Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Balans van de Leefomgeving 2018 : Nederland duurzaam vernieuwen
Egmond, Petra van; Elzenga, Hans ; Buitelaar, Edwin ; Eerdt, Martha van; Eskinasi, Martijn ; Franken, Ron ; Gaalen, Frank van; Hanemaaijer, Aldert ; Hilbers, Hans ; Hollander, Guus de; Nijland, Hans ; Ritsema van Eck, Jan ; Ros, Jan ; Schilder, Frans ; Spoon, Martijn ; Uitbeijerse, Gabrielle ; Wouden, Ries van der; Vonk, Marijke ; Vugteveen, Pim ; Goossen, Martijn ; Blom, Wim ; Bredenoord, Hendrien ; Brink, Thelma van den; Evers, David ; Doren, Didi van; Grinsven, Hans van; Hinsberg, Arjen van; Muilwijk, Hanneke ; Oorschot, Mark van; Peeters, Jeroen ; Puijenbroek, Peter van; Raspe, Otto ; Rijn, Frank van; Schijndel, Marian van; Sluis, Sietske van der; Sorel, Niels ; Timmerhuis, Jacqueline ; Verwest, Femke ; Westhoek, Henk ; Sanders, Marlies ; Dirkx, Joep - \ 2018
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 284
Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using 13C Lignin as Internal Standard for Pyrolysis-GC-SIM-MS
Erven, Gijs Van; Visser, Ries de; Merkx, Donny W.H. ; Strolenberg, Willem ; Gijsel, Peter de; Gruppen, Harry ; Kabel, Mirjam A. - \ 2017
Analytical Chemistry 89 (2017)20. - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 10907 - 10916.

Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric analysis after sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Hence, our research aimed at specific lignin quantification with concurrent characterization of its structural features. Hereto, for the first time, a polymeric 13C lignin was used as internal standard (IS) for lignin quantification via analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (py-GC-SIM-MS). In addition, relative response factors (RRFs) for the various pyrolysis products obtained were determined and applied. First, 12C and 13C lignin were isolated from nonlabeled and uniformly 13C labeled wheat straw, respectively, and characterized by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and py-GC/MS. The two lignin isolates were found to have identical structures. Second, 13C-IS based lignin quantification by py-GC-SIM-MS was validated in reconstituted biomass model systems with known contents of the 12C lignin analogue and was shown to be extremely accurate (>99.9%, R2 > 0.999) and precise (RSD < 1.5%). Third, 13C-IS based lignin quantification was applied to four common poaceous biomass sources (wheat straw, barley straw, corn stover, and sugar cane bagasse), and lignin contents were in good agreement with the total gravimetrically determined lignin contents. Our robust method proves to be a promising alternative for the high-throughput quantification of lignin in milled biomass samples directly and simultaneously provides a direct insight into the structural features of lignin. (Figure Presented).

Soil erosion in sloping vineyards assessed by using botanical indicators and sediment collectors in the Ruwer-Mosel valley
Rodrigo Comino, J. ; Quiquerez, A. ; Follain, S. ; Raclot, D. ; Bissonnais, Y. Le; Casalí, J. ; Giménez, R. ; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio ; Keesstra, S.D. ; Brevik, E.C. ; Pereira, P. ; Senciales, J.M. ; Seeger, M. ; Ruiz Sinoga, J.D. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2016
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 233 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 158 - 170.
Steep slopes, erodible soils, rill and ephemeral gullies, compaction due to wheel traffic and human trampling are common features in vineyards around the world and result in high soil erosion rates. However, little is known about seasonal and spatial variations of soil erosion rates due to factors such as the impact of the vine plantation, harvest, and tillage on the soil redistribution over the long-term temporal scale. The goal of this study is to assess long-term soil erosion rates and the impact of management on sediment and runoff yield by means of Gerlach troughs and a topographical approach based on botanic benchmarks in two paired vineyards with different ages (3 and 35 years) located on the hillslope of the Ruwer-Mosel Valley (Germany). We studied: i) soil profiles and properties at different hillslope locations and ii) soil redistribution and erosion by means of topsoil level maps applying botanic benchmarks using the Stock Unearthing Method (SUM), RUSLE (Revised Unviersal Soil Loss Equation) and Gerlach troughs. The SUM showed that the old vineyard’s erosion rates ranged from 3.3 to 3.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1, which was similar to the Gerlach trough measurements, and we demonstrated that the soil erosion rates depended on rainfall characteristics and human disturbances due to tillage, harvest trampling, and compaction by heavy machinery. Data from the SUM in the young vineyard showed 62.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1 of soil loss, which is a consequence of severe soil disturbance during the planting of the new vineyard. Finally, to prove the reliability data, RUSLE showed higher soil loss in the young vineyards (19.46 Mg ha−1 yr−1) than in the old ones (11.28 Mg ha−1 yr−1).
De planning van metropolitane landschappen
Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2015
In: Toevoegen van ruimtelijke kwaliteit / Salet, Willem, Vermeulen, Rick, van der Wouden, Ries, Den Haag : Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu - p. 72 - 85.
Water repellency under coniferous and deciduous forest - Experimental assessment and impact on overland flow
Butzen, Verena ; Seeger, Manuel ; Marruedo, Amaia ; Jonge, Lianne de; Wengel, René ; Ries, Johannes B. ; Casper, Markus C. - \ 2015
Catena 133 (2015). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 255 - 265.
Forest - Overland flow - Soil water repellency - WDPT

Current climate change makes it necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the runoff generation processes in Central European forests. A changing climate might affect soil water repellency (SWR) which can be seen as an import trigger for overland flow generation in forested areas. In this study the differences between coniferous and deciduous forest concerning SWR and overland flow generation were investigated in a small catchment in the Hunsrück low mountain range, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.To investigate the occurrence and persistence of SWR and its influence on overland flow generation, a combination of two experimental methods was applied: water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, and rainfall experiments. The field WDPT test results ranged from wettable (WDPT-1 rainfall intensity yielded runoff coefficients between 0% and 63%. The lowest measured infiltration rate of the rainfall experiments was 11.6mmh-1. The highest runoff coefficients were measured on water repellent (WDPT>300s) coniferous forest sites. The overland flow starts significantly earlier with water repellent soil conditions. The median runoff rate for the wettable forest soils is 2.7%, whereas the water repellent sites show a median runoff coefficient of 11.4%.The results suggest that the occurrence of SWR can lead to considerable overland flow generation under forest.

Genomic mutational analysis of the impact of the classical strain improvement program on ß–lactam producing Penicillium chrysogenum
Salo, O.V. ; Ries, M. ; Medema, M.H. ; Lankhorst, P.P. ; Vreeken, R.J. ; Bovenberg, R.A.L. ; Driessen, A.J.M. - \ 2015
BMC Genomics 16 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 15 p.
Background Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus that is employed as an industrial producer of ß–lactams. The high ß–lactam titers of current strains is the result of a classical strain improvement program (CSI) starting with a wild-type like strain more than six decades ago. This involved extensive mutagenesis and strain selection for improved ß–lactam titers and growth characteristics. However, the impact of the CSI on the secondary metabolism in general remains unknown. Results To examine the impact of CSI on secondary metabolism, a comparative genomic analysis of ß-lactam producing strains was carried out by genome sequencing of three P. chrysogenum strains that are part of a lineage of the CSI, i.e., strains NRRL1951, Wisconsin 54-1255, DS17690, and the derived penicillin biosynthesis cluster free strain DS68530. CSI has resulted in a wide spread of mutations, that statistically did not result in an over- or underrepresentation of specific gene classes. However, in this set of mutations, 8 out of 31 secondary metabolite genes (20 polyketide synthases and 11 non-ribosomal peptide synthetases) were targeted with a corresponding and progressive loss in the production of a range of secondary metabolites unrelated to ß–lactam production. Additionally, key Velvet complex proteins (LeaA and VelA) involved in global regulation of secondary metabolism have been repeatedly targeted for mutagenesis during CSI. Using comparative metabolic profiling, the polyketide synthetase gene cluster was identified that is responsible for sorbicillinoid biosynthesis, a group of yellow-colored metabolites that are abundantly produced by early production strains of P. chrysogenum. Conclusions The classical industrial strain improvement of P. chrysogenum has had a broad mutagenic impact on metabolism and has resulted in silencing of specific secondary metabolite genes with the concomitant diversion of metabolism towards the production of ß–lactams.
Comparative measurements with seven rainfall simulators on uniform bare fallow land
Iserloh, T. ; Ries, J.B. ; Cerda, A. ; Echeverria, M.T. ; Fister, W. ; Geissler, C. ; Kuhn, N.J. ; Leon, F.J. ; Peters, P. ; Schindewolf, M. ; Schmidt, J. ; Scholten, T. ; Seeger, K.M. - \ 2013
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 57 (2013)1. - ISSN 0372-8854 - p. 11 - 26.
portable wind - soil-erosion
To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, seven small portable rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tubingen, Trier (all Germany), Valencia, Zaragoza (both Spain), Basel (Switzerland) and Wageningen (the Netherlands) were compared on a prepared bare fallow field. The experiments were carried out during an international rainfall simulator workshop, organized at Trier University (Germany) from 30th of June to 1st of July 2011. The tested rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra, etc. and represent most of the devices which have been used over the last decade in Europe. The plots for the different rainfall simulators were selected as similar as possible concerning soil physical and chemical properties, aspect and inclination and were chosen to be placed side by side in horizontal direction. Test procedure was standardized in order to examine the influence of the rainfall simulator and plot dimension only. The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss is measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour. The rainfall simulators (= 1 m(2)), rill-erosion will be also reflected. Therefore it can be concluded that up to a certain plot size, the results of the different simulators are comparable and depend in their magnitude on the properties of the applied rainfall. The increase in process complexity with increasing plot size shows, that the scale of the simulation is one of the most important parameters to be taken into account when comparing values of erosion and runoff.
Applicability of Different Hydraulic Parameters to Describe Soil Detachment in Eroding Rills
Wirtz, S. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Zell, A. ; Wagner, C. ; Wagner, J.F. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)5. - ISSN 1932-6203
gravel-bed streams - sediment transport capacity - concentrated flow - bedload transport - molecular dimensions - aggregate transport - size distribution - erosion process - load transport - natural rivers
This study presents the comparison of experimental results with assumptions used in numerical models. The aim of the field experiments is to test the linear relationship between different hydraulic parameters and soil detachment. For example correlations between shear stress, unit length shear force, stream power, unit stream power and effective stream power and the detachment rate does not reveal a single parameter which consistently displays the best correlation. More importantly, the best fit does not only vary from one experiment to another, but even between distinct measurement points. Different processes in rill erosion are responsible for the changing correlations. However, not all these procedures are considered in soil erosion models. Hence, hydraulic parameters alone are not sufficient to predict detachment rates. They predict the fluvial incising in the rill's bottom, but the main sediment sources are not considered sufficiently in its equations. The results of this study show that there is still a lack of understanding of the physical processes underlying soil erosion. Exerted forces, soil stability and its expression, the abstraction of the detachment and transport processes in shallow flowing water remain still subject of unclear description and dependence.
Field experiments for understanding and quantification of rill erosion processes
Wirtz, S. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2012
Catena 91 (2012)April. - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 21 - 34.
concentrated flow erosion - ephemeral gully erosion - soil-erosion - sediment transport - interrill erosion - rainfall simulation - water erosion - slope length - shallow flow - detachment
Despite many efforts over the last decades to understand rill erosion processes, they remain unclear. This paper presents the results of rill experiments accomplished in Andalusia in September 2008 using a novel experimental set up. 72 L of water are introduced with an intensity of 9 L min(-1) into a rill. Rill cross sections, slope values, flow velocities and sediment concentrations were measured and these values were used to calculate sediment detachment and transport. Each experiment was repeated once within 15 min. With this new experimental setup it is possible to calculate several hydraulic parameters like hydraulic radius, wetted perimeter, flow cross section, transport rate and transport capacity which are usually estimated from coarse flow and rill parameters. In rill experiments, four different natural rills were flooded with the same experimental setup. Several processes like transport of loose material, erosion, bank failure and knickpoint retreat and the runoff effectiveness showed different and variable intensities. The sediment concentrations ranged between 5.2 and 438 g L-1. most cases, detachment rates are close to the transport capacity and, in some cases, the transport capacity is even exceeded. This can be explained by the occurrence of different erosion processes within a rill (e.g. detachment, bank failure, and headcut retreat) which are not all explained by the given equations. The results suggest that the existing soil erosion equations based on shear forces exerted by the flowing water are not able to describe rill erosion processes satisfactory. Too many different processes with a high spatial and temporal variability are responsible for rill development. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Investigation of the spatial distribution of runoff generation and soil erosion processes by means of experimental methods and field mapping
Butzen, V. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Wirtz, S. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2011
The influence of wind-driven rain on soil detachment rates on homogenous sandy substrate
Iserloh, T. ; Fister, W. ; Marzen, M. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2011
Parameterization of the process-based soil erosion model LISEM by means of experimental measurements
Butzen, V. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Casper, M.C. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2011
Experimental validation of some basic assumptions used in physically based soil
Wirtz, S. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Wagner, J.F. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2011
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 2011 (2011)8. - ISSN 1812-2108 - p. 1247 - 1286.
In spring 2009, four rill experiments were accomplished on a fallow land. Most external factors as well as discharge quantity (9 L min-1) were held constant or at least in the same range. Following most process based soil erosion models, detachment or runoff values should therefore be similar, but the experimental results show clear differences in sediment concentration, runoff and other measured and calculated values. This fact underlines the problems of process based models: concerning rill erosion, different processes take part and the process described by the models is only responsible for a part of the eroded material.
Design and calibration of the small portable rainfall simulator of Trier University
Iserloh, T. ; Fister, W. ; Ries, J.B. ; Seeger, K.M. - \ 2010
Geophysical Research Abstracts 2010 (2010)12. - ISSN 1029-7006 - p. EGU2010 - 2769.
Method ensemble for quantification of soil erosion processes in the field
Wirtz, S. ; Iserloh, T. ; Butzen, V. ; Wengel, R. ; Marzen, M. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Rock, G. ; Remke, A. ; Fister, W. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2010
Geophysical Research Abstracts 2010 (2010). - ISSN 1029-7006 - p. EGU2010 - 4013.
Rill erosion dynamics investigated by rill experiments in different rills in Andalusia
Wirtz, S. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Remke, A. ; Wengel, R. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2010
In: Geophysical Research Abstracts 12. - - p. EGU2010 - 3897.
Hydraulic parameters in eroding rills and their influence on detachment processes
Wirtz, S. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Zell, A. ; Wagner, C. ; Wengel, R. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2010
In: Geophysical Research Abstracts 12. - Vienna, Austria : - p. EGU2010 - 3902.
Investigation of the spatial distribution of runoff generation and soil erosion processes by means of experimental methods
Butzen, V. ; Huemann, M. ; Mueller, C. ; Casper, M.C. ; Hansen, R. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Wirtz, S. ; Iserloh, T. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2010
In: Geophysical Research Abstracts 12. - Vienna, Austria : - p. EGU2010 - 3420.
The effect of land-use changes on actual geomorphodynamics
Seeger, K.M. ; Ries, J.B. ; Marzolff, I. - \ 2010
In: Proceedings of the Geosciences Union - Gerneral Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 02-07 May 2010. - - p. 74 - 74.
Parameterization of a process-based soil erosion model by means of experimental field measurements
Butzen, V. ; Seeger, K.M. ; Scherer, U. ; Casper, M.C. ; Ries, J.B. - \ 2010
In: Geophysical Research Abstracts 12, 2-5 May 2010, Vienna, Austria. - Vienna, Austria : - p. EGU2010 - 3437.
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