Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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A retrospective analysis to identify the contribution of the breeder on health and performance of broiler chickens
Jong, I.C. de; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2018
In: The XVth European Poultry Conference: Conference Information and Proceedings. - Zagreb : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 146 - 146.
Broiler, Data analysis, Health, Performance
Data on performance and health are routinely collected in the various stages of the broiler production chain. In The Netherlands, routinely collected data are usually stored and solely used by the owner(s), and the various databases are not connected. Connecting databases may however provide insight to improve the quality of the chain. We were interested in the contribution of the parent stock to the performance of the broiler flock, as transgenerational effects have been reported and variation in performance and health between breeder farms and flocks exist. Broiler flock data at depopulation, collected by the slaughter plant (growth, uniformity, rejections, first week and total mortality) and from a national database (antibiotic treatments) were linked to breeder flocks and farms by unique identifiers for the period between 2011-2016.
This resulted in 2174 broiler flock records (at house level). Within these records, 74 broiler farms, 88 breeder farms, and 209 breeder flocks were identified. A mixed model analysis was used to simultaneously estimate effects of season, parent flock age, time, and the variance components that determine the contribution of the chain phase to the broiler performance parameters. Results showed no systematic effects of the breeder farm on the various parameters at broiler level. Systematic effects of breeder flock were relatively small; the largest effect was found on rejections in the broiler flock (estimated contribution to the variance component: 7%). The largest contributions to the variance
component were found for broiler farm: 14% (antibiotic treatment) to 59% (growth index). Also the phase between egg laying at the breeder farm and chick placement at the broiler farm (here called: chick delivery) had a large contribution to the variance component: rejections: 27%, first week mortality: 52%). Negligible effects were found for house at broiler farm and specific breeder-broiler farm combinations. A moderate effect of broiler house within a chick delivery was found. It can be concluded that systematic effects of breeder flock and farm on broiler performance and health could not be found, and that broiler farm and chick delivery had a large contribution on the variation in broiler performance and health. This does not exclude that transgenerational
effects exist, but these may be relatively short lasting, and thus could not be found in the present analysis, or might be overruled by more influential factors after egg laying at the breeder farm.
Comparison of performance, health and welfare aspects between commercially housed hatchery-hatched and on-farm hatched broiler flocks
Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Hattum, T. van; Riel, J.W. van; Raaijmakers, M.M.P. ; Zoet, E.S. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 9 p.
broiler - early feeding - on-farm hatching - performance - welfare

On-farm hatching systems for broiler chicks are increasingly used in practice. We studied whether or not performance, health and welfare aspects differed between commercial flocks hatched on-farm or in a hatchery (control). In two successive production cycles on seven farms, a total of 16 on-farm hatched flocks were paired to 16 control flocks, housed at the same farm. Paired flocks originated from the same batch of eggs and were subjected to similar on-farm management. On-farm hatched and control flocks only differed with respect to hatching conditions, with on-farm hatched flocks not being exposed to, for example, chick handling, post-hatch feed and water deprivation and transport, in contrast to control flocks that were subjected to standard hatchery procedures, subsequently transported and placed in the poultry house. Day-old chick quality (navel and hock scores), 1st week mortality, total mortality, BW at day (d) 0, d7 and at depopulation, and (total) feed conversion ratio were determined. Prevalence of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, breast discoloration/blisters and cleanliness, litter quality and gait score were determined at d21 of age and around depopulation (d39 on average). Gross pathology and gut morphology were examined at depopulation age in a sample of birds of five flocks per treatment. On-farm hatching resulted in a higher BW at d0 (=5.4 g) and d7 (=11.5 g) (P<0.001), but day-old chick quality as measured by navel (P=0.003) and hock (P=0.01) quality was worse for on-farm hatched compared to control birds. Body weight, 1st week and total mortality, and feed conversion ratio at slaughter age were similar for both on-farm hatched and control flocks. On-farm hatched flocks had less footpad dermatitis (P=0.05), which indicated a better welfare. This was likely related to a tendency for better litter quality in on-farm hatched flocks at 21 days of age in comparison to control flocks (P=0.08). No major differences in gross pathology or in intestinal morphology at depopulation age were found between treatments. In conclusion, on-farm hatching resulted in better 1st week broiler performance and better welfare compared to conventional hatching in a hatchery.

Blauwe Hart wordt groener : de transformatie van het IJssel-en het Markermeer
Verdonschot, Piet ; Riel, Marielle van; Veraart, Jeroen ; Lange, Marieke de; Leeuw, Joep de; Zaalmink, Wim - \ 2018
Blue Heart is getting greener : the transformation of the IJsselmeer
Verdonschot, Piet ; Riel, Marielle van; Veraart, Jeroen ; Lange, Marieke de; Leeuw, Joep de; Zaalmink, Wim - \ 2018
Incident vermeerdering leidt niet tot extra uitval
Jong, I.C. de; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2018
De Pluimveehouderij (2018). - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 28 - 29.
Bij het optimaliseren van de vleeskuikenketen speelt de vermeerderingssector een belangrijke rol. Wageningen Livestock Research onderzocht de gevolgen van een productiedaling in vermeerderingskoppels op de eerste weeks uitval van de vleeskuikenkoppels en vond géén directe correlatie.
Losse bijlage bij rapport 'Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskalveren'
Riel, J.W. van; Lauwere, C.C. de; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1068B) - 47
diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - vleeskalveren - animal health - animal welfare - animal production - veal calves
Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskalveren : Rapport van het project Kritische Succesfactoren Vleeskalveren (KSF Vleeskalveren)
Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Riel, J.W. van; Lauwere, C.C. de; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1068A) - 92
dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - vleeskalveren - animal welfare - animal health - animal production - veal calves
Commissioned by SBK and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, research is carried out to identify critical success factors for low antibiotic use in veal calves. By analysis of sectoral data-bases, associations between farm and stock characteristics and antibiotics use are determined. With the results of an additional survey, differences in technical and social factors between structural low and high users of antibiotics are examined.
A meta-analysis of effects of post-hatch food and water deprivation on development, performance and welfare of chickens
Jong, I.C. de; Riel, J.W. van; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2017
PLoS One 12 (2017)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 20 p.
Chicken - Body weight - Yolk Sac - Gastrointestinal tract - animal performance - poultry - jejunum - meta-analysis
A ‘meta-analysis’ was performed to determine effects of post-hatch food and water deprivation (PHFWD) on chicken development, performance and welfare (including health). Two types of meta-analysis were performed on peer-reviewed scientific publications: a quantitative ‘meta-analysis’ (MA) and a qualitative analysis (QA). Previously reported effects of PHFWD were quantified in the MA, for variables related to performance, mortality and relative yolk sac weight. The QA counted the number of studies reporting (non-)significant effects when five or more records were available in the data set (i.e. relative heart, liver and pancreas weight; plasma T3, T4 and glucose concentrations; relative duodenum, jejunum and ileum weight; duodenum, jejunum and ileum length; and villus height and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum). MA results indicated that 24 hours of PHFWD (i.e. ≥12–36 hours) or more resulted in significantly lower body weights compared to early-fed chickens up to six weeks of age. Body weights and food intake were more reduced as durations of PHFWD (24, 48, 72, ≥84 hours) increased. Feed conversion rate increased in chickens up to 21 and 42 days of age after ≥84 hours PHFWD in comparison with chickens fed earlier. Total mortality at day 42 was higher in chickens after 48 hours PHFWD compared to early fed chickens or chickens after 24 hours PHFWD. First week mortality was higher in chickens after ≥84 hours PHFWD than in early fed chickens. The MA for relative yolk sac weight was inconclusive for PHFWD. The QA for plasma T3, T4 and glucose concentrations indicated mainly short-term decreases in T3 and glucose in PHFWD chickens compared to early fed chickens, and no effects of PHFWD on T4 concentrations. Relative weights of liver, pancreas and heart were lower after PHFWD, but only in the first week of life. A retarded development of gut segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) was found in the first week of life, measured as shorter, lower relative weight, and lower villus height and crypt depth. It is concluded that 48 hours (≥36–60 hours) PHFWD leads to lower body weights and higher total mortality in chickens up to six weeks of age, the latter suggesting compromised chicken welfare, but effects of PHFWD on organ development and physiological status appear to be mainly short-term.
Bodemfauna, voedselweb Markermeer en Natura 2000 doelen
Riel, Marielle van - \ 2017
Presentation at 'bijeenkomst Natuurambitie Grote Wateren' on results of Markermeer research done by WEnR
Altering nature for human purposesThe case of lake Marken; Marker Wadden
Riel, Marielle van - \ 2017
presentation for University (UvA) course Applied Water Science.
The ecological history of a man made ecosystem: lake Marken from estuary to freshwater lake
Riel, Marielle van - \ 2017
Lecture on University (UvA) course: Applied Water Science.
Notitie 'Natuurambitie in de praktijk' : stand van natuurdoelen in het Markermeer en gevolgen van de ontwikkeling van de Marker Wadden
Riel, Mariëlle C. van; Leopold, Mardik F. ; Keizer-Vlek, Hanneke E. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 49
Voor het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) is het van belang te weten in welke mate de aanleg van de Marker Wadden aansluit op de Natura 2000-doelen in aanvulling op het onderzoek in het kader van de Nb-wetvergunning, de aanleg van de Marker Wadden en de MWTL-monitoring. Deze studie richt zich daarom op de vraag: ‘Hoe de aanleg van een eilandensysteem met een dynamische ontwikkeling (als paaiplaats voor vissen en voedselplek voor vogels) bijdraagt aan de realisatie van de Natura 2000-doelen’.
Traditional mixed linear modelling versus modern machine learning to estimate cow individual feed intake
Kamphuis, C. ; Riel, J.W. van; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Mol, R.M. de - \ 2017
In: Precision Livestock Farming '17. - - p. 366 - 376.
precision feeding - dairy cows - Big Data - prediction - machine learning
Three modelling approaches were used to estimate cow individual feed intake
(FI) using feeding trial data from a research farm, including weekly recordings
of milk production and composition, live-weight, parity, and total FI.
Additionally, weather data (temperature, humidity) were retrieved from the
Dutch National Weather Service (KNMI). The 2014 data (245 cows; 277
parities) were used for model development. The first model (M1) applied an
existing formula to estimate energy requirement using parity, fat and protein
corrected milk, and live-weight, and assumed this requirement to be equal to
energy intake and thus FI. The second model used ‘traditional’ Mixed Linear
Regression, first using the same variables as in M1 as fixed effects (MLR1), and
then by adding weather data (MLR2). The third model applied Boosted
Regression Tree, a ‘modern’ machine learning technique, again once with the
same variables as M1 (BRT1), and once with weather information added
(BRT2). All models were validated on 2015 data (155 cows; 165 parities) using
correlation between estimated and actual FI to evaluate performance. Both
MLRs had very high correlations (0.91) between actual and estimated FI on 2014
data, much higher than 0.46 for M1, and 0.73 for both BRTs. When validated on
2015 data, correlations dropped to 0.71 for MLR1 and 0.72 for MLR2, and
increased to 0.71 for M1 and 0.76 for both BRTs. FI estimated by BRT1 was, on
average, 0.35kg less (range: -7.61 – 13.32kg) than actual FI compared to 0.52kg
less (range: -11.67 – 19.87kg) for M1. Adding weather data did not improve FI
estimations.
Vermindering van ammoniakemissie door voermaatregelen bij melkvee : Experimenteel onderzoek op Dairy Campus
Dooren, H.J.C. van; Klop, A. ; Riel, J.W. van; Zonderland, J.L. ; Šebek, L.B.W. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1052) - 43
Enforcement of “Open standards” for animal welfare – Climate in pig houses
Vermeer, H.M. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group level. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863143 - p. 111 - 111.
The pig provides a huge amount of health and welfare information by its behaviour and
appearance (e.g. lying, eating, skin colour, eye colour, hair coat and tail-posture). By careful
observation of this body language we believe it is possible to identify (early) signals of
discomfort, upcoming disease and undesired behaviour. By early detection of these signals
interventions can be carried out in an earlier stage than currently is done to restore health
and welfare of the pig herd. Good health and welfare is the foundation of high resilience in
animals, which makes them less vulnerable for disturbances (e.g. infections). For a farmer it
is, however, impossible to continuously monitor the body language and behaviour of every
pig on his or her farm. By using a combination of non-invasive techniques to collect signals
from the pigs and their housing environment (e.g. a camera and a water meter) the pigs can
be observed 24/7. By combining computer vision and pig knowledge using machine and deep
learning techniques, a non-invasive monitoring system can be designed. Deep learning is
the current state-of-the-art machine learning approach for computer vision that is especially
powerful in recognising and localising image content, e.g. the location of the body parts or
visible abnormalities thereof. Deep learning is based on large convolutional neural networks
and require a large amount of manually annotated training (image) data. Ultimately with this
approach the robustness of pig husbandry systems is increased due to better health and welfare
conditions for the animals. Additionally, our approach could even lead to a new design of pig
housing systems. Furthermore, it increases the job satisfaction of the farmer. Our ambition is to
develop advanced monitoring systems that allow to stop tail docking all together, so the curly
pig tail becomes once again a common phenomenon on pig farms. To achieve this ambition,
we will explore, co-develop and test non-invasive monitoring technologies for pig husbandry
Creating Resilience in Pigs Through Artificial InteLligence (CuRly Pig Tail)
Timmerman, M. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Reimert, I. ; Vermeer, H.M. ; Barth, R. ; Kootstra, G.W. ; Riel, J.W. van; Lokhorst, C. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group level. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863143 - p. 262 - 262.
The pig provides a huge amount of health and welfare information by its behaviour and
appearance (e.g. lying, eating, skin colour, eye colour, hair coat and tail-posture). By careful
observation of this body language we believe it is possible to identify (early) signals of
discomfort, upcoming disease and undesired behaviour. By early detection of these signals
interventions can be carried out in an earlier stage than currently is done to restore health
and welfare of the pig herd. Good health and welfare is the foundation of high resilience in
animals, which makes them less vulnerable for disturbances (e.g. infections). For a farmer it
is, however, impossible to continuously monitor the body language and behaviour of every
pig on his or her farm. By using a combination of non-invasive techniques to collect signals
from the pigs and their housing environment (e.g. a camera and a water meter) the pigs can
be observed 24/7. By combining computer vision and pig knowledge using machine and deep
learning techniques, a non-invasive monitoring system can be designed. Deep learning is
the current state-of-the-art machine learning approach for computer vision that is especially
powerful in recognising and localising image content, e.g. the location of the body parts or
visible abnormalities thereof. Deep learning is based on large convolutional neural networks
and require a large amount of manually annotated training (image) data. Ultimately with this
approach the robustness of pig husbandry systems is increased due to better health and welfare
conditions for the animals. Additionally, our approach could even lead to a new design of pig
housing systems. Furthermore, it increases the job satisfaction of the farmer. Our ambition is to
develop advanced monitoring systems that allow to stop tail docking all together, so the curly
pig tail becomes once again a common phenomenon on pig farms. To achieve this ambition,
we will explore, co-develop and test non-invasive monitoring technologies for pig husbandry
Development of a model forecasting Dermanyssus gallinae's population dynamics for advancing Integrated Pest Management in laying hen facilities
Mul, Monique F. ; Riel, Johannes van; Roy, Lise ; Zoons, Johan ; Andre, Geert ; George, David R. ; Meerburg, Bastiaan G. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Mourik, Simon van; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. - \ 2017
Veterinary Parasitology 245 (2017). - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 128 - 140.
Dermanyssus gallinae - Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - Population model - Poultry Gallus gallus - Treatment effect

The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most significant pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control of D. gallinae could be greatly improved with advanced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. The development of a model forecasting the pests’ population dynamics in laying hen facilities without and post-treatment will contribute to this advanced IPM and could consequently improve implementation of IPM by farmers. The current work describes the development and demonstration of a model which can follow and forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities given the variation of the population growth of D. gallinae within and between flocks. This high variation could partly be explained by house temperature, flock age, treatment, and hen house. The total population growth variation within and between flocks, however, was in part explained by temporal variation. For a substantial part this variation was unexplained. A dynamic adaptive model (DAP) was consequently developed, as models of this type are able to handle such temporal variations. The developed DAP model can forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae, requiring only current flock population monitoring data, temperature data and information of the dates of any D. gallinae treatment. Importantly, the DAP model forecasted treatment effects, while compensating for location and time specific interactions, handling the variability of these parameters. The characteristics of this DAP model, and its compatibility with different mite monitoring methods, represent progression from existing approaches for forecasting D. gallinae that could contribute to advancing improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities.

Drivers of impaired ecological functioning in constructed delta lakes, a case study on lake Markermeer in the Rhine delta.
Riel, Marielle van - \ 2017
Growing cities in densely populated delta areas around the globe require year-round access to sufficient fresh water and protection against flood events from the river or sea. Therefore, water storage and flood protection is regulated by dams and dykes, resulting in the creation of artificial lakes in these deltas. Besides the main purposes for which these lakes were constructed, they also provide a wide range of other ecosystem services like for example recreation or food production. Moreover, these lakes can be considered to be important wetland habitats, characterized by shallow fresh waters with soft sediments, with a high potential for ecological developments. However, in reality the water levels and shorelines are predominantly artificial, and the water quality is often poor due to pollution and changed hydrology. This is also the case in lake Markermeer, a large and shallow reservoir created in the Rhine delta in the central part of the Netherlands. After closure of the last dyke in 1975, the lake became strongly influenced by habitat modifications, resuspension of fine sediments and changed nutrient dynamics. This has resulted in an ecological collapse during the past decades. Here, we will present results of experiments and field monitoring, studying the influence of biotic and a-biotic benthic processes on productivity and food-web structure in lake Marken. By analyzing the main drivers underlying the observed changes in relation to the negative impacts, essential insight is generated to effectively restore the ecological functioning of ecologically impaired constructed delta lakes.
WUR-onderzoek op het Markermeer.
Riel, Marielle van - \ 2017
WUR video for kennis online about WEnR research on ecological development of Markermeer/Marker Wadden
Data-analyse vleeskuikenketen geeft inzicht
Jong, I.C. de; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2017
De Pluimveehouderij 47 (2017)9. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 26 - 28.
Analyse van data die routinematig zijn vastgelegd binnen een gedeelte
van de vleeskuikenketen geeft meer inzicht in het effect van de
voorschakels op de prestatie en kwaliteit van vleeskuikenkoppels.
Wageningen Livestock Research geeft aan waar beperkingen liggen en
mogelijkheden voor verdere analyse, om daarmee zowel de kwaliteit als
het rendement van de gehele keten te vergroten.
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