-correlation analysis applied to selection-index methodology in quails
Marubayashi Hidalgo, A. ; Silva, L.P. da; Mota, R.R. ; Martins, E.N. - \ 2014
Livestock Science 169 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 35 - 41.
random regression-models - monthly egg-production - genetic-parameters - sexual-maturity - body-weight - production traits - japanese-quail - carcass - pigs - age
Genetic evaluations in dual-purpose quails (Coturnix coturnix) have demonstrated that overall genetic gains in a breeding program are achieved not only based on a specific trait, but on several. The most common technique to use all this information is the selection index. Another alternative may be the canonical-correlation analysis applied to selection index. There is, however, a lack of studies using canonical correlation in quails. Hence, the objectives of this study were to apply canonical-correlation analysis to estimate the relationship of nine traits and to compare genetic gains obtained by this methodology to desired-gain selection index in three lines of quails. Data for three lines of layer quails consisted of body weight at 28 days (W28), egg weight (EW), age at first egg (APE) and egg production at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after onset of lay. Two sets of traits were established: the first one contained predictor variables (W28, EW and APE) and the second one contained variables related to egg production. A selection index was constructed using the standardized coefficients of canonical covariates as weighting factors when a given canonical correlation was significant. We constructed two desired-gain selection indices: DG-SI1 and DG-S12. The difference between them is that DG-S12 had a desired gain for body weight set to 0. The estimated canonical correlations were as follows: 0.811, 0.058 and 0.003 for the yellow, 0.821, 0.181 and 0.076 for the red, and 0.825, 0.117 and 0.038 for the blue line. Only the first pair of canonical variates was significant (P <0.05). AFE and early stages of egg production were very influent and showed great importance in defining the canonical variates and, consequently, the estimated canonical correlations. All lines had, in general, similar results for the canonical analysis indicating that traits that drive management decisions in these lines would be the same. The indices under study showed differences in response to selection; however, they generally resulted in consistent favorable genetic gains. For all lines, the canonical selection index resulted in the lowest AFE and highest egg production at 30 days. The DG-SI1 showed the highest genetic gains for W28 in all lines. There was a general lower genetic gain of other traits for DG-SI1 at the expense of the desired genetic gain for W28. Selection for AFE, according to the canonical-correlation analysis, would have a great impact on the number of eggs produced. Canonical selection index is a good alternative for a desired-gain selection index. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Effect of a prebiotic on performance of partridge
Khaksar, V. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Hashemipour, H. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 98 (2014)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 511 - 516.
blood parameters - young turkeys - diets - supplementation - fermacto-500 - methionine - carcass - quail
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a prebiotic on performance of partridge. The experiment was carried out with a total of eighty-day-old male Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar chukar) chicks in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of a control and an experimental treatment, and each treatment was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate. The experimental period lasted 16 weeks with a starter period (0–8 weeks) and a grower period (9–16 weeks). The control group was fed the basal diet, while the experimental group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.18% prebiotic Aspergillus meal in each period. Performance parameters included body weight gain, cumulative feed consumption and cumulative FCR and were recorded at biweekly intervals. Carcass characteristics and blood parameters were measured at the end of the experiment (week 16). Although the results showed that prebiotic had no significant effect on body weight gain and cumulative feed conversion ratio; however, the supplementation of Aspergillus meal significantly (p <0.05) decreased cumulative feed consumption. Also prebiotic significantly increased percentages of breast and gastrointestinal tract, decreased percentage of back-neck, decreased blood triglyceride and total cholesterol content and increased blood calcium content. From this study, it was concluded that dietary supplementation of 0.18% Aspergillus meal might offer beneficial effects on partridge feed consumption, carcass quality and blood cholesterol.
Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with japanese quail (coturnix japonica)
Muir, W.M. ; Bijma, P. ; schinckel, A. - \ 2013
Evolution 67 (2013)6. - ISSN 0014-3820 - p. 1598 - 1606.
genetical evolution - small populations - connected world - adaptation - tribolium - differentiation - inheritance - covariance - transgenes - components
An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups.
Behavioural and physiological responses of heifer calves to acute stressors: Long-term consistency and relationship with adult reactivity to milking
Reenen, C.G. van; Werf, J.T.N. van der; O'Connell, N.E. ; Heutinck, L.F.M. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Jones, R.B. ; Koolhaas, J.M. ; Blokhuis, H.J. - \ 2013
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 55 - 68.
individual coping characteristics - t-maze behavior - open-field test - dairy-cows - feather pecking - japanese-quail - beef-cattle - laying hens - fear tests - pigs
The present study investigated the long-term consistency of individual differences in dairy cattles’ responses in tests of behavioural and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis reactivity, as well as the relationship between responsiveness in behavioural tests and the reaction to first milking. Two cohorts of heifer calves, Cohorts 1 (N = 25) and 2 (N = 16), respectively, were examined longitudinally from the rearing period until adulthood. Cohort 1 heifers were subjected to open field (OF), novel object (NO), restraint, and response to a human tests at 7 months of age, and were again observed in an OF test during first pregnancy between 22 and 24 months of age. Subsequently, inhibition of milk ejection and stepping and kicking behaviours were recorded in Cohort 1 heifers during their first machine milking. Cohort 2 heifers were individually subjected to OF and NO tests as well as two HPA axis reactivity tests (determining ACTH and/or cortisol response profiles after administration of exogenous CRH and ACTH, respectively) at 6 months of age and during first lactation at approximately 29 months of age. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to condense correlated response measures (to behavioural tests and to milking) within ages into independent dimensions underlying heifers’ reactivity. Heifers demonstrated consistent individual differences in locomotion and vocalisation during an OF test from rearing to first pregnancy (Cohort 1) or first lactation (Cohort 2). Individual differences in struggling in a restraint test at 7 months of age reliably predicted those in OF locomotion during first pregnancy in Cohort 1 heifers. Cohort 2 animals with high cortisol responses to OF and NO tests and high avoidance of the novel object at 6 months of age also exhibited enhanced cortisol responses to OF and NO tests at 29 months of age. Measures of HPA axis reactivity, locomotion, vocalisation and adrenocortical and behavioural responses to novelty were largely uncorrelated, supporting the idea that stress responsiveness in dairy cows is mediated by multiple independent underlying traits. Inhibition of milk ejection and stepping and kicking behaviours during first machine milking were not related to earlier struggling during restraint, locomotor responses to OF and NO tests, or the behavioural interaction with a novel object. Heifers with high rates of OF and NO vocalisation and short latencies to first contact with the human at 7 months of age exhibited better milk ejection during first machine milking. This suggests that low underlying sociality might be implicated in the inhibition of milk ejection at the beginning of lactation in heifers.
Centromere positions in chicken and Japanese quail chromosomes: de novo centromere formation versus pericentric inversions
Zlotina, A. ; Galkina, S. ; Krasikova, A. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Groenen, M. ; Gaginskaya, E. ; Deryusheva, S. - \ 2012
Chromosome Research 20 (2012)8. - ISSN 0967-3849 - p. 1017 - 1032.
avian lampbrush chromosomes - coturnix-coturnix-japonica - turkey meleagris-gallopavo - karyotype evolution - gallus-domesticus - dna-sequence - molecular characterization - synteny conservation - satellite dna - tandem repeat
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two species. To explore the nature of this divergence, we used high-resolution comparative fluorescent in situ hybridization mapping on giant lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) from growing oocytes. We applied 41 BAC clones specific for GGA1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 to chicken and quail LBCs. This approach allowed us to rule out a pericentric inversion earlier proposed to explain the difference between GGA1 and CCO1. In addition to a well-established large-scale pericentric inversion that discriminates GGA2 and CCO2, we identified another, smaller one in the large inverted region. For the first time, we described in detail inversions that distinguish GGA3 from CCO3 and GGA11 from CCO11. Despite the newly identified and confirmed inversions, our data suggest that, in chicken and Japanese quail, the difference in centromere positions is not mainly caused by pericentric inversions but is instead due to centromere repositioning events and the formation of new centromeres. We also consider the formation of short arms of quail microchromosomes by heterochromatin accumulation as a third scenario that could explain the discrepancy in centromeric indexes.
How developments in cryobiology, reproductive technologies and conservation genomics could shape gene banking strategies for (farm) animals
Woelders, H. ; Windig, J.J. ; Hiemstra, S.J. - \ 2012
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47 (2012)S4. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 264 - 273.
primordial germ-cells - artificial-insemination - equine oocytes - epididymal spermatozoa - maturation stage - japanese-quail - lambing rates - ram semen - red deer - cryopreservation
Many local breeds are currently at risk because of replacement by a limited number of specialized commercial breeds. Concurrently, for many breeds, allelic diversity within breeds declines because of inbreeding. Gene banking of germplasm may serve to secure the breeds and the alleles for any future use, for instance to recover a lost breed, to address new breeding goals, to support breeding schemes in small populations to minimize inbreeding, and for conservation genetics and genomics research. Developments in cryobiology and reproductive technology have generated several possibilities for preserving germplasm in farm animals. Furthermore, in some mammalian and bird species, gene banking of material is difficult or impossible, requiring development of new alternative methods or improvement of existing methods. Depending on the species, there are interesting possibilities or research developments in the use of epididymal spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos, ovarian and testicular tissue, primordial germ cells, and somatic cells for the conservation of genetic diversity in farm- and other animal species. Rapid developments in genomics research also provide new opportunities to optimize conservation and sampling strategies and to characterize genome-wide genetic variation. With regard to gene banks for farm animals, collaboration between European countries is being developed through a number of organizations, aimed at sharing knowledge and expertise between national programmes. It would be useful to explore further collaboration between countries, within the framework of a European gene banking strategy that should minimize costs of conservation and maximize opportunities for exploitation and sustainable use of genetic diversity.
Impact of climate change on risk of incursion of Crimian-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Livestock in Europe through migratory birds
Gale, P. ; Stevenson, R.B. ; Brouwer, A. ; Martinez, M. ; Torre, A. de la; Munoz, M.J. ; Bosch, J. ; Foley-Fisher, M. ; Bonilauri, P. ; Lindstrom, A. ; Ulrich, R.G. ; Vos, C.J. de; Scremin, M. ; Liu, Z. - \ 2012
Journal of Applied Microbiology 112 (2012)2. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 246 - 257.
ticks - transmission
Aims: To predict the risk of incursion of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in livestock in Europe introduced through immature Hyalomma marginatum ticks on migratory birds under current conditions and in the decade 2075–2084 under a climate-change scenario. Methods and Results: A spatial risk map of Europe comprising 14 282 grid cells (25 × 25 km) was constructed using three data sources: (i) ranges and abundances of four species of bird which migrate from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe each spring, namely Willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), Tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix); (ii) UK Met Office HadRM3 spring temperatures for prediction of moulting success of immature H. marginatum ticks and (iii) livestock densities. On average, the number of grid cells in Europe predicted to have at least one CCHFV incursion in livestock in spring was 1·04 per year for the decade 2005–2014 and 1·03 per year for the decade 2075–2084. In general with the assumed climate-change scenario, the risk increased in northern Europe but decreased in central and southern Europe, although there is considerable local variation in the trends. Conclusions: The absolute risk of incursion of CCHFV in livestock through ticks introduced by four abundant species of migratory bird (totalling 120 million individual birds) is very low. Climate change has opposing effects, increasing the success of the moult of the nymphal ticks into adults but decreasing the projected abundance of birds by 34% in this model. Significance and Impact of the Study: For Europe, climate change is not predicted to increase the overall risk of incursion of CCHFV in livestock through infected ticks introduced by these four migratory bird species.
Effects of Thyme Essential Oil on Performance, Some Blood Parameters and Ileal Microflora of Japanese Quail
Khaksar, V. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Hashemipour, H. ; Pilevar, M. - \ 2012
Journal of Poultry Science 49 (2012)2. - ISSN 1346-7395 - p. 106 - 110.
female broiler-chickens - growth - digestibility - pathogens - carvacrol - enzymes - plants
The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has stimulated the search for alternative feed supplements in poultry production. The active principles of thyme essential oil act as a digestibility enhancer, balancing the gut microbial ecosystem and stimulating the secretion of endogenous digestive enzymes and thus improving growth performance in poultry (Lovkova et al., 2001; Williams and Losa, 2001). A study was performed to investigate the effects of thyme essential oil (TEO) on performance, carcass characteristics, some blood parameters and ileal microflora of Japanese quail. This study lasted 35 days of age. One hundred and fifty day-old male Japanese quail chicks in a completely randomized design with two treatments (with or without 1 g/kg TEO) and five replicates of 15 birds each were used. All parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. The supplementation of TEO significantly (P
Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails
Marubayashi Hidalgo, A. ; Martins, E.N. ; Santos, A.L. ; Quadros, T.C.O. ; Ton, A.P.S. ; Teixeira, R. - \ 2011
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 40 (2011)1. - ISSN 1516-3598 - p. 95 - 99.
The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg, were, respectively, for yellow line, 0.31, 0.84 and 0.53; for blue line, 0.14, 0.82 and 0.60; for red line, 0.70, 0.96 and 0.75; and for meat line, 0.73, 0.96 and 0.72. Genetic correlation between egg weight and egg production in 189 days, egg weight and day at first egg and egg production in 189 days and day at first egg were for yellow line, 0.58, –0.77 and –0.90; for blue line, 0.09, –0.01 and –0.95; for red line, 0.09, 0.03 and –0.76 and for meat line, –0.18, 0.19 and –0.91, respectively. Based on the probabilities of posterior parameter distribution overlap, the lines are divided in two different groups: one group with the yellow and blue lines and another with the red and meat lines.
Effects of dietary energy concentration, nonstarch polysaccharide concentration, and particle sizes of nonstarch polysaccharides on digesta mean retention time and gut development in laying hens
Krimpen, M.M. van; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Hartog, L.A. den; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2011
British Poultry Science 52 (2011)6. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 730 - 741.
feather-pecking - japanese quail - nutrient digestibility - titanium-dioxide - wood shavings - performance - fiber - behavior - whole - dilution
1. From an experiment with 504 laying hens (ISA Brown strain, 18–40 weeks of age), 90 40-week old hens were used for determining digesta mean retention time (MRT) and gut weight development. This experiment comprised 6 dietary treatments according to a 2¿×¿3 factorial design. Factors were dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME) concentration (11·8 vs 10·6¿MJ/kg), insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (65 vs 134¿g/kg), and fine vs coarse particle sizes of added NSP. Titanium recovery in different gut segments was used as an indicator of MRT. 2. Increasing NSP concentration prolonged MRT in the crop (68 vs 34¿min) and total foregut (91 vs 57¿min) compared with control NSP. Reducing energy concentration prolonged MRT in the colon (26 vs 7¿min), and total hind gut (30 vs 9¿min), compared with control energy. Overall MRT was not affected by dietary treatments. 3. Increasing NSP concentration increased relative weights of the empty proventriculus-gizzard and its contents by 30% (25·2 vs 19·4¿g/kg) and 18% (15·4 vs 13·0¿g/kg), respectively, compared with control NSP diets. 4. MRT in the foregut was prolonged as daily insoluble NSP intake increased, and this was more pronounced in hens given coarsely ground NSP, compared with finely ground. A prolonged MRT in the foregut seemed to indicate a higher level of satiety, which may contribute to a lower feather pecking pressure in laying hens.
Effects of egg position during late incubation on hatching parameters and chick quality
Ven, L.J.F. van de; Baller, L. ; Wagenberg, A.V. van; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2011
Poultry Science 90 (2011)10. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2342 - 2347.
embryonic-development - broiler - temperature - hatchability - performance - mortality - weight - growth - quail
Chicken eggs are commonly incubated for 17 to 18 d in setters, after which they are transferred to the hatchery for the last 3 to 4 d of incubation. Whereas eggs are positioned vertically with the air cell up during the first incubation phase, they are placed horizontally for the hatching phase. It is unknown whether egg position in the last phase of incubation is of importance to the hatching process and chick quality. An experiment was conducted to investigate effects of egg position in the last 4 d of incubation on the hatching process and chick quality. The experiment consisted of 2 identical trials, where 300 fertile eggs per trial were transferred to a hatching cabinet at embryo day 17. Eggs were placed in 1 of 3 positions: with the air cell up (ACU), with the air cell down, or horizontally (HOR). Starting at embryo day 18, the following data were collected for each egg at 3-h intervals: time of internal pipping (IP), external pipping (EP), hatching, and position of EP. Approximately 6 h after hatch, BW, chick length, and chick quality based on the Pasgar score, were determined for each chick. In addition, residual yolk weight and yolk-free body mass were determined in every fourth chick that hatched. Time of IP was not affected by egg position, but EP occurred 5 h later in ACU eggs, and thus, the IP-EP interval was increased by 3 to 4 h in this group compared with the other egg positions. Hatching occurred 1 to 2 h earlier in HOR eggs than in the other 2 positions. Body weight, yolk weight, and yolk-free body mass were not affected by egg position. Chick length was 1 to 2 mm shorter and the Pasgar score was slightly lower in air cell-down eggs compared with ACU and HOR eggs, mainly caused by a high incidence of poor navel quality, red hocks, and red beaks. Hatchability was not affected by egg position. We concluded that egg position in the last phase of incubation affects the duration of the hatching process, and has small effects on chick quality.
Genetic parameters for feed utilization traits in Japanese quail
Varkoohi, S. ; Pakdel, A. ; Moradi Shahr Babak, M. ; Nejati Javaremi, A. ; Kause, A. ; Zaghari, M. - \ 2011
Poultry Science 90 (2011). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 42 - 47.
4-week body-weight - conversion ratio - food-consumption - term selection - white leghorns - efficiency - growth - broilers - carcass - heritability
Feed costs substantially affect the efficiency of poultry operations, justifying genetic improvement of feed utilization by selection. The current research was conducted to estimate genetic variance for the 4-wk feed conversion ratio (FCR) and its genetic correlations with BW, BW gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and residual feed intake (RFI) in Japanese quail. The data analyzed originated from a line selected for low FCR for 3 generations. In each generation, 35 sires and 70 dams were used as parents for the next generation. Body weight and WG were recorded on a total of 1,226 individuals, whereas FCR, RFI, and FI were recorded on 505 family groups. The results showed that heritability estimates (±SE) of BW at 28 d of age and WG between 7 and 28 d of age were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.28 ± 0.06, respectively. For FI, FCR, and RFI, significant genetic variances were estimated. Genetic correlations of FCR between 7 and 28 d of age with WG and FI between 7 and 28 d of age were –0.45 ± 0.09 and 0.24 ± 0.08, respectively. This implies that a low FCR is genetically related to a high WG and low FI. The genetic correlation between FCR from 7 to 28 d of age and RFI from 7 to 28 d of age was 0.26 ± 0.08, indicating that the 2 alternative feed efficiency traits are genetically different traits, and that the correlated genetic response in one of them in response to selection on the other is likely to be only moderate. Genetic correlations of RFI from 7 to 28 d of age with WG and FI between 7 and 28 d of age were 0.08 ± 0.04 and 0.74 ± 0.11, respectively. This reflects the fact that RFI is phenotypically independent of WG, which tends to make the genetic correlation between RFI and WG low as well. In conclusion, all the traits analyzed displayed significant genetic variance, allowing their genetic improvement by selection, yet the alternative feed utilization traits, FCR and RFI, displayed different genetic characteristics.
Intrachromosomal rearrangements in chicken and Japanese quail karyotypes: inversions and neocentromere formation
Zlotina, A. ; Galkina, S.A. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Gaginskaya, E. - \ 2010
In: Proceedings of the 19th International Colloquium on Animal Cytogenetics and Gene Mapping (ICACGM), 06-08 june 2010, Krakow/Balice, Poland. - - p. 728 - 729.
Response to selection for feed conversion ratio and correlated genetic response in body weight in Japanese quail
Varkoohi, S. ; Moradi-Shahrbabak, M. ; Pakdel, A. ; Nejati-Javaremi, A. ; Zaghari, M. ; Kause, A. - \ 2010
Response to selection for feed conversion ratio in Japanese quail
Varkoohi, S. ; Moradi Shahr Babak, M. ; Pakdel, A. ; Nejati Javaremi, A. ; Kause, A. - \ 2010
Poultry Science 89 (2010). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1590 - 1598.
4-week body-weight - genetic-variation - term selection - abdominal fat - carcass - consumption - parameters - efficiency - broilers - traits
We investigated the effect of selection for 4-wk feed conversion ratio (FCR) on genetic improvement of FCR, BW, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and residual FI (RFI) in Japanese quail. The F line was selected for reduced FCR and the C line was maintained as a randombred control. In each generation, 35 sires and 70 dams were used as parents for the next generation. Three generations of selection were performed. Realized heritability for FCR was calculated as the ratio of cumulative selection response to the cumulative selection differential, and additionally, genetic response was quantified as the difference between the means of selection and control lines. The results showed that realized heritability for FCR after 3 generations of selection was 0.67. The mean FCR in F line and C line in the last generation was 2.13 and 2.61, respectively. This is 18.4% cumulative genetic improvement, or 6.1% improvement per generation. In the last generation, the means of F and C lines were 193 and 166 g for BW at age 28 d (16.4% total increase, or 5.5% per generation), 184 and 158 g for WG (17.2% total higher gain and 5.7% per generation), 393 and 413 g for FI (4.9% total higher consumption and 1.6% per generation), and –24.5 and 10.2 for RFI (–34.7 g of cumulative gain; –11.6 g per generation), respectively. These results show that selection to decrease FCR increases BW and WG and decreases FI and RFI as a correlated response.
Rapid Evolution of Virulence and Drug Resistance in the Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis
Holden, M.T.G. ; Hauser, H. ; Sanders, M. ; Hoa Ngo, Thi ; Cherevach, I. ; Cronin, A. ; Goodhead, I. ; Mungall, K. ; Quail, M.A. ; Price, C. ; Rabbinowitsch, E. ; Sharp, S. ; Croucher, N. ; Chieu, Tran Bich ; Nguyen, Thi Hoang Mai ; To, Song Diep ; Nguyen, Tran Chinh ; Kehoe, M. ; Leigh, J.A. ; Ward, P.N. ; Dowson, C.G. ; Whatmore, A.M. ; Chanter, N. ; Iversen, P. ; Gottschalk, M. ; Slater, J.D. ; Smith, H.E. ; Spratt, B.G. ; Jianguo, Xu ; Changyun, Ye ; Bentley, S. ; Barrell, B.G. ; Schultsz, C. ; Maskell, D.J. ; Parkhill, J. - \ 2009
PLoS One (2009). - ISSN 1932-6203 - 7 p.
Background - Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that infects pigs and can occasionally cause serious infections in humans. S. suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechanisms of S. suis pathogenesis in humans and pigs are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings - The sequencing of whole genomes of S. suis isolates provides opportunities to investigate the genetic basis of infection. Here we describe whole genome sequences of three S. suis strains from the same lineage: one from European pigs, and two from human cases from China and Vietnam. Comparative genomic analysis was used to investigate the variability of these strains. S. suis is phylogenetically distinct from other Streptococcus species for which genome sequences are currently available. Accordingly, ~40% of the ~2 Mb genome is unique in comparison to other Streptococcus species. Finer genomic comparisons within the species showed a high level of sequence conservation; virtually all of the genome is common to the S. suis strains. The only exceptions are three ~90 kb regions, present in the two isolates from humans, composed of integrative conjugative elements and transposons. Carried in these regions are coding sequences associated with drug resistance. In addition, small-scale sequence variation has generated pseudogenes in putative virulence and colonization factors. Conclusions/Significance - The genomic inventories of genetically related S. suis strains, isolated from distinct hosts and diseases, exhibit high levels of conservation. However, the genomes provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the evolution of drug resistance.
High-resolution comparative FISH mapping on chicken and Japanese quailo lampbrush chromosomes
Zlotina, A. ; Daks, A. ; Galkina, S.A. ; Deryusheva, S. ; Krasikova, A. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Gaginskaya, E. - \ 2008
Chromosome Research 16 (2008)7. - ISSN 0967-3849 - p. 1048 - 1048.
Giant lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs), which are characteristic of the diplotene stage of prophase I during avian oogenesis, represent a very promising system for precise physical gene mapping. Comparative FISH mapping of chicken BAC clones from the Wageningen BAC library on chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) LBCs allowed us to define gene order more precisely. Centromeres on LBCs were detected using antibodies against cohesion proteins. Present data conform and extend the data earlier obtained on mitotic chromosomes. In addition to well-established inversions, which differ chromosomes 1 and 2 in the chicken and Japanese quail, we found a pericentric inversion in quail chromosome 3 as compared to chicken. Our data clearly demonstrate that the difference in centromere position in chicken and quail chromosomes 1, 3, 4 and 8 cannot be explained by inversions only. The centromeres seem to form de novo during karyotype evolution in Calliformes. Detailed analysis of the region from 0Mb to 23Mb on chicken LBC3 allowed us to assign centromere to the gap at the 2.4Mb position in GGA3 sequence assembly; the gap at the 5.6Mb position and current centromeric gap at the 11.6Y13.1Mb position correspond to long clusters of tandem repeat CNM. This work was supported by RFBR.
The Association of Response to a Novel Object with Subsequent Performance and Feather Damage in Adult, Cage-Housed, Pure-Bred Rhode Island Red Laying Hens
Uitdehaag, K.A. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Komen, J. ; Kemp, B. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2008
Poultry Science 87 (2008)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2486 - 2492.
t-maze behavior - genetic stocks - japanese-quail - open-field - fear - fearfulness - humans - corticosterone - productivity - pecking
In laying hens, behavioral responses measured late in the laying period are associated with decreased performance. If measured early in the laying period, these behavioral responses could be used to predict performance later in life. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the association of the behavioral response toward a novel object at 23 wk of age with subsequent performance during the laying period. A total of 1,251 hens from 6 different pure-bred Rhode Island Red lines (208 hens per line on average) were housed in 318 cages (56 cages per line on average). Performance variables included egg production (both per hen-present and hen-housed); BW at 19, 51, and 69 wk of age; mortality; and feather damage at 63 wk. Hens from cages with an approach response realized greater total egg production (hen-day and hen-housed) and greater egg production in the middle (hen-housed) and end of the laying period (per hen present and hen housed) compared with hens from cages with a passive response toward the novel object. Approach responses were also associated with more feather damage, but not with BW or mortality. Low correlations were found between greater egg production and more feather damage. These results suggest that an approach response toward a novel object measured early in the laying period is associated with better performance later in the laying period. The novel object test early in the laying period can be used to predict subsequent performance, although possible causal mechanisms for this association remain to be investigated.
Effects of mixed housing of birds from two genetic lines of laying hens on open field and manual restraint responses
Uitdehaag, K.A. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Hierden, Y.M. van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Toscano, M.J. ; Nicol, C.J. ; Komen, J. - \ 2008
Behavioural Processes 79 (2008)1. - ISSN 0376-6357 - p. 13 - 18.
japanese-quail chicks - domestic chicks - feather pecking - tonic immobility - adrenocortical-response - thyroid-hormones - beta-carboline - social stress - behavior - fear
Birds from Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin show a lower fear response and less feather pecking than birds from White Leghorn (WL) origin. This study investigated whether responses in fear eliciting tests were affected if RIR and WL birds were housed together. Experimental groups contained either birds from one line only ('pure' groups) or an equal number of RIR and WIL birds ('mixed' groups). These arrangements were maintained from hatch onwards, throughout the rearing and laying period. Birds were subjected to open held tests at 5-6 weeks and 17-18 weeks of age and to manual restraint tests at 7-8 weeks and 24 weeks of age. RIR birds were more active in both open field tests and in the manual restraint test at 24 weeks of age as compared with WL birds. RIR birds from pure groups were more active in the open field test at 17-18 weeks and in the manual restraint test at 24 weeks of age than RIR birds from mixed groups. These results suggest that otherwise low fearful RIR birds may adopt a higher fear response if they are housed together with more fearful conspecifics. These effects do not emerge until after 8 weeks of age. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and its interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the ontogeny of avian thermoregulation: a review
Debonne, M. ; Baarendse, P.J.J. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Bruggeman, V. ; Decuypere, E. - \ 2008
Worlds Poultry Science Journal 64 (2008)3. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 309 - 321.
corticotropin-releasing-factor - precocial japanese-quail - altricial european starlings - chick-embryo - immunocytochemical demonstration - postnatal-development - developmental-changes - thyrotropin release - neonatal chicks - growth-hormone
The emergence of thermoregulation in avian species is a complex matter in which neural as well as hormonal processes are involved. In a previous paper, the neural aspects of primary avian thermoregulation were discussed. In this paper the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT-axis) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) in the ontogeny of avian thermoregulation is evaluated. The regulatory mechanisms and different important hormones of both axes, which have stimulatory or inhibitory effects, are discussed. Because the onset of functionality of the thermoregulatory system is of great interest, the ontogeny and functionality of the hormonal axes are clarified. There is a great difference between precocial and altricial birds in hormonal events as well as in neural processes which are involved in the emergence of thermoregulation. In precocial avian species the HPT-axis becomes functional during the mid- to late embryonic period while the same axis only becomes fully functional during the first week post-hatch in altricial avian species. As early as the sixties, the emergence of homeothermy in chickens was investigated. It was concluded that the thyroid gland plays an important role in the thermoregulatory mechanisms of newly hatched chicks. More recent studies however were not able to show any direct effect of the thyroid hormones on the thermoregulation of day-old chicks, although blocking the conversion of T4 to T3 caused a decrease in body temperature in young chicks. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is known to act in thermoregulation in mammals and several authors have found an effect of TRH on the metabolism of young and older chicks. However, the exact mechanism still remains unclear. Because the HPT- and the HPA-axis show close relationships, the role of the HPA-axis in the ontogeny of thermoregulation is also taken into consideration in this review. In mammals as well as in birds, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is involved in the primary thermoregulation. We conclude that the HPT-axis has an important role in the ontogeny of avian thermoregulation. The exact role of the HPA-axis remains largely unclear although at least CRH is definitely of some importance.
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