Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Is ‘activist’ a dirty word? Place identity, activism and unconventional gas development across three continents
Luke, Hanabeth ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Evensen, Darrick ; Köhne, Michiel - \ 2018
The Extractive Industries and Society (2018). - ISSN 2214-790X - 11 p.
Activism - Coal seam gas - Fracking - Place identity - Shale gas - Social identity

Communities respond to unconventional gas in a variety of ways. In some communities, industry has held a social license, while in other areas, industrial development has been slowed, halted, or prevented by social resistance. Repeatedly, across multiple nations and communities, we have observed that social identities that either incorporate or eschew activism intersect with perceptions of this development's effect on place identity to either foster or discourage opposition. Particularly interesting are cases in which fracking is perceived to threaten local place identity, but where activism conflicts with social identity. To mobilise different sectors of the population, it often appears important for local residents to be perceived as ‘regular citizens’ and not as activists. We explore how intersection of social identities and place identity shaped the different ways in which communities in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United States have responded to unconventional gas development. Communities resisting development often see ‘activism’ as something that ‘outsiders’ do and that must be rejected as insufficiently objective and neutral. This view of activism and activists produces specific forms of resistance that differ from typical ‘activist’ actions, in which ‘knowledge’, ‘information’, neutrality, and objectivity are particularly important.

Internationalized Framing in Social Movements against Mining in India and the Philippines
Borde, Radhika ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2018
Journal of developing societies 34 (2018)2. - ISSN 0169-796X - p. 195 - 218.
framing - India - Indigenous peoples - mining - Philippines - social movements
There are several documented cases of indigenous peoples’ conflicts with mining companies, often for the reason that the land planned for mining is sacred or culturally significant to them. This article presents a comparative analysis of two specific anti-mining social movements in India and the Philippines that combined an emphasis on environmental protection with an emphasis on indigenous cultural rights. We show how the emphasis on indigeneity in these social movements played itself out in relation to globalized frames, as well as the other frames within which the movements were also situated.
Belonging to and in the Shale Gas Fields. A Case-Study of the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands
Köhne, Michiel ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2018
Sociologia Ruralis 58 (2018)3. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 604 - 624.
This article analyses how belonging becomes articulated in relation to large-scale extractive projects. It does so through an ethnographic analysis of the construction of belonging expressed in languages of valuation (the meanings that people give to natural resources discursively and in practice) in the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands. Belonging is understood to encompass ‘feeling at home in a place’ and the political processes through which belonging becomes a discursive resource (the politics of belonging). We conclude that the ways people position themselves toward shale gas extraction are both rooted in how they give meaning to and interact with their environment and embedded in local history and ideas of political agency and voice. Only those elements of belonging that are considered objective or useful as a policy solution are used as a discursive resource in mobilisation against shale gas. The article is based on 2,5 years of ethnographic fieldwork.
Citizens, criminalization and violence in natural resource conflicts in Latin America
Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2017
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies = Revista Europea de estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe (2017)103. - ISSN 0924-0608 - p. 131 - 142.
In Latin America grassroots organizing against megaprojects such as open pit mining, oil extraction, hydro dams and large plantations goes hand in hand with increased criminalization of social protest and violations of the human rights of activists. This results in numerous communities demanding a clean environment, participation, and justice - all at the same time. They not only face foreign companies, but are also caught in the middle of armed and non-armed actors that contest the same territory and its natural resources. Their resistance is considered as a threat to internal security; citizens are increasingly viewed as criminals. This paper suggests new avenues for research that is located at the nexus of local resistance towards megaprojects and the increase of human rights violations and criminalization in natural resource conflicts. It proposes, first, to approach natural resource conflicts as hybrid spaces where citizenship is constructed in relation to multiple actors that engage in processes of providing, protecting and violating citizenship rights, and second, to study such processes by way of slow ethnography. Such an approach to natural resource conflicts paves the way not only for understanding how citizens engage in acts of resistance and experience violations of human rights, but also how such processes shape new subject-positions. Keywords: Latin America, extraction, citizenship, human rights, violence, engaged ethnography.
Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa
Shikuku, Kelvin M. ; Winowiecki, Leigh ; Twyman, Jennifer ; Eitzinger, Anton ; Perez, Juan G. ; Mwongera, Caroline ; Läderach, Peter - \ 2017
Climate Risk Management 16 (2017). - ISSN 2212-0963 - p. 234 - 245.
Climate risks - East Africa - Farmers’ attitudes - Livelihood-based adaptation - Rasch analysis

Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya; Hoima, Uganda; and Lushoto, Tanzania. Adaptation was measured using a livelihood-based index that assigned weights to different individual strategies based on their marginal contributions to a household's livelihood. Results showed that farmers’ attitudes across the four sites strongly favored introduction of new crops, changes in crop varieties, and changes in planting times. Farmers disfavored soil, land, and water management practices. At lower levels of adaptation (25% quantile), adaptation index correlated positively with membership to farmers’ groups, household size, sex of the household head, and number of months of food shortage. Farmer group membership enhanced adaptation at intermediate (50% quantile) level whereas access to credit increased adaptation at high (75% quantile) level. Food insecurity, however, correlated negatively with the likelihood to choose individual adaptation strategies suggesting that although households adapted to improve food security status of their households, hunger was a barrier to adaptation. Our findings suggest that providing climate information to inform timely planting, promoting crop diversification, and encouraging adoption of adapted varieties of crops might be successful to enhancing resilience of farming systems in the short-term. In the long-term, increased investment in reducing hunger, encouraging groups formation, and easing liquidity constraints will be required to promote adaptation through implementation of soil, water, and land management strategies.

Practices and imaginations of energy justice in transition. A case study of the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands
Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Kohne, Michiel - \ 2017
Energy Policy 107 (2017). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 607 - 614.
Energy justice - Energy transition - Environmental justice - Ethnography - Renewable energy - Shale gas

Renewable energy technologies are often idealized as environmentally innocent alternatives to fossil fuels. Fossil fuel extraction is often considered as 'unjust' and renewable energy as the 'just' alternative. At the same time renewable energy projects, such as wind parks, are often resisted because of the uneven impacts of its infrastructure. This paper analyses such ambiguous meanings of energy justice (social justice issues related to energy) along the lines of its three tenets: distributional, procedural and recognition justice, aiming to understand how energy justice is constructed from below. It does so on the basis of a case study in the Noordoostpolder (the Netherlands) where plans for extracting shale gas went together with both large-scale and small-scale renewable energy practices. The paper analyses how energy justice is 'made' by how people resist shale gas and engage in 'renewable energy practices' and as such produce new imaginations and normativities of energy justice. Such an ethnographic approach helps to understand energy justice as a process of co-construction of activists, policy makers and scholars and as such responds to recent calls for a human-centred approach to the study of energy transitions. The paper is based on two and a half years of ethnographic fieldwork in the Noordoostpolder.

Content Validity of a Short Calcium Intake List to Estimate Daily Dietary Calcium Intake of Patients with Osteoporosis
Rasch, L.A. ; Schueren, M.A.E. de van der; Tuyl, L.H.D. van; Bultink, I.E.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Lems, W.F. - \ 2017
Calcified Tissue International 100 (2017)3. - ISSN 0171-967X - p. 271 - 277.
Calcium - Dietary history - Osteoporosis - Questionnaire - Supplementation - Validation
Purpose: Calcium supplements are prescribed for prevention of osteoporotic fractures, but there is controversy whether excess of calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular events. While an accurate estimation of dietary calcium intake is a prerequisite to prescribe the adequate amount of supplementation, the most adequate tools for estimating intake are time-consuming. The aim of this study is to validate a short calcium intake list (SCaIL) that is feasible in daily clinical practice. Methods: Based on the food groups contributing most to daily dietary calcium intake and portion sizes determined in an earlier study, a three-item, 1-min SCaIL was designed. As a reference method, an extensive dietary history (DH) with specific focus on calcium-rich foods and extra attention for portion sizes was performed. Beforehand, a difference of ≥250 mg calcium between both methods was considered clinically relevant. Results: Sixty-six patients with either primary (n = 40) or secondary (n = 26) osteoporosis were included. On average, the SCaIL showed a small and clinically non-relevant difference in calcium intake with the DH: 24 ± 350 mg/day (1146 ± 440 vs. 1170 ± 485 mg, respectively; p = 0.568). Sensitivity and specificity of the SCaIL, compared to the DH, were 73 and 80%, respectively. However, in 50% of the individuals, a clinically relevant difference of ≥250 mg calcium was observed between both methods, while in 17% this was even ≥500 mg. Conclusions: The SCaIL is a quick and easy questionnaire to estimate dietary calcium intake at a group level, but is not sufficiently reliable for use in individual patients. Remarkably, the mean dietary calcium intake estimated by the DH of 1170 mg/day indicates that a large proportion of osteoporosis patients might not even need calcium supplementation, although more data are needed to confirm this finding.
‘There is no law that justifies the existence of the board of elders’. Community service and legal pluralism in Santa María, Guatemala
Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2016
Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 48 (2016)1. - ISSN 0732-9113 - p. 41 - 57.
community service - globalization of rights - Guatemala - indigenous authorities - indigenous rights - legal pluralism

This article analyzes how indigenous peoples actively engage in the negotiation of international, national and local legal frameworks in Guatemala. The aim of the article is to explain paradoxical outcomes of global legal pluralism through an actor-oriented approach to the construction of legal frameworks and the meaning of rights. It does so by means of a case study of the dissolution of an indigenous social institution: the cargo system. The case study involves a multiplicity of power relations. It is argued that these power relations enable an understanding of the different ways in which local actors engage in processes of constructing legal frameworks ‘on the ground’. This article will provide insight into how new legal frameworks constitute social realities. In addition, it will show how personal identifications and experiences are translated into legal practices. Finally, the case study reveals how the struggle for rights both reflects and produces tensions among ethnic, national, social economic and religious identities.

Two Engaged Academics in the Dutch Shale Gas Fields
Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Köhne, Michiel - \ 2016
Practicing Anthropology 38 (2016)3. - ISSN 0888-4552 - p. 60 - 61.
Hydraulic fracturing, energy transition and political engagement in the Netherlands : The energetics of citizenship
Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Köhne, Michiel - \ 2016
Energy Research & Social Science 13 (2016). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 106 - 115.
Citizenship - Energy transition - Hydraulic fracturing - Resistance

This paper analyses how citizens (re)define their relation to the state in the contestation of hydraulic fracturing in the Noordoostpolder (the Netherlands) in the context of energy transition. It approaches citizenship as the negotiations between governments and citizens about in-and exclusion in decision-making processes and argues that these are also produced at the site of energy transition. It focuses on how residents of the Noordoostpolder construct their citizenship, resisting the advent of fracking in their environment while at the same time negotiating their own inclusion in decision-making processes. Our ethnographic material encompasses almost a year of these negotiations starting shortly after the announcement of the Noordoostpolder as a site for exploratory drilling, when people feel highly disempowered and excluded. We closely follow a process of gradual empowerment in the face of energy transition as inhabitants start to produce their own knowledge base and coalesce into unusual partnerships to negotiate their inclusion. Our main argument is that negotiations about hydraulic fracturing in relation to energy transition goes beyond energy issues. It is also -if not mostly -about who gets to decide on energy and land use.

Advocacy for Development: Effectiveness, Monitoring and Evaluation
Barrett, J.B. ; Wessel, M.G.J. van; Hilhorst, D.J.M. ; Arensman, B. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Richert, Wolfgang ; Bodegom, A.J. van; Waegeningh, C. van; Rasch, E.D. ; Wagemakers, A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 98 p.
development - monitoring - evaluation - ontwikkeling - evaluatie
Monitoring and evaluation of advocacy for development is an emerging field. Many CSOs, donors and evaluators are now involved with advocacy. Questions of how to understand and assess programmes are urgent. This e-book seeks to contribute to practical capacity on this front on the basis of lessons learned during the largest evaluation of advocacy for development in history.
Micropolitics in Resistance: The Micropolitics of Large-Scale Natural Resource Extraction in South East Asia
Rasch, E.D. ; Kohne, F.M. - \ 2016
Society & Natural Resources 29 (2016)4. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 479 - 492.
Micropolitics - resistance - natural resources - extraction - south east asia - society
This article analyzes Southeast Asian local communities’ resistance against the globalizing large-scale exploitation of natural resources using a micropolitical ecology approach. It focuses on how communities struggle for livelihoods, both resisting and appropriating globalized practices and narratives. Our ethnographic material encompasses natural resource conflicts in two communities: one on Sumatra (Indonesia) and one on Palawan (the Philippines). In both communities foreign and national companies have laid claims on community lands, transforming local power relations and wealth distribution as well as the relations of the communities vis-à-vis globalized production and the state. Communities often split over such transformations; some members negotiate a share in the globalized markets, while others organize resistance against these developments. The article argues that the specifics of this resistance against globalization can only be explained by taking into account the “micropolitics” within which they are produced, which calls for an ethnographic research approach to globalization.
On-line proceedings: Places of possibility? : Rural societies in a neoliberal world
Duncan, J.A.B. ; Rasch, E.D. - \ 2015
In: On-line proceedings: Places of possibility? Rural societies in a neoliberal world James Hutton Institute - ISBN 9780902701144 - 121 p.
Feiten over boortorens en chemicaliën maken nog geen schaliegasbeleid
Kohne, F.M. ; Rasch, E.D. - \ 2015
Opiniestukken
MFS II Evaluations : Joint evaluations of the Dutch Co-Financing system 2011-2015 - Civil Society contribution to policy change
Arensman, B. ; Barrett, J.B. ; Bodegom, A.J. van; Hilhorst, D. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Rasch, E.D. ; Richert, W. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Waegeningh, C. van; Wessel, M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen/Amsterdam : Wageningen University/Partos (ILA report ) - 843 p.
Storm-water: from burden to prospect : Integrated Landscape Design to Solving Flood Problems
Duchhart, I. ; Schuwer, A.T.F. ; Rasch, H. - \ 2014
Anti-mijnbouw activisme in Guatemala : Reflecties naar aanleiding van de film Heart of the Sky, Heart of the Earth
Rasch, E.D. - \ 2014
In: Latijns Amerika in beeld - Visies op een bewogen regio / Thomas, M.S., Amsterdam : CEDLA (Cuadernos del CEDLA 29) - p. 189 - 197.
Being indigenous in Guatemala
Rasch, E.D. - \ 2013
Entremundos Magazine 69 (2013). - p. 11 - 22.
‘Ecotourism, not mining, in Palawan!’: Territorial narratives on the last frontier (Palawan, the Philippines)
Rasch, E.D. - \ 2013
In: The Ecotourism-Extraction Nexus. Political Economies and Rural Realities of (un)Comfortable Bedfellows / Buscher, B, Davidov, V, New York : Routledge - ISBN 9780415824897 - p. 236 - 254.
MFS II Joint Evaluation of International Lobbying and Advocacy
Arensman, B. ; Barrett, J. ; Bodegom, A.J. van; Buchanan, K.S. ; Fernando, U. ; Hilhorst, D. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Mongbo, R.L. ; Rasch, E.D. ; Richert, W. ; Waegeningh, C. van; Wagemakers, A. ; Wessel, M. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Social Sciences Group (Baseline Report ) - 237 p.
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