Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs
Christianen, M.J.A. ; Heide, T. van der; Holthuijsen, S.J. ; Reijden, K.J. van der; Borst, A.C.W. ; Olff, H. - \ 2017
Biological Conservation 213 (2017). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 317 - 324.
Biodiversity - Ecological networks - Facilitation - Foundation species - Habitat modification - Trophic interactions
In conservation strategies of marine ecosystems, priority is given to habitat-structuring foundation species (e.g. seagrasses, mangroves and reef-building corals, shellfish) with the implicit goal to protect or restore associated communities and their interactions. However, the number and accuracy of community level metrics to measure the success of these strategies are limited. Using intertidal shellfish reefs as a model, we tested to what extent foundation species alter community and food web structure, and explored whether basic metrics of food web structure are useful indicators of ecosystem complexity compared to other often-used indices. We found that shellfish reefs strongly modified community and food web structure by modifying habitat conditions (e.g. hydrodynamics, sediment grain size). Stable isotope-based food web reconstruction captured important differences between communities from bare mudflat and shellfish reefs that did not emerge from classic abundance or diversity measures. On shellfish reefs, link density and the number of top predators were consistently higher, while both connectance and the richness of intermediate species was lower. Species richness (+ 42%), species density (+ 79%) and total biomass of benthos, fish and birds (+ 41%) was also higher on shellfish reefs, but this did not affect the Shannon diversity or Evenness. Hence, our results showed that basic food web metrics such as link density and number of top consumers and intermediate species combined with traditional measures of species richness can provide a robust tool to measure conservation and restoration success. We therefore suggest that these metrics are included as Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBV), and implemented as ecosystem health indicators in legislative frameworks such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).
Meeste platvis overleeft terugzetten niet
Reijden, Karin van der - \ 2017

De meeste ondermaatse tong en schol die door vissers wordt gevangen in de Noordzee, overleeft het terugzetten in zee niet. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van Wageningen Marine Research.

Survival of undersized plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), sole (Solea solea), and dab (Limanda limanda) in North Sea pulse-trawl fisheries
Reijden, K.J. van der; Molenaar, P. ; Chen, C. ; Uhlmann, S.S. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Marlen, B. van - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)6. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1672 - 1680.
bottom trawling - discard mortality - pulse trawling - reflex ompairment
The European Commission landing obligation, including species-specific “high survival” exemptions, has established a need for accurate discard survival estimates. This study presents the first discard survival estimates on-board Dutch commercial pulse trawlers. During seven, six, and one fishing trip(s), respectively, undersized plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), sole (Solea solea), and dab (Limanda limanda) were collected, assessed for vitality and subsequently monitored up to 21 days. Uncorrected for any potential impacts from predation, tagging, research-related handling, or holding conditions overall survival for plaice (n¼349), sole (n¼226), and dab (n¼187) was assessed as 15% [95% CI: 11–19%], 29% [95% CI: 24–35%], and 16% [95% CI: 10–26%] respectively. Survival was mainly effected by water temperature and factors linked to the fishing vessel. Fish length was not found to affect survival. Catch processing time and haul duration affected plaice survival but not sole. Vitality index, which averages reflex impairment and external damage scores, correlated with survival and may be developed as a proxy for discard survival. Compared to tickler-chain beam trawlers, pulse trawlers showed relatively higher discard survival under fishing conditions pertinent
to these studies.
Data from: How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems
Zee, Els M. van der; Angelini, Christine ; Govers, Laura L. ; Christianen, M.J.A. ; Altieri, Andrew H. ; Reijden, K.J. van der; Silliman, Brian R. ; Koppel, Johan van de; Geest, Matthijs van der; Gils, Jan A. van; Veer, Henk W. van der; Piersma, Theunis ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Olff, H. ; Heide, Tjisse van der - \ 2016
food web - non-trophic interactions - foundation species - ecological networks - ecosystem engineering - facilitation
The diversity and structure of ecosystems has been found to depend both on trophic interactions in food webs and on other species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualism that form non-trophic interaction networks. However, quantification of the dependencies between these two main interaction networks has remained elusive. In this study, we assessed how habitat-modifying organisms affect basic food web properties by conducting in-depth empirical investigations of two ecosystems: North American temperate fringing marshes and West African tropical seagrass meadows. Results reveal that habitat-modifying species, through non-trophic facilitation rather than their trophic role, enhance species richness across multiple trophic levels, increase the number of interactions per species (link density), but decrease the realized fraction of all possible links within the food web (connectance). Compared to the trophic role of the most highly connected species, we found this non-trophic effects to be more important for species richness and of more or similar importance for link density and connectance. Our findings demonstrate that food webs can be fundamentally shaped by interactions outside the trophic network, yet intrinsic to the species participating in it. Better integration of non-trophic interactions in food web analyses may therefore strongly contribute to their explanatory and predictive capacity.
How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems
Zee, Els M. van der; Angelini, Christine ; Govers, Laura L. ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Altieri, Andrew H. ; Reijden, Karin J. van der; Silliman, Brian R. ; Koppel, Johan van de; Geest, Matthijs van der; Gils, Jan A. van; Veer, Henk W. van der; Piersma, Theunis ; Ruiter, Peter C. de; Olff, Han ; Heide, Tjisse van der - \ 2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 283 (2016)1826. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
Consumer–resource interactions - Ecological networks - Ecosystem engineering - Facilitation - Foundation species - Non-trophic interactions
The diversity and structure of ecosystems has been found to depend both on trophic interactions in food webs and on other species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualism that form non-trophic interaction networks. However, quantification of the dependencies between these two main interaction networks has remained elusive. In this study, we assessed how habitat-modifying organisms affect basic food web properties by conducting in-depth empirical investigations of two ecosystems: North American temperate fringing marshes and West African tropical seagrass meadows. Results reveal that habitat-modifying species, through non-trophic facilitation rather than their trophic role, enhance species richness across multiple trophic levels, increase the number of interactions per species (link density), but decrease the realized fraction of all possible links within the food web (connectance). Compared to the trophic role of the most highly connected species, we found this non-trophic effects to be more important for species richness and of more or similar importance for link density and connectance. Our findings demonstrate that food webs can be fundamentally shaped by interactions outside the trophic network, yet intrinsic to the species participating in it. Better integration of non-trophic interactions in food web analyses may therefore strongly contribute to their explanatory and predictive capacity.
Drought, Mutualism Breakdown, and Landscape-Scale Degradation of Seagrass Beds
Fouw, Jimmy de; Govers, Laura L. ; Koppel, Johan van de; Belzen, Jim van; Dorigo, Wouter ; Sidi Cheikh, Mohammed A. ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Reijden, Karin J. van der; Geest, Matthijs van der; Piersma, Theunis ; Smolders, Alfons J.P. ; Olff, Han ; Lamers, Leon P.M. ; Gils, Jan A. van; Heide, Tjisse van der - \ 2016
Current Biology 26 (2016)8. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 1051 - 1056.
In many marine ecosystems, biodiversity critically depends on foundation species such as corals and seagrasses that engage in mutualistic interactions [1-3]. Concerns grow that environmental disruption of marine mutualisms exacerbates ecosystem degradation, with breakdown of the obligate coral mutualism ("coral bleaching") being an iconic example [2, 4, 5]. However, as these mutualisms are mostly facultative rather than obligate, it remains unclear whether mutualism breakdown is a common risk in marine ecosystems, and thus a potential accelerator of ecosystem degradation. Here, we provide evidence that drought triggered landscape-scale seagrass degradation and show the consequent failure of a facultative mutualistic feedback between seagrass and sulfide-consuming lucinid bivalves that in turn appeared to exacerbate the observed collapse. Local climate and remote sensing analyses revealed seagrass collapse after a summer with intense low-tide drought stress. Potential analysis - a novel approach to detect feedback-mediated state shifts - revealed two attractors (healthy and degraded states) during the collapse, suggesting that the drought disrupted internal feedbacks to cause abrupt, patch-wise degradation. Field measurements comparing degraded patches that were healthy before the collapse with patches that remained healthy demonstrated that bivalves declined dramatically in degrading patches with associated high sediment sulfide concentrations, confirming the breakdown of the mutualistic seagrass-lucinid feedback. Our findings indicate that drought triggered mutualism breakdown, resulting in toxic sulfide concentrations that aggravated seagrass degradation. We conclude that external disturbances can cause sudden breakdown of facultative marine mutualistic feedbacks. As this may amplify ecosystem degradation, we suggest including mutualisms in marine conservation and restoration approaches.
5 years of Industry survey: Does the industry survey improve current stock assessments for plaice and sole?
Reijden, K.J. van der; Poos, J.J. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Verkempynck, R. - \ 2016
IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C039/16) - 31 p.
plaice - dover soles - fish stocks - fishing gear - fisheries - fish industry - schol - tong (vis) - visstand - vistuig - visserij - visverwerkende industrie
This report describes the results of the industry survey; an annual survey targeting sole and plaice on-board of the commercial fishing vessels UK45 and OD1. The survey was set up following the wish of the fishing industry to deliver data for stock assessments themselves, which are collected using commercially representative fishing gears. This survey was expected to make stock assessment results more accurate and to increase trust of the fisheries industry in stock assessments.
Estimating a conversion factor for the gears used in the industry survey
Hal, R. van; Reijden, K.J. van der - \ 2016
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C004/16) - 35 p.
dover soles - plaice - fishing vessels - fishing gear - conversion - surveys - fish stocks - fishery management - fishery resources - north sea - tong (vis) - schol - vissersschepen - vistuig - conversie - karteringen - visstand - visserijbeheer - visbestand - noordzee
Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2014 : Investigating the effects of season and fishing gear on cod landings
Reijden, K.J. van der; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2016
IMARES (Report / IMARES C010/16) - 68 p.
cod - fish catches - monitoring - demersal fisheries - fishing gear - kabeljauw - visvangsten - demersale visserij - vistuig
In this report the results of the cod monitoring program are presented. This research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Cod catches of the vessels in the gear groups BT2 (beam trawl) and TR (otter trawls and seines) need to be monitored yearly, due to the Dutch implementation of the European cod recovery plan. The European cod recovery plan restricts fishing efforts of European fleets that catch cod. Fishing effort, based on historical track records, is allocated to different gear groups. Fishing effort can be transferred between gear groups but then conversion factors apply. In the Netherlands fishing effort is transferred yearly from the BT2 gear group to the TR group, based on a national conversion factor of 1:3 (BT:TR) kWdays instead of the European conversion factor of 1:16, because the cod catches in the Dutch TR fleet are not as high as the European conversion factor implies. In order to substantiate for the national conversion factor, the Dutch government is obliged to report cod catches per unit of effort (CpUE) of the vessels in these gear groups to the European Commission.
Overleving van discard platvis: vaststellen en verhogen
Marlen, B. van; Molenaar, P. ; Reijden, K.J. van der; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Bol, R.A. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Theunynck, R. ; Uhlmann, S.S. - \ 2016
IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C180/15) - 116 p.
pleuronectiformes - overleving - discards - zeevisserij - visserijbeheer - nederland - survival - marine fisheries - fishery management - netherlands
Voorbereiding van de pulsmonitoring: Vaststellen omvang van bemonsteringsprogramma
Reijden, K.J. van der; Hintzen, N.T. - \ 2015
IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C074/15) - 19 p.
pulsvisserij - demersale visserij - visserij - monitoring - bemonsteren - pulse trawling - demersal fisheries - fisheries - sampling
Verslag bedrijfssurvey 2015
Reijden, K.J. van der; Rink, G.J. ; Dammers, M. ; Wiegerinck, J.A.M. ; Hal, R. van - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C177/15) - 22 p.
visserijbeheer - visvangsten - visbestand - noordzee - fishery management - fish catches - fishery resources - north sea
Dit rapport beschrijft de vangstresultaten van het vijfde jaar van de bedrijfssurvey. Deze survey is gericht op schol en tong en opgezet om extra informatie aan te leveren voor de bestandsschattingen van deze soorten. Elk jaar wordt op vaste locaties op dezelfde schepen (UK45 en OD1) volgens een vast protocol de gehele vangst van het stuurboord net uitgezocht op alle schol en tong. De lengtes van de vissen worden gemeten en van een aantal van de vissen worden ook de gehoorsteentjes verzameld voor leeftijdsdeterminatie. Met behulp van de daaruit volgende lengte-leeftijd-sleutel worden de leeftijden geschat van alle gevangen schollen en tongen. Vervolgens kan per jaar een vangstreeks worden berekend per leeftijdsklasse, welke in een bestandsschatting zouden kunnen worden gebruikt.
Management options for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) fisheries in the North Sea
Steenbergen, J. ; Kooten, T. van; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Trapman, B.K. ; Reijden, K.J. van der - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C181/15) - 63 p.
crangon - shrimps - shellfish fisheries - fishery management - fishery policy - north sea - garnalen - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - visserijbeheer - visserijbeleid - noordzee
Fisheries targeting brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) in the North Sea in European waters are largely unregulated in terms of landings and effort. A license system exists, but this did not prevent the current situation of overcapacity of the shrimp fleet. The governments of the North Sea brown shrimp fisheries (Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, United Kingdom) have shown little interest in management of the shrimp fisheries, which leads to a consequent lack of action to establish a management system for shrimp, as well as little resources for research and monitoring. Initiatives in the Netherlands of the industry to self-manage their fisheries, in terms of effort limitation and/or landing, were not accepted by the Dutch Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM). Due to a lack of research, no ecological arguments for effort limitation were available and therefore any proposals by the industry to limit fishing effort and/or landings were deemed illegal price manipulations. Although the need for management was expressed by the industry, environmental NGOs, as well as scientists (ICES WGCRAN), the issue of management of brown shrimp fisheries was at a standstill. Therefore, IMARES was asked in 2011 by the Dutch sector to close the knowledge gaps and to determine if there is an ecological need for the management of the fisheries on brown shrimp in the North sea.
Visserijlocaties van verschillende visserijen in 2013, net behulp van VMS
Reijden, K.J. van der; Verkempynck, R. - \ 2015
IMARES - 7 p.
visserij - visbestand - monitoring - vis vangen - vissersschepen - noordzee - fisheries - fishery resources - fishing - fishing vessels - north sea
Alle VMS-gegevens bestaan uit een locatie, snelheid en tripnummer. Deze kunnen middels het tripnummer worden gelinkt aan de logboek data. Hierdoor wordt voor elke trip bekend welk tuig gebruikt is, en wat de (geschatte) aanlandingen waren per soort. Voor elk tuig apart wordt per VMS-ping bepaald of het schip op dat moment vissende is. Dat wordt bepaald aan de hand van de snelheid. Vervolgens worden de aanlandingen verspreidt over de VMS-pings, welke als vissend zijn beoordeeld. Soms zijn er reizen waarvan wel logboeken zijn ingevuld, maar er geen VMS-data beschikbaar is. Voor dit project zijn deze reizen niet meegenomen.
Cod monitoring; results 2015, quarter 3
Reijden, K.J. van der; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C159/15) - 19
cod - osteichthyes - monitoring - fisheries - fish catches - bycatch - fishery resources - dutch waters - kabeljauw - visserij - visvangsten - bijvangst - visbestand - nederlandse wateren
The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed in order to calculate a conversion factor between the CpUE of the TR and the BT (beam trawl) gears. The transition of kW-days between gears is regulated by the European cod recovery plan (EC 423/2004 and EC 1342/2008) and depends on the yearly CpUE-ratio of cod between the respective gear groups. This report presents the results of the third quarter in 2015.
Cod monitoring : results 2015, quarter 2
Teal, L.R. ; Reijden, K.J. van der; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C150/15) - 18
cod - osteichthyes - fisheries - monitoring - fish catches - bycatch - dutch waters - fishery resources - kabeljauw - visserij - visvangsten - bijvangst - nederlandse wateren - visbestand
The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed in order to calculate a conversion factor between the CpUE of the TR and the BT (beam trawl) gears. The transition of kW-days between gears is regulated by the European cod recovery plan (EC 423/2004 and EC 1342/2008) and depends on the yearly CpUE-ratio of cod between the respective gear groups. This report presents the results of the second quarter in 2015.
Aanbodanalyse discards demersale visserij
Goudswaard, P.C. ; Reijden, K.J. van der; Verkempynck, R. ; Poelman, M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C100/15) - 24
demersale visserij - waardeketenanalyse - discards - bijproducten - vangstsamenstelling - bijvangst - demersal fisheries - value chain analysis - byproducts - catch composition - bycatch
De aanlandplicht betekent een serieuze verandering voor de demersale visserij. Mogelijkheden voor verwerking en gebruik van discards zijn te vinden in verschillende (bestaande en nog te ontwikkelen) afzetmarkten en sectoren. Dit rapport bevat een aanbodanalyse die een inschatting kan geven van de te verwachten discards die in de Nederlandse havens aangeland gaan worden. Hiermee wordt een eerste stap gezet naar het inzichtelijk maken van de data die nodig is om toekomstige ketenmogelijkheden te ontwikkelen.
Cod monitoring: Results 2015, quarter 1
Reijden, K.J. van der; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C084/15) - 15
kabeljauw - monitoring - visvangsten - bijvangst - vistuig - visbestand - gadus morhua - cod - fish catches - bycatch - fishing gear - fishery resources
Between 2011 and 2013, the monitoring program existed of an extended analysis of self-reported cod catch data (both landings and discards) in combination with the regular DCF discard monitoring program, an extra observer program and the CCTV-project in TR-fisheries (see Kraan et al. (2013 and 2014)). Over the years, the ministry of Economic Affairs and IMARES drew the conclusion that monitoring cod discards via the self-reporting scheme asked for disproportionately high effort of the TR-skippers while discards were hardly affecting CpUE rates (Ministry of Economic Affairs (2014)). Therefore, it was agreed upon a yearly analysis of the EU-logbook (hereafter logbook) data in combination with VMS-data, which is readily available. However, to remain updated, an overview of fishing activity, cod catches and cod Landings per Unit Effort (LpUE) of four gear types per quarter is requested by the ministry of Economic Affairs. This report presents the results of the first quarter in 2015.
Fishing for knowledge: a pilot industrial survey for associated species (met medewerking van Karin van der Reijden)
Imares, ; Reijden, K.J. van der - \ 2015
Urk : Ekofish Group - 23
noordzee - visstand - visserijbeleid - bijvangst - visbestand - beoordeling - visserijbeheer - north sea - fish stocks - fishery policy - bycatch - fishery resources - assessment - fishery management
The EKOFISH Group, the North Sea Foundation (NSF) and WWF-Netherlands partnered up with IMARES in 2013 to explore whether an industrial survey can be used to strengthen scientific assessment of key commercial by-catch species in the North Sea flatfish fishery. The project was broken down in two consecutive phases. The first phase of the project served to establish the potential role of an industrial survey.The second phase of the project was used to run a pilot-survey and served to determine the practical feasibility of an industrial survey. This report synthesises the findings of the research that was carried out in phase one and two of the project and discusses the main findings to give answer to the main question that has guided this research project 'can an industrial survey for North Sea brill, dab, lemon sole and turbot strengthen scientific assessment of these stocks?'.
Vallen en opstaan: update overlevingsprojecten ILVO en IMARES (interview met Karin van der Reijden)
Reijden, K.J. van der - \ 2015
Visserijnieuws 35 (2015)17. - ISSN 1380-5061 - p. 5 - 5.
visserijbeleid - visserijbeheer - discards - zeevisserij - wetgeving - eu regelingen - visserij - mortaliteit - visstand - demersale visserij - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - fishery policy - fishery management - marine fisheries - legislation - eu regulations - fisheries - mortality - fish stocks - demersal fisheries - animal welfare - animal health
De Europese aanlandplicht is een feit. De visserijsector vreest een negatieve invloed op de bestanden door een hogere vissterfte. In de wetgeving is een uitzonderingsmaatregel voor de discardban opgenomen als vis een hoge overlevingskans heeft. Zowel in Nederland als België wordt daarom in de kottervisserij wetenschappelijk onderzocht hoe groot de overlevingskansen van gevangen vis zijn. Karin van der Reijden (WUR - IMARES) en Ruben Theunynck (ILVO) geven inzicht in de stand van zaken.
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