What do you mean by hot? Assessing the associations raised by the visual depiction of an image of fire on food packaging
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 384 - 394.
Categorisation - Congruency - Expectations - Metaphors - Semiotics
The images shown on food packaging play an important role in the processes of identification, categorisation and the generation of expectations, since the consumer uses the images to infer information about the product. However, a given image may convey different meanings (e.g. in a food package, “fire” may mean barbecued or spicy), so it is very important for producers and designers to understand the factors responsible for consumers inferring a specific meaning. This paper addresses this problem and shows experimentally that the consumer tends to infer the meaning from the image which is most congruent with the product it is displayed with. 65 participants carried out two speeded classification tasks which results show an interaction between the product (congruent vs. incongruent) and the image (with fire vs. without fire): products congruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more quickly when shown with fire than without it, while products incongruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more slowly when shown with fire than without it. In addition, the results show that stimuli were categorised more quickly when the interpretation of fire was literal (e.g. barbecue) than in those that were metaphorical (e.g. spiciness), indicating that the rhetorical style of the image (literal or metaphorical) influences the cognitive effort required to process it. These contributions improve our understanding of the effect of the images shown on packaging in the communication between packaging and consumers.
Hot or not? Conveying sensory information on food packaging through the spiciness-shape correspondence
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Martín, Javier ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 197 - 208.
Categorisation - Expectations - Implicit measures - Packaging design - Semiotics
The packaging of a product is a key element in the communication between producers and consumers, so getting the consumer to interpret the packaging visual signs in the desired way is crucial to be successful in the marketplace. However, this is not easy as images can be ambiguous and may be interpreted in different ways. For example, depicting an icon of fire on the front of a bag of nuts may lead the consumer to interpret either that the nuts are spicy or that the nuts have been roasted. This paper addresses this problem and, using this case as an example, assesses if the interpretation of a fire icon (spicy vs roasted) can be modulated by manipulating its shape (angular vs rounded). 66 participants carried out an experiment which results show that there is a crossmodal correspondence between spiciness and pointy shapes and that this association can be used to modulate sensory expectations: in a speeded classification task, the bags of nuts depicting pointy fire icons were categorised more quickly as being spicy than as being roasted, while the opposite was true for the bags of nuts displaying rounded fire icons. In addition, the results of a mediation analysis suggest that this effect occurs indirectly through affective appraisal: the pointy fire icons were judged as being more aggressive than the rounded fire icons, which in turn raised spiciness expectations. These findings contribute to the research on crossmodal correspondences and semiotics by showing that the association between spiciness and abstract shapes can be used to modulate how people interpret an ambiguous image.
Grains in nutrition for farm animals
Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2009
In: XXV Curso de especialización FEDNA: Avances en nutrición y alimentatión animal, Madrid, España, 5 y 6 Noviembre de 2009. - Madrid : Fundación Española para el Desarrollo de la Nutrición Animal - p. 281 - 289.